Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • If you've ever driven a carlegally, that isyou know before you taste that sweet, sweet vehicular freedom you had totake a really fun test.

  • No, not the practical one where you parallel park between two cones like your life depends on it.

  • The learner's permit exam, the test of all tests.

  • You probably studied for it with a real snooze-worthy booklet or some informational government website.

  • You had to learn all the rules of the road before getting to touch the road.

  • Well, in a car at least.

  • Whenever you're learning a new skill, there's a certain amount of theoretical knowledge you need before you're ready to sit inthe driver's seat.”

  • It's the same for media literacy.

  • These days we're so inundated with media it's impossible to teach someone all the skills they need.

  • It's like we skipped the driving exam and woke up behind the wheel of a moving racecar!

  • Luckily, it's never too late to dust off the ol' driver's manual.

  • So far on Crash Course Media Literacy, we've covered everything from how literacy was born to how our brains handle messages.

  • We've talked about theories and principles, but now it's time to really get behind the wheel.

  • [Theme Music]

  • In our first episode we discussed the National Association of Media Literacy Educators' definition:

  • The ability to access, analyze, evaluate, create, and act using all forms of communication.”

  • These five skills are your toolbox encountering media in the wild.

  • If you're watching this video, you may take the first skill, access, for granted.

  • To play this YouTube video you need a device that can connect to the internet – a smartphone, computer, or a tablet.

  • Plus, that device needs software for video and audio playback.

  • Then of course you need an internet connection, one fast enough to stream this video.

  • To some of us, being constantly connected to the internet is an everyday thing.

  • But these things cost money, and in the U.S., many people can't access the internet.

  • At least 5 million kids don't have internet access at home

  • and for many poor families, places like the local library or a McDonald's with free wifi are the only places they can get online.

  • Think about how often you use the internet, and for what.

  • You have probably used it to complete homework or apply for a job or file taxes.

  • All of these things seem essential and easy to doif you have the means.

  • Practice makes perfect, right?

  • A kid who grows up without regular internet access will have lower digital skill levels than their peers who access it easily.

  • And, as I'm sure you know, digital skills are crucial to functioning in our high-tech world.

  • That means many people who don't have this access are behind before they even start school.

  • In July 2016, the United Nations declared internet access a basic human right.

  • They said, “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression;

  • this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference

  • and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.”

  • The internet may seem like it makes everything way more accessible.

  • You can just Google what you need rather than lug around a set of encyclopedias.

  • But access remains unevenly distributed.

  • The other side of the coin is our second skill, analyze.

  • If and when you do have access, you're flooded with way too much information and way too many sources of entertainment.

  • Locating the highest quality content

  • whether you're looking for a reliable source of news or a TV show you like, or a series of charming and educational YouTube videos

  • this requires you to analyze what you're looking at.

  • The foundation of media analysis is acknowledging that all media is constructed with a purpose and a particular point of view.

  • Media literacy scholar Renee Hobbs recommends answering five questions when you make a media choice,

  • Number 1: Who created this message and what is the purpose?

  • Is it a movie made by Disney for entertainment?

  • Is it an ad made by Apple to sell phones and computers?

  • Number 2: What techniques does it use to attract and hold attention?

  • Does the message include persuasive elements to convince you its story is true?

  • Is it flashy and loud like a pop-up ad, or have a cliffhanger-y headline to suck you in?

  • Number 3: What lifestyles, values and points of view does it depict?

  • Is it representing a single point of view, like an autobiography?

  • Is it an Instagram feed that's all about that hashtag beach life or a blog that's all about working hard and playing hard?

  • Number 4: How might different people interpret this message?

  • Would your parents or grandparents or best friend feel the same way about this?

  • How would they react?

  • Number 5: What is omitted, or left out?

  • Is this article about politics talking about every party or just one?

  • Did that break-up song mention the good times, too?

  • Why or why not?

  • Once you've established answers to these questions, it's time to evaluate the quality and credibility of the media you're consuming.

  • Media literacy scholar Julie Coiro says there are four key things to look out for: relevance, accuracy, bias, and reliability.

  • The first is relevance.

  • Does the info or media serve its purpose, and to what degree?

  • If you Googledrecipes for chow meinand recipe for peach muffins comes up instead, that content is not relevant.

  • This one can be a pretty low bar to clear.

  • As we know, our mind loves to accept the easiest to understand info as the right info, because it's convenient.

  • Which is why we move on toaccuracy.

  • Evaluating something for accuracy can be difficult when you're just learning about it yourself.

  • The first step is to check how factual it is.

  • Are its claims backed up by empirical evidence or is it just someone's opinion?

  • You should be able to double check those facts with other sources.

  • Of course, just because multiple outlets tell the same story doesn't mean it's true.

  • Like how every time there's a hurricane, someone photoshops a shark into the waters and local news stations run the story.

  • In cases like these, take that info and double check with their source.

  • Next, you look for bias, or someone's perspective.

  • Be sure to distinguish whether the author of the media you're evaluating is slanting the facts towards a particular point of view, and ask how that reflects on the publisher.

  • Biased media can obscure reality by presenting only the evidence that supports one opinion.

