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  • I'd like to take you to another world.

    我想帶你們到另一個世界.

  • And I'd like to share

    與你們分享

  • a 45 year-old love story

    一位年齡45歲

  • with the poor,

    和每天薪水不到一美元的窮人,

  • living on less than one dollar a day.

    之前的愛情故事.

  • I went to a very elitist, snobbish,

    我所受的教育在印度是非常的

  • expensive education in India,

    優異, 勢力, 昂貴,

  • and that almost destroyed me.

    它幾乎毀了我的人生.

  • I was all set

    我可以選擇

  • to be a diplomat, teacher, doctor --

    當一名外交官, 老師, 醫生

  • all laid out.

    這些全都為我準備好了.

  • Then, I don't look it, but I was the Indian national squash champion

    我不需要擔憂, 而我曾是印度國家壁球比賽

  • for three years.

    連續三年的冠軍.

  • (Laughter)

    笑聲

  • The whole world was laid out for me.

    整個世界似乎都是因我而存在.

  • Everything was at my feet.

    一切好像都在我腳下.

  • I could do nothing wrong.

    我不會犯錯.

  • And then I thought out of curiosity

    然後我開始產生好奇

  • I'd like to go and live and work

    我想去村莊工作, 生活

  • and just see what a village is like.

    體驗一下是什麼樣的感覺.

  • So in 1965,

    1965年,

  • I went to what was called the worst Bihar famine in India,

    我來到了印度有史以來最大的比哈爾邦飢荒,

  • and I saw starvation, death,

    我一次見到了

  • people dying of hunger, for the first time.

    因飢餓而死的人.

  • It changed my life.

    我的生活因此而改變.

  • I came back home,

    我回到家後,

  • told my mother,

    告訴了我母親,

  • "I'd like to live and work in a village."

    "我要去鄉下工作, 在那裡生活."

  • Mother went into a coma.

    她聽了後昏了过過去

  • (Laughter)

    笑聲

  • "What is this?

    “你是什麼意思?

  • The whole world is laid out for you, the best jobs are laid out for you,

    你的人生已經定下來了, 最上層的工作你也可以得到,

  • and you want to go and work in a village?

    你現在告訴我你想到鄉下去工作?

  • I mean, is there something wrong with you?"

    我想知道你是哪根經不對了嗎?"

  • I said, "No, I've got the best eduction.

    我告訴她: ”我沒問題, 我得到了最好的教育.

  • It made me think.

    我的經歷讓我反思.

  • And I wanted to give something back

    我在反思後決定用我的方式

  • in my own way."

    來報答社會."

  • "What do you want to do in a village?

    "你去鄉下要做什麼?

  • No job, no money,

    又沒工作, 又沒錢,

  • no security, no prospect."

    不安全, 沒前景."

  • I said, "I want to live

    我說:"我想在那裡住

  • and dig wells for five years."

    挖五年的井."

  • "Dig wells for five years?

    “挖五年井?

  • You went to the most expensive school and college in India,

    你一直都念的是全印度最貴的學校,

  • and you want to dig wells for five years?"

    現在要用五年時間來挖井?"

  • She didn't speak to me for a very long time,

    後來很長一段時間她沒和我說話,

  • because she thought I'd let my family down.

    因為她覺得我讓家人丟臉了.

  • But then,

    在村裡,

  • I was exposed to the most extraordinary knowledge and skills

    我見識了窮人

  • that very poor people have,

    最超出尋常的知識和技能,

  • which are never brought into the mainstream --

    這些從來沒有主流媒體上出現過

  • which is never identified, respected,

    因為從來沒有被人注意過和尊重過,

  • applied on a large scale.

    或是大規模的應用過.

  • And I thought I'd start a Barefoot College --

    我決定創辦一所赤腳學院

  • college only for the poor.

    一所只有窮人才能念的學院.

  • What the poor thought was important

    貧民們的重要想法

  • would be reflected in the college.

    將在此學院得到反映.

  • I went to this village for the first time.

    我第一次來到了這個鄉村.

  • Elders came to me

    老人們走到我身邊問:"

  • and said, "Are you running from the police?"

    你是通缉犯?"

  • I said, "No."

    我说不是.

  • (Laughter)

    笑声

  • "You failed in your exam?"

    "考試沒過?"

  • I said, "No."

    我说不是.

  • "You didn't get a government job?" I said, "No."

    没找到政府的工作? 我說不是

  • "What are you doing here?

    那你来这里做什么?

  • Why are you here?

    为什么來这里?

