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  • In my hands I hold a scale.

    我手裡拿的是體重計

  • And when I step on to this scale,

    我站上去的時候

  • the numbers spin around and around,

    體重計上面的數字欄會轉動

  • and give me a number.

    然後顯示一個數字

  • And in my case,

    我的體重是

  • 100.

    一百

  • But what does this number really mean?

    但是這個數字到底代表什麼呢?

  • According to weight classification tables,

    根據體重等級表

  • in relation to my height,

    搭配我的身高

  • I am normal,

    我體態正常

  • or ideal weight for my height.

    或者說這是我這種身高應有的理想體重

  • Ok.

    ok

  • But my body has been subjected to much more

    但是根據這份體重等級表,我的身體受到的評論

  • than just these medicalised terms, according to these weight tables.

    卻不只來自這些醫療的標準

  • I've been questioned as being anorexic

    常常有人問我是不是有厭食症

  • or sick looking.

    或者是不是生病了

  • And predominantly, I am the skinny bitch.

    通俗一點的說法就是,我是個該死的瘦子

  • And in my personal encounter with this skinny bitch phenomena,

    就我個人的經歷來說,這種「該死的瘦子」的現象

  • it comes pretty much in a one generalized form.

    在一般人的生活中十分常見

  • It's either I am on a diet, and everybody wants to know what it is,

    就好像我在為瘦身節食,所有的人都想知道我的方法是什麼

  • and they are just waiting for me to give them this magic pill

    而他們在等我給他們瘦身的特效藥

  • and they will be skinny like me.

    然後他們就可以變得跟我一樣瘦

  • And when I tell them actually I am not everything in moderation,

    當我告訴他們我沒有為了瘦身做什麼特別的事情時

  • I get this, "Uh," snotty lookas if I am lying.

    他們總是用厭惡的表情說「呃」,好像覺得我在說謊

  • So I'm a liar.

    所以我變成說謊的人

  • Or it comes in a different form.

    我也有得到過不同的回應

  • Or, if they don't believe me, they think,

    如果他們不相信我說的,他們會認為

  • "Oh! you're one of those girls who can eat everything she wants

    「噢!你是那種怎麼吃都不會胖

  • and doesn't gain a pound."

    的女生。」

  • And there's a sense of hamminess between me and this person

    我與這個人之間有種誇張的情緒 —

  • this resentment.

    一種憤恨

  • I don't feel good about that.

    我不喜歡這樣

  • And what was once just a number from a scale

    從什麼時候開始區區一個體重計上的數字

  • has now characterized myself as a person and my health.

    能夠說明我是什麼樣的人還有我的健康狀況

  • Critical theorists call this: "Weight-based discrimination".

    評論家稱之為:「體重歧視」

  • And while weight-based discrimination is seen at all shapes and sizes,

    體重歧視發生在各種體型的人身上

  • one particular group of individuals,

    其中有一群特定的人們

  • those who are tip over the normal category,

    他們的體重超過他們身高應有的正常範圍

  • have been particular subjects of this form of discrimination.

    這群人深受體重歧視的困擾

  • Yeah, I am talking aboutthe fat people.

    沒錯,我指的是 — 肥胖的人

  • And according to the literature, not only does the general population,

    資料顯示,不僅社會大眾

  • but professionals working to help these individuals,

    就連理當幫助這些人的專業人員

  • whether it be: dietitians,

    不論是:營養師

  • physicians, physiotherapist,

    醫師、復健師

  • they have preconceived notions of them, based completely on their body.

    他們都曾對這群人有先入為主的想法,就只因為他們的身形

  • For instance:

    例如:

  • fat people are gluttonous,

    肥胖的人非常愛吃

  • fat people are lazy,

    肥胖的人都懶惰

  • fat people are inactive.

    肥胖的人不愛運動

  • A fat child is a child abuse

    肥胖的小孩容易受虐待

  • and a fat parent is a poor role model.

