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The Internet of Things is the giant network
of interconnected devices
from these devices are capable of making decisions
without any human intervention.
Edureka welcome you
to the full course session on the internet of things
and what follows is a series
of fundamental concepts on the internet of things
which will help you get started with IoT.
But before we begin let's look
at our agenda for today. so we can start out
with introducing you to the concept of iot.
We are going to discuss.
Why do you need I will take
what is iot of you benefits of iot for biofuel features
and finally the very
important five layer architecture of authority.
Then you're going to discuss Raspberry Pi in this section.
We are going to talk about why you need Raspberry Pi
what does Raspberry Pi of you Hardware specifications
and the installation of Rosman fire also,
We have a few demos including the Raspberry Pi
a few cents hats and Raspberry Pi camera module.
We are going to discuss the top seven projects
in iot in this section.
We're going to talk about the best projects
that we found in Rog next.
We will talk about iot devices
are going to talk about various devices
which came into Inception
after the concept of iot was introduced
then we want to talk about iot applications
in this Section we are going to discuss
practical applications of iot
in various domains
such as Healthcare security traffic governance.
So on and so forth and finally we are going to discuss
all things career in Ironton.
They're going to talk about the job market
the opportunity the salary in different geographies
and experience so on and so forth,
but that we come to the end
of our agenda also going to take up this time to subscribe to us
and don't forget to hit that Bell icon to double missile.
Update from The Edge Arabia YouTube channel.
So without Much Ado,
let's get started what is internet of things
now to help you understand what is internet of things?
Let's look at an example of a mobile phones Forest.
Our mobile phones has GPS tracking.
It also has mobile gyroscope you have adaptive brightness,
which gets adjusted
based on the light falling on it you have voice recognition.
And you also have face detection
which identifies who is the user now again iPhone x
is coming with face detection.
So again, these are a lot of features
that are coming pre-built
on the mobile asset
and most of these have a common interaction between them
because let's say one application can use all
of these features.
I can also have these features
in itself being interacting with each other.
Let's say based on a GPS location.
My brightness could be adjusted or based on the direction.
My phone is being held the brightness in itself
can also The adjusted as well.
So there are a lot of features
but when they interact with each other these features
come together to bring in a better system
that they can provide individually
as such that's what internet
of things is it basically is a platform
where we can connect every day things
which are embedded with either Electronics software
or sensors to the internet
and this in turn enables us to collect as well as exchange
between these things.
Now when I say things it can be anything and Nothing,
let's say I have an internet platform where
and I can connect these things
if I take the example of my house,
I can connect my lock.
I can connect my AC.
I can connect my light
and all this can be managed on the same platform
since I have a platform
so I can also connect my car to this.
I can keep a track of my fuel meter.
I can keep a track of my speed limit.
I can also keep track of the location
of the car as well.
Now if there is a collective platform
where all of these are connected wouldn't it be great
because I would love
to Of the AC on and set a cool temperature
at my home by the time I reach back from office
if I have a platform
that knows my preference and that keeps track of where I am
and where I'm going to then it can also identify
that I'm going
from work back to Hope and my preference suggest
that it would be best
if there was an easy temperature of about
22 or 23 degree centigrade and this is something
that is definitely possible through internet of things.
Now, this is just one of the examples now,
let's say tomorrow you come back.
Home, it would be great.
If I wouldn't even need a key to unlock my door
my home system should be aware
that I have come home and should unlock all the doors
that are needed.
And now this can be done
if my mobile and my home devices are connected
onto the same platform based on the location of my mobile.
It can identify
that I am at my hope so it will automatically
unlock the door and let me come in as well.
These are some of the real world implications
of Internet of Things.
These are something that are already happening
but going forward
what Need to understand is
that when I have a specific component with me,
which can do a lot individually wouldn't it be great
if I can collaborate this complaint with my system
of different components and build up at a system.
This is what internet of things is helping us to okay,
you provide a platform to which all these things are connected
through the internet.
So internet becomes the medium through which you're connecting
all these components were things to a platform.
Moving forward let's try to understand.
Why do we need internet
of things now to help you understand why let's look
at an example.
This is a patient at home.
Okay, he's on constant life-support wearing.
His status is being checked
to a health monitoring system present on the cloud.
Let's say at a point there is certain issue
with respect to his health.
