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  • So how many of you are educators, past, present, or future?

    那麼,你們有多少人是教育工作者,是過去,是現在,還是將來?

  • Raise your hands.

    舉起你的手。

  • Good. I'm in the right place.

    很好,我是在正確的地方。我來對地方了。

  • I'm a recovering high school English teacher.

    我'是一名康復的高中英語老師。

  • True story.

    真實的故事。

  • How many of you mentor young kids?

    你們有多少人指導年輕的孩子?

  • Raise your hands.

    舉起你的手。

  • I'm definitely in the right place.

    我'絕對是在正確的地方。

  • For 25 years, we've heard about failing schools

    25年來,我們聽說過失敗的學校。

  • and the need to reform our schools.

    以及改革學校的必要性。

  • Anybody who wanted to reform school?

    有誰想改革學校?

  • Raise your hands.

    舉起你的手。

  • Einstein once said that formulation of the problem

    愛因斯坦曾經說過,問題的表述

  • is often more important than the solution.

    往往比解決方案更重要。

  • I would like to respectfully suggest our schools

    我謹建議我們的學校

  • are not failing; they certainly don't need reforming.

    是不失敗的,他們當然不需要改革。

  • The system is obsolete and needs reinventing.

    這個系統已經過時了,需要重塑。

  • Not reforming.

    不改革。

  • What's changed?

    有什麼變化?

  • It's simply this.

    簡單來說就是這樣。

  • Knowledge today is a commodity.

    今天的知識是一種商品。

  • It's free. It's like air. It's like water.

    它是免費的。它就像空氣。它像水。

  • How many of you have been on the Khan Academy website?

    你們有多少人上過可汗學院的網站?

  • Raise your hands.

    舉起你的手。

  • Yeah, most of you. Right, you know.

    是啊,你們大多數人。對,你知道的。

  • You know the quality of education people can receive

    你知道人們能接受的教育品質

  • on that if they're willing to take the initiative.

    上,如果他們'願意主動。

  • How many of you had to memorize the periodic table

    你們有多少人要背週期表?

  • in high school? Raise your hands.

    在高中?請舉手

  • Ah, everybody! Good.

    啊,大家好!很好。

  • So, how many were there again?

    那麼,又有多少人呢?

  • No wait, I'm sorry, I didn't hear that.

    不,等等,對不起,我沒聽到。

  • Whatever number you came up with is wrong,

    不管你想出什麼數字都是錯的。

  • because two more were added last week.

    因為上週又增加了兩個。

  • And planets, are we up one or down one?

    而行星,我們是上一個還是下一個?

  • I don't know, I haven't checked my news feed today.

    我不知道,我今天沒有檢查我的新聞提要。

  • And let's see, let's have a contest.

    讓我們'看看,讓我們'來一場比賽。

  • Why don't you recite the 50 state capitals from memory

    你為什麼不背誦50個州的首府呢?

  • while I google them? Let's see who's quicker.

    而我在谷歌上搜索他們?讓我們'看看誰'更快。

  • Knowledge is a commodity.

    知識是一種商品。

  • The world no longer cares whether or not

    世界不再關心是否

  • you're smarter than a fifth grader

    你比五年級學生還聰明

  • or how well you do to triple your pursuit.

    或者說你做得多好,才會有三倍的追求。

  • What the world cares about is not what you know,

    世界關心的不是你所知道的。

  • but what you can do with what you know.

    但你能用你所知道的做什麼。

  • And that is a completely different education problem.

    而這是一個完全不同的教育問題。

  • Then the question becomes,

    那麼問題就變成了:

  • Do you have the skill and do you have the will

    你有技術嗎? 你有意願嗎?

  • to use the knowledge you have acquired?

    來運用所學的知識?

  • Okay, I gotta tell you a kind of an intellectual journey I've been on.

    好吧,我得告訴你一種我一直以來的智力之旅。

  • 2005, I read "The World is Flat" by Friedman.

    2005年,我讀了"世界是平的",作者是弗裡德曼。

  • How many have read that book?

    有多少人看過這本書?

