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  • Bone marrow contains many different types of cells


  • several of which have specialized roles in the blood.


  • In the early 1960s it was shown that if bone marrow was taken from one mouse and transplanted into another,


  • rare and unspecialized cells could travel to the spleen where they would divide and form small colonies

    罕見且非特異的細胞就會到達脾臟, 分裂並且形成小的細胞集落

  • These colonies contained a mixture of different blood cell types.


  • Incredibly when these colonies were removed and retransplanted,


  • these rare cells formed new colonies in the spleen of a second mouse.


  • These reveal two defining properties of a stem cell.


  • First a stem cell must be able to self renew. That is, it must be able to divide and give rise to more cells like itself.

    第一, 幹細胞必須能夠自我更新, 也就是說, 他必須能夠自我分裂後產生更多跟自己一樣的細胞

  • Second, it must be able to differentiate. In other words it must be able to divide and give rise to specialized cells.

    第二. 他必須能夠行細胞分化, 換句話說他必須能夠分裂出其他特定的細胞

  • Since these early experiments, many different types of stem cells have been discovered

    由於這些早期的實驗, 我們已經發現了許多不同類型的幹細胞

  • And this general definition applies to all of them.


  • Following fertilization, the developing embryo contains a group of cells

    受精之後, 發育中的胚胎含有一組細胞

  • known as the "inner cell mass" that will eventually go on to form all tissues in the body.

    被稱作''內細胞團'', 他們最後將會形成身體所有的組織

  • However at the early stage of development these cells have not yet committed to become a specific type of cell

    然而, 在早期的發育階段, 這些細胞還尚未形成特定種類的細胞

  • and are said to be in an undifferentiated state.


  • If the cells of the "inner cell mass" are isolated


  • they can grow indefinitely in a plastic dish and maintain this undifferentiated state.

    他們可以無止盡的在細胞培養皿內生長, 並且維持這種未分化的狀態

  • These cells are known as "embryonic stem cells" or ES cells

    這些細胞被稱作''胚胎幹細胞'' 或者ES細胞

  • Like cells in the developing embryo


  • ES cells retain the ability to form any type of cell in the adult body


  • Thus ES cells are said to be "pluripotent"


  • By studying the signals required to control how ES cells develop into specific cell types


  • scientists may be able to develop therapies capable of restoring damaged tissues


  • Most of the cells in our bodies are not stem cells.


  • For example blood and skin cells have become specialized to perform a specific function in the body.


  • By a process known as differentiation, that is normally not reversible.

    這一個分化的過程, 通常都是不可逆的

  • However, if some adults cells are taken grown in plastic dishes and given specific genetic instructions over time,

    然而, 如果將依些將成熟的細胞培養在培養皿中並且在其生長過程中給予特定的遺傳指令

  • a small number of these cells will reverse from their differentiated state and develop the ability to redifferentiate into any cell type in the body.


  • This newfound ability is known as "pluripotentcy", and therefore these cells are known as "induced pluripotent stem cells" or IPS cells.

    這種新發現的能力稱作''多能性'', 因此這些細胞又被稱作''誘導多能型幹細胞''或是''IPS細胞''

  • The creation of IPS cells from individual patients may one day allows us to develop replacement tissues that are a perfect genetic match to the patient.


  • In addition, the creation of IPS cells from patients with specific diseases will allow scientists to develop new drugs to treat a wide variety of disorders.


Bone marrow contains many different types of cells



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B1 中級 中文 細胞 幹細胞 發育 形成 老鼠 患者

StemCellShorts - 幹細胞動畫第1,2和3部分。 (StemCellShorts - Stem cells animation parts 1, 2 & 3)

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    keep seeing 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日