Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • You've probably heard of the human genome,

    你可能聽說過人類基因組吧!

  • the huge collection of genes

    完整的基因組

  • inside each and every one of your cells.

    存在每個細胞內。

  • You probably also know

    你也許知道

  • that we've sequenced the human genome,

    我們已經完成了人類基因組定序,

  • but what does that actually mean?

    但這有什麼意義呢?

  • How do you sequence someone's genome?

    基因組要如何定序呢?

  • Let's back up a bit.

    讓我們從頭講起。

  • What is a genome?

    什麼是基因組?

  • Well, a genome is all the genes plus some extra

    一個生物的基因組包括所有的基因

  • that make up an organism.

    和一些額外的元素。

  • Genes are made up of DNA,

    基因是由 DNA (脫氧核糖核酸) 組成,

  • and DNA is made up of long, paired strands

    雙股螺旋的 DNA 基本單位是

  • of A's,

    A (Adenine, 腺嘌呤)

  • T's,

    T (Thymine, 胸腺嘧啶)

  • C's,

    C (Cytosine, 胞嘧啶)

  • and G's.

    G (Guanine, 鳥嘌呤)

  • Your genome is the code

    基因組是

  • that your cells use to know how to behave.

    指揮細胞運作的密碼。

  • Cells interacting together make tissues.

    細胞的互動形成組織構造。

  • Tissues cooperating with each other make organs.

    器官的產生來自組織間的合作。

  • Organs cooperating with each other

    器官間的合作

  • make an organism,

    演變成一個生物,

  • you!

    就是你!

  • So, you are who you are

    基因組是主宰個體差異

  • in large part because of your genome.

    最大的元素之一。

  • The first human genome

    十年前,史上第一

  • was sequenced ten years ago

    人類基因組定序的完成

  • and was no easy task.

    不是一件易事。

  • It took two decades to complete,

    這工程花了二十年,

  • required the effort of hundreds of scientists

    跨越幾十個國家

  • across dozens of countries,

    動用了數百個科學家

  • and cost over three billion dollars.

    和三十億元以上的成本。

  • But some day very soon,

    但很快的,

  • it will be possible to know the sequence of letters

    只要短短的幾分鐘

  • that make up your own personal genome

    我們將能輕易的

  • all in a matter of minutes

    得到個人的基因定序,

  • and for less than the cost

    而費用將相當於

  • of a pretty nice birthday present.

    一個不錯的生日禮物。

  • How is that possible?

    這怎麼可能?

  • Let's take a closer look.

    讓我們仔細看。

  • Knowing the sequence of the billions of letters

    定序的目的

  • that make up your genome

    是將數十億字母組成的

  • is the goal of genome sequencing.

    基因組排列出來。

  • A genome is both really, really big

    一個基因組

  • and very, very small.

    可大可小。

  • The individual letters of DNA,

    每個 DNA 字母

  • the A's, T's, G's, and C's,

    A, T ,G,和 C

  • are only eight or ten atoms wide,

    只有 八到十個原子大小,

  • and they're all packed together into a clump,

    像毛線球

  • like a ball of yarn.

    緊縮成一團。

  • So, to get all that information

    要將濃縮的基因組

  • out of that tiny space,

    解碼,

  • scientists first have to break

    要先段式分解

  • the long string of DNA down into smaller pieces.

    有如長鏈的 DNA 。

  • Each of these pieces is then separated in space

    然後再將每片段

  • and sequenced individually,

    分開定序。

  • but how?

    這要如何辦到?

  • It's helpful to remember

    記住了,

  • that DNA binds to other DNA

    DNA 跟 DNA 的結合,

  • if the sequences are the exact opposite of each other.

    序列是完全相反的。

  • A's bind to T's,

    A 的配對是 T,

  • and T's bind to A's.

    T 的配對是 A,

  • G's bind to C's,

    G 的配對是 C,

  • and C's to G's.

    C 的配對是 G。

  • If the A-T-G-C sequence of two pieces of DNA

    如果兩段 DNA 的 A-T-G-C 的序列

  • are exact opposites,

    完全相反,

  • they stick together.

