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  • - [Narrator] Hello, readers.

  • Today I want to talk about objective summaries

  • by way of introducing you to the character of Joe Friday,

  • a fictional cop from an old radio show from the 50s

  • called Dragnet.

  • The show had this iconic theme

  • and it went like this.

  • (tense big band music)

  • Friday was a very straightforward,

  • almost relentless, character

  • and the catchphrase associated with his character

  • was "Just the facts."

  • "All we want are the facts, ma'am,"

  • was the sort of thing that he would say.

  • And that's what we're talking about today: just the facts.

  • There's this idea called objectivity.

  • That you can talk about something

  • without inserting any opinions

  • which are personal thoughts or beliefs.

  • Doing this, being objective, is very difficult;

  • opinions want to creep in.

  • So what does it mean for a summary to be objective?

  • It means it isn't influenced by feelings or opinions,

  • it's not written in the first person,

  • it's about the text, not me,

  • and it's not a judgment or a review of the information.

  • Let's be clear here; it's not bad to have opinions.

  • In my opinion, it is good to have opinions,

  • but they do not have a place in summaries.

  • You can put opinions to use when you

  • analyze or evaluate something.

  • When you're looking at summaries

  • and you're trying to determine

  • whether one is objective or not,

  • look for words that cast judgment.

  • Does the writer say something is good or terrible

  • or useful or useless?

  • Let's do this together.

  • I'll take this text and summarize it without any opinions.

  • Polar bears hunt for seals on thick sea ice in the Arctic.

  • As the Earth grows warmer, though, sea ice gets thinner.

  • With less stable ground,

  • some hungry polar bears search for food inland,

  • often dangerously close to human environments.

  • Although polar bears usually keep to themselves,

  • a very scared or angry one could attack,

  • and even eat, a human.

  • Several villages have set up polar bear patrols as a result.

  • The patrollers zoom around on snowmobiles,

  • using bright lights and loud noises

  • to scare away polar bears.

  • Hopefully, the polar bears find another snack later on.

  • Here's my summary:

  • Climate change causes polar bears

  • to encroach on human habitats to search for food.

  • As a consequence, these villages have set up

  • polar bear patrols to frighten them away.

  • As a person who cares about climate change,

  • as well as the wellbeing of bears and human beings,

  • I have all sorts of opinions about this,

  • but for the purposes of summarizing that paragraph,

  • I have to put them aside.

  • Just the facts, ma'am.

  • (Dragnet theme)

  • If you get good enough at making objective summaries,

  • you'll start noticing when opinion creeps into

  • things you expect to be objective.

  • And it won't be obvious like

  • bears are terrible and humans are right to scare them away

  • or climate change ravages bear habitats,

  • sending defenseless bears into the jaws of doom:

  • human villages.

  • But it might be in the way a story is framed.

  • Like, there's a difference between

  • bears move into human habitats

  • and bears are forced into human habitats.

  • What causes them to move?

  • Forced by whom or by what?

  • Sometimes what's not in a text can be

  • as important as what's in it.

  • Experiment with this a little.

  • Try summarizing some news articles

  • and see if you can restate the facts of the stories

  • without inserting any opinions.

  • It's a fun challenge and it may expose an opinion

  • where you didn't expect to see it.

  • Objectively, you can learn anything.

  • David out.

  • Constant vigilance!

- [Narrator] Hello, readers.

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B1 中級

創建客觀的摘要|閱讀|可汗學院 (Creating objective summaries | Reading | Khan Academy)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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