  • Scared the heck out of me.

    嚇死我了。

  • Because as you know, he describes a world

    因為你知道,他描述了一個世界

  • where increasingly any job that can be routined

    越來越多的工作可以例行化

  • is rapidly being offshored or automated.

    正在迅速外包或自動化。

  • White collar, blue collar, doesn't matter.

    白領、藍領,都無所謂。

  • Talked to him recently, interviewed him for the new book.

    最近和他哈拉,採訪他的新書。

  • He said, "I got one thing wrong in that book."

    他說,"我在那本書里弄錯了一件事&quot。

  • I said, "What was that?"

    我說,"那是什麼?&quot。

  • He said, "The pace of change is happening so much faster."

    他說,"變化的步伐發生得太快了。

  • So I worried about what kinds of skills will our young people need

    所以我很擔心我們的年輕人需要什麼樣的技能?

  • to get and keep a good job in this new global knowledge economy.

    在這個新的全球知識經濟中獲得和保持一份好工作。

  • And in fact are they the same skills they'll need

    而事實上他們是否也需要同樣的技能呢'。

  • for citizenship and for continuous learning?

    為公民身份和不斷學習?

  • So I've interviewed a wide range of innovators, literally,

    所以我採訪了各種各樣的創新者,真的。

  • from Apple to Unilever, executives, U.S. Army,

    從蘋果到聯合利華,高管,美軍。

  • community leaders, college teachers, asking all of them,

    社區上司、高校老師,問遍了所有的人。

  • "What are the skills that matter most today? What's important?"

    "當今最重要的技能是什麼?什麼'重要?&quot。

  • Came to understand, there's a set of core competences

    悟到了,有一套核心競爭力'。

  • every young person must be well on the way to mastery

    少年得志

  • before he or she finishes high school.

    在他或她完成高中學業之前;

  • Not just to get a good job, but to be a continuous learner

    不僅僅是為了找一份好工作,而是要做一個不斷學習的人。

  • and an active and informed citizen in the 21st century.

    並在21世紀做一個積極的知情公民。

  • Very briefly, they are:

    很簡單,它們是:

  • No. 1: Critical thinking and problem solving.

    No.1:批判性思維和解決問題。

  • What do I mean by critical thinking?

    什麼叫批判性思維?

  • The ability to ask the right questions,

    能夠提出正確的問題。

  • ask really good questions.

    問出真正的好問題。

  • No. 2: Collaboration across networks and leading by influence.

    第2名:跨網絡協作,以影響帶動。

  • No. 3: Agility and adaptability.

    第3:敏捷性和適應性。

  • No. 4: Initiative and entrepreneurialism.

    第4號:主動性和創業精神。

  • No. 5: Effective oral and written communication.

    第5項:有效的口頭和書面交流。

  • No. 6: Accessing and analyzing information.

    第6名:獲取和分析資訊。

  • and lastly, No. 7: Curiosity and imagination.

    最後,第7項:好奇心和想象力。

  • So, a couple things happened when that book came out 3 and a half years ago.

    所以,三年半前那本書出來的時候,發生了幾件事。

  • There's a global achievement gap that Hellman just referred to.

    有'的全球成就差距,赫爾曼剛剛提到。

  • First of all, I got a kind of affirmation

    首先,我得到了一種肯定。

  • from literally, around the world

    來自世界各地

  • that simply stunned me.

    這簡直讓我驚呆了。

  • Taiwan to Singapore, to Helsinki, to Madrid,

    臺灣到新加坡,到赫爾辛基,到馬德里。

  • and kind of all places in between.

    和種之間的所有地方。

  • Thailand, Bahrain, Birmingham, England.

    泰國、巴林、英國伯明翰。

  • From Wall Street to West Point,

    從華爾街到西點軍校。

  • people said to me, "Yup, these are exactly the right skills."

    人們對我說,"Yup,這些正是正確的技能。

  • I felt pretty good. Not bad.

    我感覺很好。還不錯

  • Then the other thing happened.

    然後,另一件事發生了。

  • Economy collapsed.

