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  • I live in Utah,

    我住的猶他州,

  • a place known for having some of the most awe-inspiring

    因有著世界上最讓人讚嘆的

  • natural landscapes on this planet.

    一些自然景觀而聞名。

  • It's easy to be overwhelmed by these amazing views,

    人們常震懾於這壯麗的觀景,

  • and to be really fascinated by these sometimes alien-looking formations.

    且深深著迷於這些有時看起來 如同異世界的奇景。

  • As a scientist, I love observing the natural world.

    身為科學家,我很愛觀察大自然。

  • But as a cell biologist,

    但,身為細胞生物學家,

  • I'm much more interested in understanding the natural world

    我更感興趣的是去瞭解

  • at a much, much smaller scale.

    極小尺度下的自然界。

  • I'm a molecular animator, and I work with other researchers

    我是分子動畫師,我和研究者合作

  • to create visualizations of molecules that are so small,

    將肉眼看不見的微小分子具象化。

  • they're essentially invisible.

    這些分子比光的波長還小,

  • These molecules are smaller than the wavelength of light,

    意即就算有最好的光學顯微鏡, 我們也無法直接看見它們,

  • which means that we can never see them directly,

    我要如何將看不見的東西視像化?

  • even with the best light microscopes.

    科學家,比如我的合作夥伴,

  • So how do I create visualizations of things

    會終其職涯

  • that are so small we can't see them?

    窮究一個分子過程。

  • Scientists, like my collaborators,

    他們的做法是進行一系列的實驗,

  • can spend their entire professional careers

    每個實驗都能告訴我們 拼圖的一小部分。

  • working to understand one molecular process.

    有的實驗可以告訴我們 蛋白質的形狀資訊,

  • To do this, they carry out a series of experiments

    有的能告訴我們它可能 會和哪些蛋白質作用,

  • that each can tell us a small piece of the puzzle.

    有的能告訴我們它位於細胞何處。

  • One kind of experiment can tell us about the protein shape,

    這些零星片段的資訊拼湊起來 可以讓我們彙整出一個假設,

  • while another can tell us

    一個故事,說明分子如何運作。

  • about what other proteins it might interact with,

    我的工作是要把這些想法製成動畫。

  • and another can tell us about where it can be found in a cell.

    有時挺棘手,因為 分子其實會做些蠻瘋狂的事。

  • And all of these bits of information can be used to come up with a hypothesis,

    但這些動畫對研究者表達

  • a story, essentially, of how a molecule might work.

    他們對於分子運作的想法非常有用。

  • My job is to take these ideas and turn them into an animation.

    這些動畫也讓我們能透過 他們的眼睛來看分子世界。

  • This can be tricky,

    讓我給大家看一些動畫,

  • because it turns out that molecules can do some pretty crazy things.

    快速帶大家看一些我心目中的

  • But these animations can be incredibly useful for researchers

    分子世界自然奇景。

  • to communicate their ideas of how these molecules work.

    首先,這是免疫細胞。

  • They can also allow us to see the molecular world

    這類細胞必須要在 我們體內到處爬來爬去,

  • through their eyes.

    才能找到入侵者,比如病原菌。

  • I'd like to show you some animations,

    這種移動的動力來源 是我最愛的蛋白質之一,

  • a brief tour of what I consider to be some of the natural wonders

    肌動蛋白,它是所謂 細胞骨架的一部分。

  • of the molecular world.

    和我們的骨骼不同,

  • First off, this is an immune cell.

    肌動蛋白細絲一直不斷地 產製和拆解。

  • These kinds of cells need to go crawling around in our bodies

    肌動蛋白細胞骨架在我們的 細胞中扮演極重要的角色。

  • in order to find invaders like pathogenic bacteria.

    它們能讓細胞改變形狀,

  • This movement is powered by one of my favorite proteins

    四處移動、附著在表面上

  • called actin,

    以及吃掉細菌。

  • which is part of what's known as the cytoskeleton.