  • The education system in India

    印度的教育系統

  • makes you look at Paris and New Delhi and Zurich;

    會讓你嚮往巴黎, 新德里, 蘇黎世那種地方;

  • what are you doing in this village?

    你來這個鄉村的目的到底是什麼?

  • Is there something wrong with you you're not telling us?"

    你是不是有事隱瞞?"

  • I said, "No, I want to actually start a college

    我說:"沒有, 我其實是想創辦一所學院

  • only for the poor.

    只教窮人的學院.

  • What the poor thought was important would be reflected in the college."

    貧民的想法可以在這個學院中變為現實."

  • So the elders gave me some very sound and profound advice.

    這些老人給了我很多建議.

  • They said, "Please,

    他們說:"

  • don't bring anyone with a degree and qualification

    請你不要讓有學位和證書的人

  • into your college."

    進你的學校."

  • So it's the only college in India

    這所學家成為印度唯一一間

  • where, if you should have a Ph.D. or a Master's,

    不收有博士

  • you are disqualified to come.

    或是碩士學位的人.

  • You have to be a cop-out or a wash-out or a dropout

    你必須要是一名逃學者, 考試不及格者, 或是輟學者

  • to come to our college.

    才能念這所大學.

  • You have to work with your hands.

    你必須用雙手工作.

  • You have to have a dignity of labor.

    不要因為勞動而有羞恥心.

  • You have to show that you have a skill that you can offer to the community

    還要向社區證明你有他們需要的技能

  • and provide a service to the community.

    並對社區提供服務.

  • So we started the Barefoot College,

    我們開始赤腳學院的時,

  • and we redefined professionalism.

    我們對職業精神重新定義.

  • Who is a professional?

    怎樣才算是一名專家?

  • A professional is someone

    專家是指那些

  • who has a combination of competence,

    不但有能力,

  • confidence and belief.

    還有信心和信仰的人.

  • A water diviner is a professional.

    占卜水源位置的人是專家.

  • A traditional midwife

    傳統助產婆

  • is a professional.

    也是專家.

  • A traditional bone setter is a professional.

    傳統的擺放餐具者也是專家.

  • These are professionals all over the world.

    專家遍佈世界各地.

  • You find them in any inaccessible village around the world.

    任何偏僻的鄉村裡都有他們的身影.

  • And we thought that these people should come into the mainstream

    我認為這些人應該加入主流社會

  • and show that the knowledge and skills that they have

    證明他們的知識和技能

  • is universal.

    是全球通用的.

  • It needs to be used, needs to be applied,

    他們的技術和知識需要被應用,

  • needs to be shown to the world outside --

    需要向外界的社會展示

  • that these knowledge and skills

    這些技能和知識

  • are relevant even today.

    在今天的社會中還可以得到發揮.

  • So the college works

    這所學院的文化

  • following the lifestyle and workstyle of Mahatma Gandhi.

    是追隨聖雄甘地的生活和工作習慣.

  • You eat on the floor, you sleep on the floor, you work on the floor.

    吃飯, 睡覺, 和工作都是在地上.

  • There are no contracts, no written contracts.

    沒有合同書, 從來不簽任何合同.

  • You can stay with me for 20 years, go tomorrow.

    你可以在這裡念20年, 或者明天就走.

  • And no one can get more than $100 a month.

    但沒有誰每月薪水可以超過100美金.

  • You come for the money, you don't come to Barefoot College.

    你如果是想掙錢, 那你來錯地方了.

  • You come for the work and the challenge,

    如果你愛工作並且願意接受挑戰,

  • you'll come to the Barefoot College.

    赤腳學院歡迎你來.

  • That is where we want you to try crazy ideas.

    這裡是一個讓你創造和嘗試新想法的地方.

  • Whatever idea you have, come and try it.

    不管是什麼樣的想法, 都可以來嘗試.

  • It doesn't matter if you fail.

    失敗也沒關係.

  • Battered, bruised, you start again.

    因為你可以重來.

  • It's the only college where the teacher is the learner

    這是唯一一所讓老師當學生

  • and the learner is the teacher.

    讓學生當老師的大學.

  • And it's the only college where we don't give a certificate.

    同時也是唯一一所不發證書的大學.

  • You are certified by the community you serve.

    你的教育是留給社區來鑒定.

  • You don't need a paper to hang on the wall

    你不需要掛張紙在牆上

  • to show that you are an engineer.

    來證明你是名工程師.

  • So when I said that,

    當村民聽到我這些話時,

  • they said, "Well show us what is possible. What are you doing?

    他們說:"你還是用行動來展示你的計畫吧.