    經濟崩潰了。

  • And I saw kids coming home from college,

    我還看到孩子們從大學回家。

  • seemingly having acquired some, many, most of these skills,

    似乎已經掌握了其中的一些、許多、大部分技能。

  • coming home from college to no job.

    從大學畢業回家,沒有工作。

  • They had the skills.

    他們有技術。

  • Something was missing.

    缺少了一些東西。

  • Right now today, half of all recent college graduates

    如今,一半的應屆大學畢業生

  • are either unemployed or underemployed.

    失業或就業不足;

  • A third are living at home.

    三分之一的人住在家裡。

  • Maybe some of you in this audience.

    也許在座的有些人。

  • What did I miss? What was wrong?

    我錯過了什麼?錯在哪裡?

  • Well, as I tried to understand

    好吧,當我試圖理解

  • the essence of this economic crash,

    這次經濟崩潰的實質。

  • I came to understand it's a lot more

    我明白了它的很多東西

  • than the credit default swaps we read about,

    比我們讀到的信用違約互換。

  • a lot more than just a hyper-inflated

    膨脹不止

  • real estate market and so on.

    房地產市場等。

  • Here's what I learned.

    這裡'是我學到的。

  • Maybe you all know this. I didn't.

    也許你們都知道。我不知道

  • More than 70% of our economy is based on consumer spending.

    我國70%以上的經濟是以消費支出為基礎的。

  • What's everybody's biggest fear?

    大家最害怕的是什麼'?

  • That consumers will stop spending.

    消費者會停止消費。

  • That's why we lose jobs.

    這就是我們失去工作的原因。

  • No. 2, that that consumer spending has been

    第2條,消費支出一直是

  • increasingly fueled by people going into debt.

    越來越多的人借債助長。

  • Pulling money out of the house as fast as they could,

    以最快的速度從家裡抽出錢來。

  • putting money on credit cards as fast as they could.

    把錢用在信用卡上,儘快。

  • 2007, the savings rate was minus 2%.

    2007年,儲蓄率為負2%。

  • Leading me to conclude

    導致我得出結論

  • that maybe what we have done

    這也許是我們所做的

  • is create an economy based on people

    是創造一個以人為本的經濟

  • spending money they do not have,

    花他們沒有的錢;

  • to buy things they may not need,

    購買他們可能不需要的東西。

  • threatening the planet in the process.

    在這個過程中威脅到了地球。

  • I think it's increasingly clear

    我覺得越來越清楚

  • that kind of an economy is not sustainable.

    這樣的經濟是不可持續的。

  • As Jeremy Cloud said, it's not sustainable environmentally.

    正如傑里米-克勞德所說,這在環境上是不可持續的。

  • It's not even sustainable economically.

    這在經濟上都是不可持續的。

  • Right now today, the savings rate is about 4%.

    如今,儲蓄率約為4%。

  • Consumers are saving

    消費者正在節省

  • more than they are spending.

    比他們的支出更多。

  • I don't think it's sustainable spiritually either.

    我不'認為它'在精神上也不能持續。

  • We need something different.

    我們需要一些不同的東西。

  • So as I tried to understand what's the alternative,

    所以,當我試圖瞭解什麼'的選擇。

  • what's gonna be our niche in the global economy,

    什麼'會是我們在全球經濟中的利基。

  • one word appeared over and over again.

    一個詞反覆出現。

  • Innovation.

    創新。

  • The idea, not just the major innovations in STEM,

    理念,而不僅僅是STEM領域的重大創新。

  • but becoming a country that produces more better ideas

    但成為一個能產生更多更好想法的國家

  • to solve more different kinds of problems,

    來解決更多不同類型的問題。

  • ideas that generate jobs,

    創造就業機會的想法。

  • ideas that other people want and need as solutions

    他山之石,可以攻玉

  • to real problems, every kind of problem.

    解決實際問題,各種問題。

  • So, you know, America has always been known

    所以,你知道,美國一直被稱為

  • as a highly innovative country.

    作為一個高度創新的國家,。

  • But is that because of, or in spite of,

    但這是因為,還是因為。

  • our education system?