    肌動蛋白也參與另一種不同的動作。

  • Unlike our skeletons,

    在肌肉細胞中,肌動蛋白結構 會形成這些細絲,

  • actin filaments are constantly being built and taken apart.

    看起來就像織物。

  • The actin cytoskeleton plays incredibly important roles in our cells.

    當我們的肌肉收縮, 這些細絲會被拉近,

  • They allow them to change shape,

    當肌肉放鬆時, 又回到原來的位置。

  • to move around, to adhere to surfaces

    細胞骨架的其他部分, 比如這裡的微管,

  • and also to gobble up bacteria.

    負責長程的運輸。

  • Actin is also involved in a different kind of movement.

    可以把它視為細胞的高速公路,

  • In our muscle cells, actin structures form these regular filaments

    把東西從細胞的此端運送到彼端。

  • that look kind of like fabric.

    和我們的道路不同, 微管會長大和縮小,

  • When our muscles contract, these filaments are pulled together

    需要它們時就會出現, 工作完成後就會消失。

  • and they go back to their original position

    分子版的半掛式卡車

  • when our muscles relax.

    是被貼切稱為馬達蛋白的蛋白質,

  • Other parts of the cytoskeleton, in this case microtubules,

    它能延著微管爬行,

  • are responsible for long-range transportation.

    有時身後還可以拖著大型貨物,

  • They can be thought of as basically cellular highways

    比如胞器。

  • that are used to move things from one side of the cell to the other.

    這種馬達蛋白就是 一般所稱的動力蛋白,

  • Unlike our roads, microtubules grow and shrink,

    它們以團隊合作著稱,

  • appearing when they're needed

    至少我個人看起來覺得就像馬戰車。

  • and disappearing when their job is done.

    各位可以看到,細胞是個 不斷改變、保持動態的地方,

  • The molecular version of semitrucks

    東西經常在這裡被建造和拆除。

  • are proteins aptly named motor proteins,

    不過,有些結構會比 其他結構更難拆除。

  • that can walk along microtubules,

    需要再帶入特殊的力量,

  • dragging sometimes huge cargoes,

    才能確保這些結構能及時被拆除。

  • like organelles, behind them.

    這份工作有部分是由 像這樣的蛋白質來完成。

  • This particular motor protein is known as dynein,

    在細胞有中很多種 像這樣的甜甜圈型的蛋白質,

  • and its known to be able to work together in groups

    它們似乎都會將個別蛋白質

  • that almost look, at least to me, like a chariot of horses.

    拉進中間的洞孔藉撕扯來拆除結構。

  • As you see, the cell is this incredibly changing, dynamic place,

    如果這些蛋白質沒有 把它們的工作做好,

  • where things are constantly being built and disassembled.

    應該要被拆解的那些蛋白質

  • But some of these structures

    有時有可能會黏聚在一起,

  • are harder to take apart than others, though.

    那就會造成很糟糕的疾病, 如阿茲海默症。

  • And special forces need to be brought in

    現在,來看看細胞核,

  • in order to make sure that structures are taken apart in a timely manner.

    細胞核以 DNA 的形式 來儲藏基因組。

  • That job is done in part by proteins like these.

    在我們所有的細胞中,

  • These donut-shaped proteins,

    DNA 由多種不同的蛋白質 來照料和維護。

  • of which there are many types in the cell,

    DNA 被組織蛋白所纏繞,

  • all seem to act to rip apart structures

    組織蛋白讓細胞能夠把 大量 DNA 裝入我們的細胞核中。

  • by basically pulling individual proteins through a central hole.

    這些機械叫做染色質重塑蛋白,

  • When these kinds of proteins don't work properly,

    基本上,它們做的是快速將 DNA 送到這些組織蛋白周圍,

  • the types of proteins that are supposed to get taken apart

    且它們會讓 DNA 的 新片段暴露出來。

  • can sometimes stick together and aggregate

    接著,此 DNA 就會 被其他機器辨認出來。

  • and that can give rise to terrible diseases, such as Alzheimer's.