  • This is all mumbo-jumbo if you can't show it on the ground."

    如果你什麼都不做, 這些話一點意義都沒有."

  • So we built the first Barefoot College

    1986年

  • in 1986.

    第一所赤腳學院建成了.

  • It was built by 12 Barefoot architects

    12名建築師

  • who can't read and write,

    沒有一個認識字,

  • built on $1.50 a sq. ft.

    以每平方英尺$1.5的成本修建了這所學院.

  • 150 people lived there, worked there.

    150個人在那裡工作和居住.

  • They got the Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 2002.

    2002年時他們榮獲了阿迦汗建築獎.

  • But then they suspected, they thought there was an architect behind it.

    但評委有持疑, 他們認為有另外的建築師參與修建.

  • I said, "Yes, they made the blueprints,

    我告訴他們:"的確有, 他們只畫設計圖,

  • but the Barefoot architects actually constructed the college."

    只有赤腳學院的建築師參與了修建."

  • We are the only ones who actually returned the award for $50,000,

    我們是唯一將$50000獎金歸還的得獎者,

  • because they didn't believe us,

    因為他們不相信我們

  • and we thought that they were actually casting aspersions

    而且我們覺得他們的懷疑

  • on the Barefoot architects of Tilonia.

    是對赤腳學院建築師的一種誹謗.

  • I asked a forester --

    我問一位林務員

  • high-powered, paper-qualified expert --

    一位有權威, 有證書的專家

  • I said, "What can you build in this place?"

    "你可以在這裡修建什麼?"

  • He had one look at the soil and said, "Forget it. No way.

    他看了看泥土, 說:"算了吧. 不可能.

  • Not even worth it.

    根本不值得.

  • No water, rocky soil."

    沒水, 而且還都是岩石地."

  • I was in a bit of a spot.

    我有點開始擔憂.

  • And I said, "Okay, I'll go to the old man in village

    我說:"好吧, 那我找村裡的長老問問."

  • and say, 'What should I grow in this spot?'"

    讓他告訴我這裡可以種些什麼.

  • He looked quietly at me and said,

    他看了看我說,

  • "You build this, you build this, you put this, and it'll work."

    "你只需要建這個, 建這個, 放這個."

  • This is what it looks like today.

    現今的狀況就是這樣.

  • Went to the roof,

    你到屋頂上,

  • and all the women said, "Clear out.

    所有的婦女都會對你說,"出去.

  • The men should clear out because we don't want to share this technology with the men.

    男士不能上來因為我們不和他們分享這個技術.

  • This is waterproofing the roof."

    這是房頂是防水的."

  • (Laughter)

    笑聲

  • It is a bit of jaggery, a bit of urens

    建造屋頂的材料有棕櫚糖, 蕁麻

  • and a bit of other things I don't know.

    其它的我不清楚.

  • But it actually doesn't leak.

    但它的確防水.

  • Since 1986, it hasn't leaked.

    1986到現在都沒漏過.

  • This technology, the women will not share with the men.

    這項技術, 婦女不會和男士分享.

  • (Laughter)

    笑聲

  • It's the only college

    這是唯一一所

  • which is fully solar-electrified.

    完全使用太陽能的學校.

  • All the power comes from the sun.

    能源來自太陽.

  • 45 kilowatts of panels on the roof.

    45千瓦的房頂板.

  • And everything works off the sun for the next 25 years.

    今後的25年有太陽就夠了.

  • So long as the sun shines,

    所以只要有陽光,

  • we'll have no problem with power.

    我們就不怕沒能源.

  • But the beauty is

    但其獨特之處

  • that is was installed

    是它的修建者

  • by a priest, a Hindu priest,

    是一位印度教的牧師,

  • who's only done eight years of primary schooling --

    只有8年的教育

  • never been to school, never been to college.

    從沒上過學, 沒念過大學.

  • He knows more about solar

    我敢保證

  • than anyone I know anywhere in the world guaranteed.

    他在太陽能方面的知識是世界第一.

  • Food, if you come to the Barefoot College,

    赤腳學院的食物

  • is solar cooked.

    都是靠太陽能.

  • But the people who fabricated that solar cooker

    而太陽能烹調器具的製造者

  • are women,

    是女性,

  • illiterate women,

    不識字的女性,

  • who actually fabricate

    她們組裝了

  • the most sophisticated solar cooker.

    最先進的太陽能烹調器具.

  • It's a parabolic Scheffler solar cooker.

    它是無需廚師的碗碟狀的器具.

  • Unfortunately, they're almost half German,

    不幸地是, 它們幾乎有一半德國血統,

  • they're so precise.