    我們的教育制度?

  • Important question.

    重要的問題。

  • You know we have infrastructure,

    你知道我們有基礎設施。

  • we spend on our R&D,

    我們花在我們的R&D。

  • copyright protection laws,

    版權保護法。

  • good immigration policy, until recently.

    好的移民政策,直到最近。

  • What about education?

    教育方面呢?

  • Alright, trivia question of the day so fast you won't be able to google the answer.

    好吧,今天的小問題,所以快你不會'谷歌的答案。

  • What do Bill Gates, Edwin Land,

    比爾-蓋茨、埃德溫-蘭德都做了什麼。

  • the inventor of Polaroid instant camera,

    寶麗來即時相機的發明者。

  • Mark Zuckerburg a Facebook fame,

    馬克-扎克伯格是Facebook上的名人。

  • and Bonnie Raitt, the folk singer, all four have in common?

    和民謠歌手邦妮-雷特,這四個人都有共同點?

  • (Audience) College dropouts.

    (觀眾)大學輟學者。

  • Sorry, they were not dropouts,

    對不起,他們不是輟學。

  • they were Harvard College dropouts!

    他們是哈佛大學的輟學生!

  • That's different! Thank you very much.

    這是不同的!謝謝你

  • You know Steve Jobs is a dropout, Michael Dell is a dropout.

    你知道喬布斯是個輟學者,邁克爾-戴爾是個輟學者。

  • These guys were Harvard dropouts.

    這些人都是哈佛大學的輟學生。

  • So I decided to take a different tactic.

    所以我決定採取不同的策略。

  • Trying to understand what must we do differently

    試圖瞭解我們必須做什麼不同的事情。

  • to develop the capacities of many more

    培養更多的人的能力

  • of our young people to be innovators.

    我們的年輕人要成為創新者。

  • What must we do as parents, as teachers,

    作為家長,作為老師,我們必須做什麼。

  • as mentors, and as employers.

    作為導師和僱主,

  • Started interviewing a wide range of innovators in their 20s.

    開始廣泛採訪20多歲的創新者。

  • Extraordinary young people.

    非凡的年輕人。

  • Range some from privileged, some from poverty.

    範圍有些是特權階層,有些是貧困階層。

  • Wide range. All over the country.

    廣泛的範圍。全國各地。

  • Some in STEM fields, some in arts,

    有的在STEM領域,有的在藝術領域。

  • some were social innovators and entrepreneurs.

    有些是社會創新者和企業家。

  • Then I interviewed each one of their parents.

    然後,我對他們的父母進行了一一採訪。

  • Trying to understand if there were

    試圖瞭解是否有

  • patterns of parenting that I might observe.

    我可能觀察到的育兒模式。

  • Then I asked each one of them,

    然後,我問了他們每個人。

  • "Is there a teacher or a mentor

    "是否有老師或導師。

  • who's made a significant difference in your life?"

    誰'在你的生活中產生了重大的變化?&quot。

  • One third of them, one third,

    三分之一的人,三分之一的人。

  • could not name a single teacher.

    說不出一個老師的名字。

  • Of the two thirds who could,

    三分之二的人可以:

  • they could name at least one teacher.

    他們至少能說出一位老師的名字。

  • The third that couldn't name a teacher

    第三個叫不出老師名字的。

  • could always name a mentor by the way.

    總能說出一個導師的方式。

  • Very important.

    非常重要。

  • We underestimate the importance of mentoring.

    我們低估了指導的重要性。

  • So I went and interviewed each one of those teachers and mentors.

    於是,我去採訪了這些老師和導師的每一個人。

  • And I made, what was for me, a shocking discovery.

    我做了,對我來說,是一個令人震驚的發現。

  • In every single case, the teachers whom I interviewed --

    在每一個案例中,我所採訪的教師------。

  • and I interviewed teachers from elementary school to graduate school.

    和我採訪了從小學到研究所學生的老師。

  • The full spectrum.