    在這個例子中,此大型分子機械

  • And now let's take a look at the nucleus,

    在尋找基因起始的那個 DNA 節段。

  • which houses our genome in the form of DNA.

    一旦它找到了這個節段,

  • In all of our cells,

    基本上,它就會進行一連串變形,

  • our DNA is cared for and maintained by a diverse set of proteins.

    讓它能夠帶入其他機器,

  • DNA is wound around proteins called histones,

    而那些機器就會讓 基因被活化或轉錄。

  • which enable cells to pack large amounts of DNA into our nucleus.

    這個過程必須要非常嚴謹地控管,

  • These machines are called chromatin remodelers,

    因為若在錯的時間把錯的基因活化,

  • and the way they work is that they basically scoot the DNA

    可能會造成災難性的後果。

  • around these histones

    現在,科學家能用 蛋白質機械來編輯基因組。

  • and they allow new pieces of DNA to become exposed.

    我相信大家都聽過 CRISPR。

  • This DNA can then be recognized by other machinery.

    CRISPR 就利用了 叫做 Cas9 的蛋白質,

  • In this case, this large molecular machine

    將它編輯之後就可以辨認和切斷

  • is looking for a segment of DNA

    非常特定的 DNA 序列。

  • that tells it it's at the beginning of a gene.

    在這個例子中, 用了兩個 Cas9 蛋白質

  • Once it finds a segment,

    來切除一段有問題的 DNA。

  • it basically undergoes a series of shape changes

    比如,基因的某部分 可能會造成某種疾病。

  • which enables it to bring in other machinery

    接著,使用細胞機器,

  • that in turn allows a gene to get turned on or transcribed.

    將 DNA 的兩端重新黏合起來。

  • This has to be a very tightly regulated process,

    身為分子動畫師, 我最大的挑戰之一是

  • because turning on the wrong gene at the wrong time

    將不確定性給具象化。

  • can have disastrous consequences.

    我剛才給各位看的 所有動畫都只是假設,

  • Scientists are now able to use protein machines

    我的合作夥伴根據 他們手中的最佳資訊,

  • to edit genomes.

    來判定其運作過程,

  • I'm sure all of you have heard of CRISPR.

    但,對大多數分子的運作過程,

  • CRISPR takes advantage of a protein known as Cas9,

    我們都還在了解的初期, 還有很多要學。

  • which can be engineered to recognize and cut

    事實是,這些看不見的 分子世界非常廣大,

  • a very specific sequence of DNA.

    且我們只探索了冰山的一角。

  • In this example,

    對我來說,探索這些分子景色

  • two Cas9 proteins are being used to excise a problematic piece of DNA.

    和探索我們身邊看得見的大自然

  • For example, a part of a gene that may give rise to a disease.

    一樣讓人興奮。

  • Cellular machinery is then used

    謝謝。

  • to basically glue two ends of the DNA back together.

    (掌聲)

  • As a molecular animator,

  • one of my biggest challenges is visualizing uncertainty.

  • All of the animations I've shown to you represent hypotheses,

  • how my collaborators think a process works,

  • based on the best information that they have.

  • But for a lot of molecular processes,

  • we're still really at the early stages of understanding things,

  • and there's a lot to learn.

  • The truth is

  • that these invisible molecular worlds are vast and largely unexplored.

  • To me, these molecular landscapes

  • are just as exciting to explore as a natural world

  • that's visible all around us.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

I live in Utah,

我住的猶他州,

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B2 中高級 中文 TED 細胞 分子 蛋白質 動畫 拆除

分子世界的奇蹟,動畫|Janet Iwasa--------。 (The wonders of the molecular world, animated | Janet Iwasa)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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