    所以非常精確.

  • (Laughter)

    笑聲

  • You'll never find Indian women so precise.

    你不可能找到如此精確的印度女性.

  • Absolutely to the last inch,

    而器具的整個製作

  • they can make that cooker.

    都是靠她們.

  • And we have 60 meals twice a day

    我們每日兩餐飯, 一餐60份

  • of solar cooking.

    烹調完全是靠太陽能.

  • We have a dentist --

    學校有一位牙醫

  • she's a grandmother, illiterate, who's a dentist.

    她是一位阿嬤, 不識字, 但真的是牙醫.

  • She actually looks after the teeth

    她的實際工作是幫7000名兒童

  • of 7,000 children.

    檢查牙齒.

  • Barefoot technology:

    赤腳科技:

  • this was 1986 -- no engineer, no architect thought of it --

    1986的時候, 沒有任何工程師和建築師

  • but we are collecting rainwater from the roofs.

    可以想到我們會用房頂來採集雨水.

  • Very little water is wasted.

    只有少量水源流失.

  • All the roofs are connected underground

    房頂是連在地下的

  • to a 400,000 liter tank,

    一個有40萬升容量的水箱,

  • and no water is wasted.

    所以沒有水會浪費.

  • If we have four years of drought, we still have water on the campus,

    即使發生四年的乾旱, 我們學校也不會缺水,

  • because we collect rainwater.

    因我們收藏了雨水.

  • 60 percent of children don't go to school,

    60%的小孩不會上學,

  • because they have to look after animals --

    因為要替家裡

  • sheep, goats --

    照顧山羊, 綿羊,

  • domestic chores.

    還有其它的家庭雜務.

  • So we thought of starting a school

    我決定要為這些孩子

  • at night for the children.

    建一間夜校.

  • Because the night schools of Tilonia,

    因為這些當地的夜校,

  • over 75,000 children have gone through these night schools.

    超過7萬5千的小孩都得到了上學的機會.

  • Because it's for the convenience of the child;

    因為夜校考慮到孩子們的需求;

  • it's not for the convenience of the teacher.

    而不是老師們的需求.

  • And what do we teach in these schools?

    這些學校教什麼呢?

  • Democracy, citizenship,

    民主, 公民權力,

  • how you should measure your land,

    應該怎麼去測量你的領土,

  • what you should do if you're arrested,

    被捕了應該怎麼辦,

  • what you should do if your animal is sick.

    你的家畜病了怎麼辦.

  • This is what we teach in the night schools.

    我們夜校教得就是這些知識.

  • But all the schools are solar-lit.

    所有的學校還是借助太陽能.

  • Every five years

    每到5年,

  • we have an election.

    我們舉行一次選舉.

  • Between six to 14 year-old children

    在年紀6歲到14歲的兒童

  • participate in a democratic process,

    都可參與這個民主選舉,

  • and they elect a prime minister.

    他們選一個總理.

  • The prime minister is 12 years old.

    現在的總理只有12歲.

  • She looks after 20 goats in the morning,

    她早上照看20隻羊,

  • but she's prime minister in the evening.

    但晚上她的職務是總理.

  • She has a cabinet,

    她有自己的內閣,

  • a minister of education, a minister for energy, a minister for health.

    教育部部長, 能源部部長, 衛生部部長.

  • And they actually monitor and supervise

    他們負責監督和管理

  • 150 schools for 7,000 children.

    150所學校的7000名學生.

  • She got the World's Children's Prize five years ago,

    五年前這位總理拿到了世界兒童獎,

  • and she went to Sweden.

    她去了瑞典領獎.

  • First time ever going out of her village.

    第一次離開她在的村.

  • Never seen Sweden.

    從沒見過瑞典.

  • Wasn't dazzled at all by what was happening.

    對當時的場面一點都不驚訝.

  • And the Queen of Sweden, who's there,

    瑞典皇后當時也在,

  • turned to me and said, "Can you ask this child where she got her confidence from?

    她問我:"你能不能問問這個孩子她是哪來的自信?

  • She's only 12 years old,

    她才12歲,

  • and she's not dazzled by anything."

    但完全不驚羨."

  • And the girl, who's on her left,

    而這個站在她走邊的小女孩,

  • turned to me and looked at the queen straight in the eye

    轉向我, 直視皇后,

  • and said, "Please tell her I'm the prime minister."

    她說:"告訴她我是總理."

  • (Laughter)

    笑聲

  • (Applause)

    掌聲

  • Where the percentage of illiteracy is very high,

    在文盲率太高的地方