    全譜。

  • In every case, every one of those teachers

    在每一個案例中,這些教師中的每一個

  • was an outlier in his or her school setting.

    在他或她的學校環境中是個異類。

  • In fact, I went to five colleges.

    事實上,我去了五所大學。

  • Harvard, MIT, Stanford, Carnegie Mellon, Tulane.

    哈佛大學、麻省理工學院、斯坦福大學、卡內基梅隆大學、杜蘭大學。

  • All five of those college teachers

    這五位大學老師

  • having produced brilliant innovators and continued to do so,

    產生了傑出的創新者,並將繼續這樣做。

  • none of them had tenure

    他們都沒有終身制

  • nor were they ever going to get tenure.

    他們也不可能得到終身職位。

  • What's the problem here?

    這裡有什麼問題?

  • Well, what I came to learn

    好吧,我是來學習的

  • is that the culture of schooling,

    就是學校教育的文化。

  • as we have grown up with it,

    因為我們已經和它一起長大了。

  • is radically at odds with the culture of learning

    與學問文化是完全不相稱的。

  • that produces innovators in five central respects.

    培養創新者的五個中心方面。

  • No. 1, we celebrate and award individual achievement,

    1號,我們對個人的成就進行表彰和獎勵。

  • and sure there's an important place for that,

    並肯定有'的重要位置。

  • but, as you well know, innovation is a team sport.

    但是,你也知道,創新是一項團隊運動。

  • And all of these teachers built real, accountable teamwork

    而這些老師都建立了真正的、負責任的團隊合作關係。

  • and collaboration in all of their assignments.

    協作完成所有任務。

  • No. 2, we are all about specialization in American education.

    第2,我們的美國教育都是專業化的。

  • High school, universities are divided and conquered

    高校、大學被瓜分、被征服

  • by something we call Carnegie units,

    由我們稱之為卡內基組織、部門的東西。

  • which are 115 years old.

    其中有115年的歷史。

  • Chemistry this, biology that, and so on.

    化學這個,生物那個,等等。

  • The world of innovation is interdisciplinary.

    創新的世界是跨學科的。

  • And problem-based learning.

    而基於問題的學習。

  • Judy Gilbert at Google, she said to me,

    谷歌的朱迪-吉爾伯特,她對我說。

  • if there's one thing educators must understand,

    如果有一件事教育者必須明白。

  • is that problems can no longer be solved

    是問題已經無法解決

  • nor even understood

    也不明白

  • within the bright lines of academic disciplines.

    在學術學科的明線內。

  • No. 3, the culture of schooling is all about

    No.3,學校教育文化的全部內容。

  • risk aversion and penalizing failure.

    規避風險,懲罰失敗。

  • Students' job is to figure out what the teacher needs.

    學生'的工作是弄清楚老師需要什麼。

  • Give the teacher whatever the teacher wants.

    老師要什麼,就給老師什麼。

  • Teacher's job is to avoid trouble, you know.

    老師的工作是避免麻煩,你知道的。

  • We are not encouraged to take risks as educators, right?

    作為教育工作者,我們不鼓勵冒險吧?

  • The world of innovation, as you will know,

    創新的世界,你會知道。

  • is all about taking risks,

    是關於冒險的。

  • making mistakes, and learning from them.

    犯錯誤,並從中吸取教訓。

  • I went to IDEO, the most

    我去了IDEO,最

  • innovative design company in the world, they said to me,

    他們對我說,他們是世界上創新的設計公司。

  • "Our motto is, 'Fail early and fail often.'"

    "我們的座右銘是,'儘早失敗,經常失敗.'&quot。

  • That's because there is no innovation without trial and error.

    這'是因為沒有試錯就沒有創新。

  • I went to the D School started by David Kelley from IDEO,

    我去了IDEO的David Kelley創辦的D學校。

  • an amazing interdisciplinary program at Stanford.

    斯坦福大學的跨學科課程令人驚歎。

  • They were talking around a table together saying,

    他們在一起圍著桌子哈拉說。

  • "You know we are actually thinking F is the new A."

    "你知道我們實際上是認為F是新的A.&quot。