Let's say there's some irregularity with his heartbeat
or his blood pressure is low.
There's some fluid being developed or so far now what?
Offenses since the system on the cloud is connected
to a hospital as well.
This information would get passed on
to the hospital as well.
They're in what would happen is
that they would get the complete details
with respect to the patient
and the important information with respect
to the current situation of the patient as well.
We made it aware with respect to what issue exactly is
the patient facing as well as enable
them to dispatch an ambulance
immediately to bring the patient back to the hospital as well.
once the patient has been picked up
and brought back to the hospital there could be prescriptions.
There could be medicine.
They could also be an operating theater made ready
in case of an emergency situation as well.
There'd be doctors on standby
who have the complete history of the patient
who have the complete details
of the present condition of the patient as well.
So this in turn brings in a lot of transparency
and reduces a lot of effort
and time involved with respect to this same thing.
Let's take in today's scenario.
There has to be someone wandering this patient's health.
If there's a fluctuation they need to call the hospital they
need to call request for an ambulance.
And meanwhile, once the ambulance is here.
They take the patient and their back into the hospital
then again there needs to be a lot of checkups
that need to be done
because the doctors are not fully aware again.
There is a lot of tests that need to be run
and this in turn leads a lot of delay as well
in certain emergency cases
as such if a system can do this then this is exactly
where our future lies in and
what we have to definitely move forward to to now Internet
of Things basically is expanding the interdependence
of humans to interact contribute
and collaborate with things around us.
What do I mean by interdependence of human see
how we depend on each other like
how I'm explaining this concept to do
if you're not clear you would reach back to me.
You would request me for help.
Okay, this becomes an interdependence between us
when I'm giving you knowledge
when you're not here you're coming back to me
and you're helping similarly tomorrow
if there's something that you can do for me,
I would reach out to you.
We all are interdependent on each other for something
or the other
if we can expand
this interdependence to interact collaborate
and contribute with respect to the different things around us.
Then we would be building a proper Internet
of Things environment.
This would be a much more safer secure effortless
and time-saving environment into existence moving forward.
Let's Talk about the various benefits of Internet of things.
The first thing
that would be as a benefit
of having an Internet of Things platform would
that you could efficiently utilize the resources
that are available
if I have a smart system which can interact
with everything if it has enough computational power
if it has enough understanding
of how things work between each other.
I'm quite sure the usage
of the resources available will be more efficient as well.
This resource could be in terms of monetary.
It could be in terms of natural resource it.
Also be an input taken
up by the thing as an input and so far.
So all this can be more efficient
if I have a platform
which is more smarter and interconnected as well apart
from this it minimizes the human effort involved
if my system is smart enough to interact it to filter smart
enough to do things
that I do need to get involved
with then my interaction is always going to be minimum.
This is same with everyone and that's one of the major reasons
why Internet of Things has become popular today.
The and the concept
of smart home is always growing as well in the same perspective
because if the system in itself is able to do most of my work
at hope then I don't need to put in much effort.
I can relax at home without having to worry about anything.
Okay, the next benefit would be it saves time.
If it rains my human effort definitely it is going
to save my time.
Okay apart from that
if the resources are utilized more efficiently then again,
it is going to save a lot more time as well.
All-in-all any benefit of Internet of things
will in turn help you save a lot of time as well.
So time is one of the major factor
that can be saved on an Internet of Things platform.
Now if I have an artificial intelligence platform
through which all of this is managed
and maintained then the personalization
and the human touch also comes into the picture.
Now today most of us
have had a level of interaction with an artificial intelligence
or a virtual intelligence as well.
This could be a personal assistant
like see Hurry,
or it could be an assistance application
like Google assist now
if I have system
where all these components
and things are interconnected
then in turn all the security present
on each of these things is going to get multiplied
and it's going to build a much more secure system apart
from that the level of security
that we would be integrating
to the platform in itself is going to be quite huge.
So the overall security booth respect to everything
is going to increase multiple times as well.
Now let's look at some of the major features
of Internet of things.
Now any technology
that is available today has not reached
its hundred percent capabilities and it always has
that Gap to grow Internet of Things is one
of the major Technologies in the world today
that can help any other technology reach its true
and complete potential as well.
Now there are mainly three aspects to Internet of Things.
Things as to how it works first is the connect aspect here.