  • To ward this off, it's always great to seek out diverse perspectives on a topic and look for evidence to support any stance that you take.

  • Finally, determining reliability can help you find sources of information that you trust.

  • Reliability is how trustworthy a publisher or author is based on the entirety of their work.

  • Yes, it's complicated.

  • As you know, some respected publishers who are reliable sources publish native ads that look like news.

  • Some even promote those sketchy click-bait tabloid ads about celebrities dying or losing weight.

  • By consistently evaluating for relevance, accuracy, and bias, you can determine whether a publisher's work is reliable on the whole.

  • Let's take this four-part evaluation for a spin in the Thought Bubble!

  • Consider this article from The Washington Post, from November 2017.

  • The headline reads: FCC net neutrality process 'corrupted' by fake comments and vanishing consumer complaints, officials say.

  • It's about a new rule the Federal Communications Commission was set to vote on the next month.

  • The FCC put out a call for citizens to comment on the decision to roll back net neutrality protections.

  • Some said the comment process wasn't fair and that bad actors manipulated it to get their way.

  • So, is this relevant?

  • Well if you came across this article because you were searching for Titanic fanfic, you'd say no.

  • But if you came across it on social media and were interested in this net neutrality battle, you'd certainly find its information relevant. Check.

  • Is it accurate?

  • The Washington Post's reporter explains the net neutrality comments process and the allegations against it.

  • They cite credible sources along the way, like the New York Attorney General, an FCC spokesperson, and a data scientist.

  • They also link to other stories that back up their claims throughout.

  • It looks pretty accurate. Check.

  • Is it biased?

  • This article doesn't just quote the FCC in this story about the FCC.

  • They also gave space to the New York Attorney General and the leader of an advocacy group that are against the FCC's net neutrality decision.

  • They present both sides of this fight, and include a third party, the data scientist, to offer a neutral opinion.

  • That's a good way to fight off bias. Check.

  • Is it reliable?

  • The Washington Post is well-known for a history of quality journalism and has won dozens of Pulitzer Prizes (the Oscars for journalism).

  • The article was written by Brian Fung, their technology writer who has written about internet access quite a bit before.

  • He's also written for the National Journal and The Atlantic, two other reliable publications.

  • This checks out for reliability.

  • See, it only takes a minute to go through this four-step check with a bit of news.

  • You can use this whenever you come across media you find questionable.

  • It's an important skill to have.

  • Thanks Thought Bubble!

  • Maybe the most fun media literacy skill is to create media yourself.

  • Taking your knowledge of how media are produced and producing some of your own is actually a great way to develop skills in analyzing and evaluating media, too.

  • It's like media literacy inception.

  • But you don't have to be some music producer or artist to create media.

  • Posting to social networks is creating media.

  • Writing a blog is creating media.

  • Making a funny GIF from your favorite TV show is creating media.

  • Finally, the most important part of media literacy is being able to act on all of the skills you've acquired.

  • Acting on media literacy could mean looking up local candidates for government and using that info when you vote.

  • It could mean going vegan after reading about animal farms.

  • It could even mean deleting Twitter from your phone after realizing you're addicted to social media.

  • You may be wondering: do everyday people really access, analyze, evaluate, create and act on all the media they consume each day?

  • Of course not.

  • It's impossible to apply each of these principles to everything we absorb all the time.

  • But little by little as you start to apply them to different media it will become a habit.

  • Like building a muscle, you'll find yourself doing it reflexively as you scroll through your phone or listen to the radio.

  • And as a key tenet of media literacy, you should be able to accomplish this across all of your devices and types of media.

  • Not just the news and advertisements, but movies and music and books, too.

  • You might use multiple devices in the span of one day and,

  • in that one day see videos, photos, news articles, ads, short stories, quizzes, sponsored contentyou name it.

  • As long as you know how to access what you want, what to trust, and who you can rely on for it, you'll thrive within the fast-paced media environment.

  • But we're not done yet.

  • Next time on Crash Course Media Literacy we're going to talk about how media literacy itself is going to change in the future.

  • How will we respond to virtual and augmented reality media?

  • How does artificial intelligence factor into our news diet?

  • Should we even let corporations sell ussmart homedevices that listen to us all the time?

  • There's a lot to cover, and I can't wait to dive in.

  • For Crash Course, I'm Jay Smooth. See you next time!

  • Crash Course Media Literacy is filmed in the Dr. Cheryl C. Kinney Studio in Missoula, MT.

  • It's made with the help of all of these nice people, and our animation team is Thought Cafe.

  • Crash Course is a Complexly production.

  • If you wanna keep imagining the world complexly with us check out some of our other channels,

  • like Sexplanations, How To Adult, and Healthcare Triage.

  • If you'd like to keep Crash Course free for everyone, forever, you can support the series at Patreon,

  • a crowdfunding platform that allows you to support the content you love.

  • Thank you to all of our patrons for making Crash Course possible with their continued support.

If you've ever driven a carlegally, that isyou know before you taste that sweet, sweet vehicular freedom you had totake a really fun test.

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級

媒體技能。媒體知識速成班#11 (Media Skills: Crash Course Media Literacy #11)

  • 2 0
    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字