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  • Hi, everybody. My name is Alisha.

  • Today, I'm going to be talking about the verb, “to be.”

  • So, in this lesson I'm going to talk about the use of the word, “to be,” and I'm

  • going to introduce a few example sentences, as well as, give some explanations about some

  • questions that you guys have had about the different uses of the verb, “to be,” specifically

  • different conjugations of the verb, “to be.”

  • So, let's get started.

  • Okay.

  • The first point I want to mention about the verb, “to be,” is thatbeexpresses

  • a state or a condition.

  • This is some point about the way a person is or a characteristic, a feature of a person,

  • an object, a situation.

  • So, we usebeto talk about existence.

  • Existence is like the base level of the verb, the base meaning of the verb.

  • Maybe you've heard the very famous Shakespeare expression, the expression from the Shakespeare

  • playHamlet,” “To be or not to be.”

  • This is a very famous expression which uses the verb, “to be.”

  • But here, this famous speech comes from the characters kind of internal monologue or the

  • character's thoughts about whetherto be,” “to be alive,” “to exist,” or, “not

  • to be,” “to not exist,” “to be dead.”

  • In this case, yes, we are using the verb or the verb is used to mean existence, to mean

  • alive or not alive.

  • However, in modern English today, we use the verb, “to be,” in many, many cases.

  • Not referring to being alive or not alive but we use it as a linking verb.

  • So, “to be,” and the negative form is used to connect the subject to its other information.

  • This is the purpose of a linking verb.

  • We have a subject and some other information about the subject.

  • We use the verb, “to be,” to link those two things together.

  • I've prepared a lot of examples and some conjugation review points that I hope can help show some

  • of these--the ways we can use the verb, “to be,” as in modern American English.

  • Let's take a look.

  • First, at the present tense.

  • So, please remember that depending on the subject of the sentence, the conjugation of

  • the verb, “to be,” is going to change.

  • So, if the subject of the present sentence is “I,” we'll useam.”

  • If the subject ishe,” “she,” orit,” we'll useis.”

  • If the subject isyou,” “we,” orthey,” we useare.”

  • So, please keep these in mind.

  • Of course, the negative form, we addnot,” after this.

  • So, “I am not,” “he is not,” “you are not,” for example.

  • Let's look at a few simple examples here.

  • The subject, “he,” for, “he,” I applyis,” the conjugationis.”

  • He is my brother.”

  • So, here is my subject, “He,” extra information, “my brother,” and, “is,” this is my

  • linking verb.

  • It connects the information together.

  • Another example, “The neighbors are noisy.”

  • Please be careful.

  • I've noticed that many people forget that they're actually using a plural when they

  • talk aboutneighborsorparents,” for example.

  • This little “S” here, theneighbors,” the people who live next to me, this is a

  • plural subject.

  • So, we should apply the same rule we use forthey.”

  • They are,” in this case.

  • The neighbors are noisy.”

  • Here is another example, “the computers,” not people here but multiple objects, “the

  • computers,” that “S” sound, it marks the plural form.

  • So, we have to use the same conjugation rules, “the computers,” “they are.”

  • Essentially, “They are all broken,” here.

  • One more, “You are not my friend.”

  • So, here, we have the subject, “You,” and the negative, “not my friend.”

  • You are not my friend.”

  • So, in each of these, we are connecting the subject with some other information using

  • a conjugated form of the verb, “be.”

  • Okay.

  • I also want to mention the infinitive form, thistoplusbe.”

  • I talked about, “to be,” a little bit here.

  • To be,” meaning existence.

  • We can useto bein modern English, as well, meaning there's no change to the

  • verb.

  • But, we use it in a few situations referring to existence, referring to a situation.

  • So, let's take a look at a few examples.

  • So, here, I have, “I want her to be my boss.”

  • “I want her to be my boss,” meaning she is not my boss now but in the future, I want

  • her to be.

  • I want her to be in the state of being my boss.

  • I want her to become my boss.

  • However, we don't saybecome,” “I want her to be my boss.”

  • So, this is maybe a desire I want for a future situation where a person, “her,” in this

  • case, is desiredto be,” to exist in a condition as this person's boss.