    而肥胖的家長是很差的典範

  • And again and again, I don't know how many times I've read this,

    這樣的例子數不勝數,我不知道已經看過多少了

  • but a fat citizen is a burden to our straining health care system.

    但是對我們的日漸衰退健康照護體系來說肥胖的居民是種負擔

  • And while what I am presenting to you may not shock you,

    我現在說的這些可能不會嚇到你

  • what shocks me is how do we go from being raised

    讓我震驚的是,我們從小受到的教育告訴我們

  • to not judge a book by its cover, but as mature adults

    不要以貌取人,但等我們長大成人

  • and health care professionals,

    或成為醫療照護人員

  • we do it on a daily basis.

    我們卻每天都在這麼做

  • And why?

    為什麼?

  • Because of fear.

    因為恐懼

  • And what feed this fear is the overstated and misrepresentation

    而誇大又扭曲的科學聲稱體重可以看出一個人健康與否

  • of the scientific claims underlying weight as a health indicator.

    更是增加了這種對肥胖的恐懼

  • And so when we see claims like: "Risk of death increases with weight,"

    所以當我們看到像是「死亡風險隨體重增加」這樣的標語

  • or in other words,

    或是其他標語

  • the fatter you arethe more likely you are to die,

    「你越胖越接近死亡」

  • it feeds onto this fear,

    我們心中的恐懼會因此增加

  • and we somehow attach certainty to whatever we are reading.

    而且我們常常對讀到的東西深信不疑

  • But the evidence behind these scientific claims are actually quite conflicting.

    但是這些科學主張背後的證據其實備受爭議

  • Let's take a look at this study for one moment.

    我們花些時間來看看這些研究吧

  • If we assessed the redline as a barometer of health,

    我們假設這條紅線表代表一個人健康與否

  • so anybody below this redline has a lower risk of death,

    那麼跟正常體重的人,也就是理想體態的人相比

  • compared to normal weight peoplethe ideal,

    低於這條紅線的人死亡風險會比較低

  • and anybody above has an increased risk of death.

    而高於這條紅線的人死亡風險隨之增加

  • I bring your attention to the lower part of the graph.

    我希望你們注意的是圖表中下方的部分

  • Our overweight and obese individuals actually have a reduced risk of death

    與正常體重的人相比,體重過重且肥胖的人們

  • than those who are normal weight.

    死亡機率其實隨之降低

  • But as citizens we want to not only live long, we want live healthy.

    但我們不只想要活的長久,也想要活得健康

  • And so this may not intrigue us.

    所以這個例子可能不適用

  • The second claim, that " fat people are unhealthy ",

    第二個主張是「肥胖的人都不健康」

  • that grabs our attention.

    這引起我們的注意

  • Well, they could live long but they're not healthy.

    他們也許能活得長久但他們並不健康

  • And one way that science objectifies health is by looking at some key indicators

    而科學斷定健康的其中一種方法就是看特定項目的指數

  • that tell us something about your risk of death.

    從中我們能夠知道你的死亡風險有多高

  • Key indicators such as: blood pressure,

    這些特定項目的指數有:血壓

  • your cholesterol level,

    你的膽固醇指數

  • triglycerides, inflammation,

    三酸甘油酯、炎症

  • I am sounding like a textbook, I know,

    我聽起來像無聊的課本,我知道

  • insulin and your glucose level.

    胰島素和你的血糖指數

  • And all of these indicators packaged into one

    這些指數的結果全部濃縮成一體

  • give us a sort of indication of our risk of "heart disease" and "diabetes" —

    告訴我們罹患「心臟疾病」和「糖尿病」的風險有多少 —

  • the burdens of our health care system.

    這兩類疾病也是我們醫療照護體系的負擔

  • And so, what this study wanted to look at and see

    所以這項研究想要觀察的是

  • is to see whether or not these package of indicators

    這一系列的指數在肥胖的人

  • are different in those who are fat and those who are not.

    與不肥胖的人之間是否會有不同的結果

  • And this is what they saw: So normal weight individuals

    這就是他們看到的結果:體重正常的人—

  • Yes, most of them had a healthy profile.