    它們會結合在一起。

  • Because the genome pieces

    基因組的片段

  • are so very small,

    數量很小,

  • we need some way to increase

    所以需要有方法

  • the signal we can detect

    增加 DNA 字母

  • from each of the individual letters.

    定序信號。

  • In the most common method,

    是最普遍的方法

  • scientists use enzymes to make thousands of copies

    是利用酶來拷貝

  • of each genome piece.

    基因組的片段。

  • So, we now have thousands of replicas

    製造成千上萬的

  • of each of the genome pieces,

    複製品,

  • all with the same sequence

    每個都有相同序列的

  • of A's, T's, G's, and C's.

    A, T ,G,和 C。

  • But we have to read them all somehow.

    這些要如何檢測?

  • To do this, we need to make

    首先,需要製造

  • a batch of special letters,

    一批特殊的 DNA 字母,

  • each with a distinct color.

    每個有它獨特的顏色。

  • A mixture of these special colored letters and enzymes

    先混合有顏色的 DNA 字母和酶

  • are then added to the genome

    再加入要定序的

  • we're trying to read.

    基因組。

  • At each spot on the genome,

    有顏色的 DNA 字母

  • one of the special letters

    和相對的 DNA 字母

  • binds to its opposite letter,

    會結合。

  • so we now have a double-stranded piece of DNA

    這樣雙股螺旋的 DNA

  • with a colorful spot at each letter.

    每個位置都有一個顏色。

  • Scientists then take pictures

    科學家可以記錄下

  • of each snippet of genome.

    每個基因組片段。

  • Seeing the order of the colors

    利用顏色的順序

  • allows us to read the sequence.

    解讀基因組的序列。

  • The sequences of each

    成千上萬

  • of these millions of pieces of DNA

    基因組片段的序列

  • are stitched together using computer programs

    輸入電腦

  • to create a complete sequence of the entire genome.

    將能建造完整的基因組定序。

  • This isn't the only way

    這不是唯一

  • to read the letter sequences of pieces of DNA,

    解讀 DNA 序列的方法,

  • but it's one of the most common.

    但是最普遍的方法之一。

  • Of course, just reading the letters in the genome

    當然,只看懂基因組的字母

  • doesn't tell us much.

    沒有什麼意義。

  • It's kind of like looking through a book

    就有如

  • written in a language you don't speak.

    文盲看書。

  • You can recognize all the letters

    換句話說,

  • but still have no idea what's going on.

    有看沒有懂。

  • So, the next step is to decipher

    接下來,

  • what the sequence means,

    要解碼,

  • how your genome and my genome are different.

    來了解個人基因組的差異。

  • Interpreting the genes of the genome

    科學家們仍在研究

  • is the part scientists are still working on.

    如何解讀基因組內每個基因。

  • While not every difference is consequential,

    雖然每個人的基因大同小異,

  • the sum of these differences

    但累積起來,

  • is responsible for differences

    這些小差異造就

  • in how we look,

    我們不同的長相,

  • what we like,

    喜好,

  • how we act,

    行為,

  • and even how likely we are to get sick

    甚至於對生病

  • or respond to specific medicines.

    或藥物的敏感度。

  • Better understanding of how disparities

    深入的了解

  • between our genomes

    基因組的差異

  • account for these differences

    和基因栓釋

  • is sure to change the way we think

    將能改變我們的思維,

  • not only about how doctors treat their patients,

    影響醫生給病人的醫療處方,

  • but also how we treat each other.

    和我們的待人方式。

You've probably heard of the human genome,

你可能聽說過人類基因組吧!

字幕與單字

單字即點即查 點擊單字可以查詢單字解釋

B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 基因組 序列 字母 片段 顏色

【TED-Ed】如何對人類基因組進行測序--Mark J. Kiel (【TED-Ed】How to sequence the human genome - Mark J. Kiel)

  • 692 127
    VoiceTube 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字