Basically, what you need to work on is you need to ensure
that there is a connectivity between all the things
around you all the necessary things to The Internet
of Things platform.
Okay, then comes analyze now, I have my things around me.
They each are going to generate some amount
of data now this data needs to be collected
and it needs to be analyzed to build
a business intelligence solution
if I have a good insight,
The data that is gathered from all of this then
definitely I can call my system as a smart system.
Finally what happens is in order to improvise
and improve your system.
You need to integrate it
with various models to improve the users experience as well.
Let's say there's a personalization module
that is there or let's say there's going to be an aspect
when I can directly connect to my providers.
This provider could be Amazon.
It could be Flipkart.
It could also be my retail store that is next to me.
Let's say I'm out of milk
to retail store will get a notification
and he would send milk right away
and the same thing can be done.
Let's say I have my coffee machine requires special beans
and this be isn't is almost complete then
what my system could do is it could go online
to Amazon and purchase these beans for me as well.
So there are a lot of things that I can do
when I integrate this with respect to various models
and improve the overall experience to a single user
or a group of users on the world itself such.
Now, let's talk about each one of One
by one let's start with connect.
The first stage of connect is device virtualization
because what you need to First do is
that you need to standardize the integration of the device
to the Enterprise platform,
which is present on the flower.
Now, it could be present on a cloud it could be present
on a so, but again,
it's all going to be connected through the internet.
So what I need to do is that I need to ensure
that certain level of standard is present on the device
so that it can go on
and connect to my Internet of Things platform.
Now to help you understand this better,
there could be a standard power plug and there could be
a power block which has an inbuilt Wi-Fi support
so that it can connect to my lap.
No to build a smart home system.
I need the second power point
because there only I would have the access to control it
over the internet
and my system could integrate with respect to the same.
Now if I take the first standard PowerPoint then
what would happen is
that I need to manually switch it on and switch it
on how in the second case I could send a signal to it
and In don't we'll switch it on and switch it off.
So there's supposed to be a level of standardization
through which I can integrate all of these devices
to my platform.
Next comes high-speed messaging.
So now what I have done is
that I have connected all these devices to my platform
but these devices in turn generate a lot of data
and this data is
what is going to help us understand better
on how we can improve the overall system
and help and provide the user with better experience.
So for that we need to To have high-speed messaging.
This basically means
that there needs to be a reliable secure
and a bidirectional communication Channel
between the devices
and the platform not the purpose of it being bidirectional is
because you need to control each one of them as well.
Let's say I want to switch on the AC then the signal
would be going on from the cloud platform
to the device.
So this is how it works on.
So every communication
needs to be reliable it needs to be secure
and it needs to be bi-directional as well.
Moving on to the third point
of connect you need to have endpoint management.
If I don't have an endpoint manager,
I have established a way
through which all my devices can connect to my platform.
I also ensured
that the data is going to be sent
from the device to the cloud
and the cloud can send back to the device as well
through a secure Channel,
but if I don't actually identify
from which device which data is coming
and how this data has to be processed.
Then it becomes a failure of the system.
This is where Management comes
into picture endpoint management basically helps you
in managing the devices endpoint identity the metadata
and the overall life cycle involved with respect
to these things are such.
Okay, so to put it quite simply it basically helps you identify
from which device which data is coming
and what needs to be done with this data as well.
Now coming on to the next feature is analyzed
and the first thing that you need to do for analysis,
is this reprocessing now
if the data coming from the device Not on a real-time basis,
then my system is often Williams.
There's no use
if I tell my system to switch on the AC at my home.
And by the time I reach there
if the AC is not even turned on then it's
a failure on my system.
Okay, so real-time analysis
of the incoming and outgoing data and must be done.
I have with respect to different aggregations
it filtering correlations processing and so far.
Okay now apart from this what you need to do is
that this is raw data
that is being streamed from all the things you need.
Need to identify
which is contextually important information
which is going to be taken forward.
So once I have the irrelevant information,
then I can even generate composite streams of information
which can be taken ahead for future analysis
and understanding as well.
This is what your data enrichment process does.
Then you have events to now in events
to basically any information
that you want can be queried
and visualized from the vast amount of data
which is present on my cloud.
Now this in turn can also help me get
a better insight and Analysis
if I have all the enriched data present on my cloud platform.