    沒錯,他們大部分都有健康的資料

  • So their blood glucose and all that stuff I talked about, that was kind of boring

    他們的血糖還有其他我剛剛提到過有點無聊的那些項目

  • actually was fine.

    其實都還不錯

  • But, actually almost 25% of the normal weight individuals

    但是,事實上有將近25%正常體重的人

  • actually had abnormal indicators.

    測試結果不在正常範圍

  • Meaning that they would be in an increased risk of disease.

    這代表他們有潛在增加的患病機率

  • Hmm!

    嗯!

  • And this is about, according to the most recent

    這代表...根據最新的

  • BMI prevalence of normal weight people,

    BMI普及正常體重調查

  • this is about 1.5 million individuals

    這代表有將近一百五十萬人

  • that are abnormal.

    身體狀況處於非正常狀態

  • And so they looked at overweight.

    然後他們觀察過重者的數據結果

  • Over 50% of the overweight individuals had metabolic health.

    超過50%過重的人新陳代謝的狀況屬於健康

  • And what about obesethe really fat people?

    那肥胖的人呢?那些真的有肥胖問題的人?

  • One third are metabolically healthy.

    他們有三分之一的新陳代謝狀況同樣屬於健康狀態

  • That's 2.5 million people.

    就是兩百五十萬人

  • And while we can't ignore

    我們不能忽視

  • that there's more of these abnormal metabolic individuals

    這代表在這些新陳代謝不正常的人之中

  • at a higher weight,

    體重較高的人數比較多

  • we tend to ignore the fact that at every size we can see health.

    我們刻意忽視一個事實,那就是不論何種身形的人都可能有健康的身體

  • And it's this ignorance that brings fire

    而就是這種視而不見的現象

  • and acceptably to weight-based discrimination.

    燎起體重歧視之火,甚至放任大火蔓延

  • And the consequences of this are not small

    這樣的後果不可小覷

  • they're very severe:

    這非常的嚴重

  • body dissatisfaction, lower self-esteem,

    對身體的不滿意、自信心降低

  • impaired nutrition intake.

    不正確攝取營養

  • Looks like this

    就像這上面寫的—

  • We will do anything to get to this thin ideal:

    為了達到理想的纖細身形,我們不顧一切:

  • eating less, vomiting,

    少吃、催吐

  • smoking more cigarettes.

    多吸菸

  • Is this health promotion?

    你們覺得這是健康的倡導嗎?

  • And so, we need to wake up.

    所以我們必須認清現狀

  • As a society, we need to wake up

    身為社會的一份子,我們必須認清現狀

  • and see weight-based discrimination as a legitimate concern.

    並把體重歧視視為一種有法律高度的議題

  • We need to think forward and critically analyze

    我們必須想得更遠,客觀地分析

  • the information we're getting regarding weight as an indicator of health.

    這些有關體重決定健康狀態的資訊

  • And most importantly, as a society, we need to shift the focus away from

    最重要的是,身為社會的一份子,我們必須轉移注意力

  • striving for this thin ideal, this "normality".

    不再追求這種理想的纖細體態,這種所謂的「正常狀態」

  • No one's normal.

    沒有人是正常的

  • But this health ideal,

    但是這種體想的健康

  • and this health ideal looks and feels

    對我們每個人來說,這種理想的健康

  • different for each and every one of us.

    看起來、感覺起來都不一樣

  • And so,

    所以

  • what does this number really mean on this scale?

    這個體重計上的數字到底有什麼意義?

  • With scientific certainty in light,

    從確切的科學角度來看

  • it's gravity's pull on your body.

    這只是你的身體受到地心引力的結果罷了

In my hands I hold a scale.

我手裡拿的是體重計

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 體重 肥胖 健康 指數 死亡 理想

【TEDx】體重歧視:別再轉移焦點了! (TEDxRyersonU - Julie Rochefort - Shift the Focus)

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    阿多賓 發佈於 2016 年 01 月 11 日
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