  • Okay, let's try another example.

  • This is a very, very common example.

  • Please tell him to be on time.”

  • To beis used here before the expression, “on time.”

  • So, “on timemeans the correct time.

  • For example, if the meeting begins at 1 o'clock, he needsto bein the meeting room at

  • 1 o'clock.

  • So, “to be,” in this case, means be in a condition, be in the state of on time, at

  • the correct time.

  • This is a very common one.

  • Tell him to be on time.”

  • Please be on time,” meaning you, in your condition, your status in the day, should

  • be on time.

  • So, this is a great one to remember.

  • Here's one more example, again, about time.

  • It's very commonly used for time, for schedules.

  • Didn't they tell you to be here at 8 o'clock?”

  • So, again, “to be,” meaning exists here, to bring yourself here.

  • You need to exist here at 8 o'clock.

  • Didn't they tell you that?”

  • So, again, “to be,” refers to your body, your person here, existing.

  • So, “I need to be here to make these videos,” or “I need to be in the studio to do a live

  • stream every week,” “I need to be somewhere.”

  • So, we usebe,” to talk about our body's position or our body's location where we exist.

  • We can useto be,” with that.

  • Okay, so I've already started talking about a few different prepositions, actually.

  • I mentioned, “I need to be at the studio,” or “I need to be in the office,” for example.

  • There are a few common prepositions that we can use with the verb, “to be.”

  • Becauseto be,” refers to our existence, refers to our location, for example.

  • We can use it with a few prepositions like, “inorat.”

  • So, I can say, “I need to be in the office,” “I need to be at the office.”

  • Both are okay to use with the verb, “to be,” because they talk about or they help

  • us express our existence, our condition, where we are located.

  • We can also usewith,” to talk about people.

  • Like, “I want to be with my family this weekend,” or “I want to be with my husband

  • or my wife later,” or “I want to be with my friends every day,” for example.

  • So, we can usewith,” along with the verb, “to be.”

  • So, these are a couple of common prepositions you'll see with the verb, “to be,” and

  • its various forms.

  • Okay, so, let's continue on to a couple different grammar points.

  • Let's talk now about the past tense.

  • We can useto be,” in past tense.

  • Just remember, again, the verb does conjugate here.

  • It's, “I was,” if the subject of the sentence is, “I.”

  • He,” “she,” andit,” “was.”

  • He was,” “she was,” “it was.”

  • And, withyou,” “we,” andthey,” we usewere.”

  • You were, “they were,” “We were.”

  • Here, I've usedit,” as an, “I was late to work,” past tense.

  • The neighbors were noisy.”

  • So, again, as I talked about with the present tense example, “neighborsis plural,

  • so the rule fortheyapplies here.

  • They were noisy.”

  • Same thing here, I used the same sentence, just in past tense.

  • The computers were all broken.”

  • One more, “She wasn't very friendly.”

  • So, a negative form.

  • And, please, remember, that you can use the contracted form instead ofwas not,”

  • we can usewasn't.”

  • It sounds a lot more natural.

  • She wasn't very friendly.”

  • So, please, keep in mind the past tense forms as well, the past tense form and the negative

  • forms too.

  • Alright.

  • Let's continue on to a couple different points.

  • I want to talk about the continuous or the progressive form.

  • A couple patterns some of you have sent in questions about the use of the word, “being,”

  • in sentences like these.

  • Like, what's the difference between includingbeingand knowbeingin an example

  • sentence.

  • So, let's take a look in a couple of examples.

  • We usebeing,” in this progressive form to express a temporary state.

  • So, if you've watched any videos about the continuous form or the progressive form, you

  • know we you use it, sometimes, to talk about a temporary state, something that's not always

  • true, but for now, it is true.

  • The same rule applies tobeing.”

  • So, if we can imagine the blue line here is a present tense statement.

  • Present tense, remember, is something that's always true, it's a general fact.

  • The red line here is a temporary situation.

  • So, here, I have past, present, now and the future.

  • So, let's look at these two example sentences.

  • My brother is annoying.”