I have a tool
which helps me identify what is needed help me analyze.
This data helps me visualize it then definitely it becomes
more useful as well.
And when I have data coming
from different things as such this in turn can also lead
to being a collection of big data now
when I talk about Big Data,
it's not just a few GB of data
as it's going to be terabytes of data because
because the data generated from the things around us is
that was and if you doing it over a period of time then
definitely it is going to grow into a big data domain as well.
Now coming to the third feature
of Internet of Things comes Enterprise connectivity.
So this is what I was basically telling you about.
Let's say I have a requirement
from my retailer or even an Enterprise organization
which is present.
It could be Amazon.
It could be flipcard anything as as any Enterprise organization
which provides me a service.
If I can connect to them through this platform,
then definitely My overall process also
becomes easier as well.
Let's say this is service provider.
Okay, let's say there is a leakage in my Plumbing
or let's say there's some issue with respect to my electricity.
Then it can contact to the corresponding service provider.
It can send them a detail
and corresponding they would be dispatched.
This would in turn reduce my effort
of having to check the problem having to call someone wait
for them to come back all
that gets reduced to minimum required effort as well.
Well, now how does this communication happen?
So for that we have rest API.
Once I've integrated my rest API with respect
to the cloud application
and my internet of things then communication between
the Enterprise communication between the platform
and the communication between the things around us
can be made more efficient
and can be more easy as
per the third aspect is command and control
if I don't have command
and control on my platform then it's awful noise.
Yes, I built a very great.
Table something that's quite extraordinary.
But if you cannot command it
if I cannot control it as per my requirement,
then the system in itself is not useful
if I cannot tell my door in a smart home to unlock
when I want it then it becomes failure on my part.
If I cannot control the AC on my horse motto then again,
it's a failure.
So always the major aspect
when you integrate with respect to these things.
The major thing is
that you need to ensure there's a huge control on system
and you're able to Um
and it as per your requirement now this command could either be
through a voice based recognition.
It could also be a message
that you can send through your mobile application
and so forth as well
when we come down to the iot ecosystem.
There's no single consensus or again.
There's no singles architectural design
that's out there which is agreed universally
because each company each organization each user
for that matter has different requirements
and We look down to it.
We can break it down to a simple three level architecture
where and we have a perception layer
where centers actually gather the information
from the environment around it.
Once this is done I'm going to use I'm going
to pass this information to the network layer
the network layer in itself takes up the responsibility
of transferring this data
from the sensors to the next layer,
which is the application layer now here the main objective
of the responsibility is the application
in itself delivers this information to the end user
or the When platform for that matter this architecture
can also be expanded to a five layer architecture.
Now when I talk about a five layer architecture,
it's quite similar here.
It's a the difference mostly comes around with respect
to the transport layer the processing layer
and the business layer mostly here
when we had three layers doing the earlier task.
We've just broken this down
so that we have an easier operation
or a smoother system for that matter.
Now again, the perception layer remains same
when it gathers the information from the sensors,
but the transport layer actually Transports the data
between the sensor to the processing center.
Now, this could be through a wireless system.
It could be through Bluetooth.
It could be two RFID 3G NFC or any medium
that I choose to once.
The information has been transmitted the processing layer
comes into picture
which actually stores the relevant information analyzes
this and again processes it as per the users requirement.
Now again, this could employ various databases
Cloud Computing Services as
well as big data processing modules
to store this information
as as well as process it for that matter.
Once this is done.
I give the information to the application layer,
which is actually responsible
for delivering Superior Services to the end user for that matter
on top of all of this
stands your business lamp now any device for that matter
when it is working on a large-scale environment
a business layer is usually used here.
Now, let's say I'm working in an organization
where we using multiple pumps
for different views features in different locations
for that matter a business layer here actually monitors
the complete functioning of these parts.
You can also have these in various cars as well.
So what do I would note here is
if a car is going to break down then I also get
an awareness with respect to that individual car
and it also helps me enable
or help me reach out to the closest customer care center
so that it can assist the user coming down
to how I can process it again.
This can be divided into two segments.
I have my cloud computing based processing.
We're in here.
It's quite simple once I have the information.
I pass it on to the cloud platform
which then in turn also.
Processes it and also has various applications to deal
with this process information for that matter.
Now again, this is something that I can do on a system
which does not require any immediate action
and requires a large amount of processing for that segment.