  • My brother is not really annoying.

  • My brother is annoying,” is a present tense sentence.

  • So, this is a general fact, for an example.

  • A general fact, always true.

  • My brother is annoying,” I have an adjective here, “My brother is annoying.”

  • However, in this sentence, “My brother is being annoying right now.”

  • My brother is being annoying,” means, in this point in time only, for this short

  • period of time only, right now, my brother isbeing,” he's in the condition, his

  • status, his existence is annoying right now.

  • If I said, “My brother is annoying right now.”

  • It's okay.

  • But, “being annoying,” it sounds a bit more natural to a native speaker.

  • My brother is being annoying right now.”

  • Let's look at one more example, “My computer is not cooperative.”

  • I've used the negative, “not cooperative.”

  • So, this is a little bit of a funny sentence.

  • It suggests, maybe my computer can think for itself.

  • So, “cooperative,” meaning my computer is not working very well, in other words.

  • But, here, I've used the adjective.

  • My computer is not cooperative.”

  • So, maybe, I have an old computer.

  • So, “every day,” in this sentence, in a present tense sentence, “My computer is

  • not cooperative,” it doesn't work very well.

  • However, if I want to usebeinghere, I can say, “My computer wasn't,” in past

  • tense maybe, “My computer wasn't being cooperative today.”

  • So, in this sentence, we see today only.

  • My computer was not being,” my computer was not functioning, my computer was not existing

  • in a cooperative state, its condition was not cooperative for me in that day.

  • So, here, I've usedbeing.”

  • My computer wasn't cooperative today,” is okay, as well.

  • But, we can usebeing,” it sounds--it kind of emphasizes the existence, it emphasizes

  • that temporary condition here.

  • So, this sounds really nice, “My computer wasn't being cooperative today.”

  • Try to use this if you like.

  • So, again, we use this for a temporary situation, keep that in mind, “being blah, blah, blah,”

  • beingbefore your adjective, in this case.

  • So, that's one point I wanted to mention.

  • Let's move on to a couple more may be difficult or advanced points I wanted to share and I

  • want to introduce a few examples here, too.

  • First, present perfect tense.

  • We've talked about the present perfect tense in some other videos before but let's review.

  • When your subject is “I,” we usehave been.”

  • When the subject ishe,” “she,” orit.”

  • It's “has been.”

  • He has been,” “she has been,” “it has been.”

  • When we useyou,” “we,” andthey,” it's “have been.”

  • You have been,” “they have been,” “we have been.”

  • So, we can use this as we've looked at in the past, “I have been studying,” here's

  • our present perfect form, the past participle form, “been.”

  • “I have been,” “she has been working,” “they have been living.”

  • And then, some questions, “Have we been sleeping?” orWhere have you been living?”

  • for example.

  • Here, you'll see, we usebeen,” the past participle form of the verb here in present

  • perfect tense.

  • So, maybe many of you are familiar, maybe this kind of pattern is okay for you.

  • But, let's kind of look at a few examples that are a bit more difficult or a bit more

  • advanced.

  • Like, the past perfect tense.

  • So, here, in past perfect tense, we need to change fromhave,” as we've done with

  • present perfect, tohad,” the past tense.

  • So, here, all of these are going to be the same verb.

  • “I had been,” “he had been,” “you had been.”

  • We keep the verb, “be,” withbeen here.”

  • But, we can actually change all of these sentences I just talked about in past perfect, or sorry,

  • present perfect to the past perfect tense just by changing the verb, “have,” here.

  • So, for example, “I had been studying,” “She had been working,” “They had been

  • living,” for example.

  • We can make past perfect sentences just by changing the verb here.

  • So, please keep this in mind, the verb, “to be,” does not change in this case.

  • But, we can make some more complex sentences in this case, a past perfect sentence, quite

  • easily, actually, with no change to thebe,” verb.

  • Alright.

  • There's one more situation or one more kind of sentence I want to mention today.

  • And, that sentences that useifclauses.

  • so, if something, then something else is.

  • If-then,” type statements.

  • So, here's one example.

  • If more people had come, it would have been a better party.”