But let's say I am in a system
where I need immediate response in those cases,
I can go with my
for computing now again for computing is something
that represents a layered approach wherein we actually
insert monitoring pre processing
and storage with the security layer.
Between the physical and the transport lab.
Let me just go back a few slides here to help
you understand this.
If you actually look my
for composedly comes between these two layers
when I add four new layers for that matter.
Now again, this is used in order to make a system quite smarter
or effective with respect to it now between my physical layer
and my transport lab,
I have a monitoring layer.
I have a pre-processing layer a storage layer and
a security line now to help you understand this.
Let's take in real-world example out them.
Let's say I have a complete traffic system.
Which is built on my internet of things.
Now, let's say at one point.
There is an ambulance
that has come to a first signal I detect this and what I do is
that I allow the ambulance to move from this traffic signal
by giving it a green line,
but what you need to understand is
if I'm using a cloud
computing this message has to be passed on to the cloud.
This information has to be then process
and then correspondingly a map has all stood to be created
at the same time
when I use a fog approach what happens is
that all the pre-processing
and the storage happens on the Gateway level itself.
The information from the sensor goes all the way
to the Gateway there
and it actually processes this stores the relevant information
and sends this back
to the discourage ponding sensors as well.
So let's say if there's an immediate track
that I can create to the closest hospital.
I would highlight all the traffic signals to be green
so that the ambulance can move smoothly as well now security
here is very essential
because if I implement this tomorrow anyone can
actually try to manipulate this for their requirements as well.
Imagine there is a high High Speed police chase happening
and the culprit uses this
in order to move fast from the traffic signal.
So this is something that is really Ascension.
Although there is a pro to this.
There's also a con and this is
how we try to overcome this issue now talking
about each one of these new layers
when I come to the monitoring layer.
What it actually does is it monitors the power consumption
it monitors each
of these resources as well as their response
and the services
that are running on these resources.
Now this in turn helps me monitor
or gives me a complete idea.
Of which other services are
which are the sensors which are working?
Where are the challenges?
What is the power consumption and how it works with respect
to that same now
once I have information from these sensors
what you need to understand is
that usually you work
with thousands of sensors in a real-world environment.
Now, I need to understand which are the necessary information.
So I'm going to do a level
of filtering I'm going to do a level of processing
and then I'm going to apply a level
of analytics to understand
what is needed
and what is not from these information as well now.
Now the temporary storage area is something that I use
in case I want to store any relevant information.
Let's say I'm creating a route today for an ambulance as well.
And this is going to be stored in my temporary storage area.
But this also needs to be used in future scenarios.
So once I am done with this usage,
I can also push it onto the next transport layer
which can send it to any other storage system
that has part of my environment.
Now as I said security plays a very important role,
although my for computing is something
that makes my system faster.
It should not be easily.
Inaudible now in a cloud-based system.
I have the assurance
that it's not really easy to break down the security.
It's quite hard where there are various layers of security
which are part of the system.
But when I have a fork system,
it's essential that this factor or the security
which deals with the encryption
which deals with the privacy of the information.
The Integrity of this information is maintained.
Now, there's also a very interesting variation of this
which is called an edge Computing system wherein
rather than doing all these operations are
After I have gathered this on the Gateway,
I can do it on the individual notes
or individual sensors as well with respect to it.
So where I have edges these becomes point
for me to perform operations on the data
that is being collected.
So that's the slide variation
of our for computing system is such next let's talk
about the various taxonomy associated
with internet of the X.
These are the key Concepts or these are the key layers
which are present with respect to most architectures.
That's out there.
As I said,
this is a general guide ER e Person
on each system that's out.
There requires its own level of customization requires
its own level of approach to solve that problem.
But these always remain the fundamental layers
which are included
in all the architectures out there first.
We have the perception layer,
which is usually the layer
where we gather the information from the various sensors
that's out there or we use the various sensors
which are required as part of our system.
Then we have the processing layer
where in we perform filtration.
We summarize the data we again do a level
of analytics on This data
before we decide to send this relevant data to the system
that's above this.
Then I have a communication line
of communications layer is very simple
as in here will Define the protocols
and standards as well as the medium
through which the information has to be passed from my sensors
to my main system
as well middleware is something that's quite essential here.
What it does is
that it creates an abstraction as well
as it makes my system work much more smoother.
Now what you need to understand is
that there are various components in what hear me?
That really helps
me integrate the information coming out from each
of these sensors or each of these individual systems.
Once it's present
that I can pass it on to my application layer where
and I have various applications
which help to improve the overall experience
of the user as well as
provide much more accuracy and efficiency to the information
that's present now coming down.
Let's talk about each layer one by one now
before I talk about the perception layer
what you need to understand is
that one of the most important aspects of Annette
of things is context awareness.
That is what you need to understand with respect
to the change of environment is very important.
And this is extremely impossible without the usage of sensors
as such now sensors
in themselves are very small in size.
They again cost you very little
and at the same time they consume very little power again.
There are various constraints
with respect to the factors as the battery capacity
and the ease of deployment as well,
but let's not go into them as such.
Now when I talk about sensors again,
we have various types
of sensors as such one of the easiest example of sensors
that can be seen on a daily basis is the sensors
which are part of your mobile.
You have a location sensor you have movement sensor camera
in itself is actually
another sensor your microphone your light sensor.
These are all various important aspects of your mobile
that we use on a daily basis
apart from this neural sensors medical sensors,
like the fitness bands that we use Healthcare bands,
which are used for heart patients.
In environmental sensors,
which check the temperatures around the environment make
you aware of the changes chemical or biosensors
which are very useful on a daily basis
as 12 again infrared sensors are something
that's quite common as well.
When we talk about RFID.
This is something that's really important or not.
This is something
that really gathers a lot of attention with respect
to it RFID stands
for radio frequency identification now
unlike a traditional barcode.
It does not actually require a line of sight of communication
between the tags.
And the reader and can identify itself
from a distance without even a human intervention
or a human operation
for that matter RFID is are technically
of two types you have active and passive active tags actually
have some amount of power source associated with it
and passive sources do not have anything related to it.
And when we talk about the RFID Technologies as well,
there's near and far
and near RFID reader uses a coil through which we
actually pass AC current and Create a magnetic field.
Now when we generate a magnetic field anything
that comes in its vicinity it registers with respect to it.
Now when I talk about afar RFID it basically is
a dipole antenna in a reader.
Now this again propagates an electromagnetic waves and tax
themselves also have a dipole antenna now again,
these are something that's used in various applications.
That's out there.
Now one key factor,
which is associated
with the perception layer is an actuator now
when I talk about an actual It actually is a device
which can affect a change in the environment
by converting any sort of energy into another now.
This could be a motor which is generating electricity.
This could be a windmill
which is converting the wind outside to you
to of electric form as well in these are just some
of the examples
that's out there
and actuators themselves play a very essential role
in the perception lab now,
the next layer that we have is the pre-processing layer.
But before I really talk about the pre-processing layer,
let's actually try to
And the limitations of trying it to process everything
that we have on the cloud system,
which is part of our ecosystem.
Now when I talk about this one of the key
or one of the biggest challenges for me is mobility.
Let's say my sensors are
on devices which are in constant motion.
Then it becomes a really high challenge
for me to pass
this information continuously to my cloud environment again,
this could be true the challenge of Transport layer.
This could also be due to the challenge
of power consumption associated with it
when my Smart device
or when my sensors for that matter are
in constant motion run constant Mobility.
Then it cannot completely pass all the relevant information
on to the cloud.
This intern actually causes a challenge
for me to have some latency.
This could also lead to early 10 C with respect
to real time processing of the information
that it gets as well.
Now if I'm working on a critical system,
then real-time information is something that I will highly
depend on and that becomes a challenge as well now.
Now if I really want to scale up
if I want to use a lot of devices then
my cloud computing system also needs to scale
but there's always a chance to increase the latency
because I'm working with multiple sensors
or multiple devices.
That's out there.
I have a system with just includes thousands answers,
but let's say in a smart home system There is close
to about 10 to 20 thousand sensors associated with it.
So this is just one small system.
Imagine if I'm trying to build a smart city in that case.
Is going to be hundreds of thousands millions of sensors
that's out there
if my cloud computing system cannot process this
on a real-time.
Then there's going to be a high challenge
with respect to that sick.
And this is exactly
where the usage of smart gateways comes into a picture.
This layer actually helps me process my data on real type.
It also helps me filter the data on based on the priority