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  • ## This Video Will Hurt

    ## 令你感到頭痛的短片

  • Please, put on your headphones -- I promise that there won't be any loud sounds, but this

    請戴上你的耳筒 我保證這短片不會有突然很大的聲音, 但是

  • video is going to hurt. There's a study about hypersounds and how they cause headaches:

    這短片會令到你感到頭痛. 曾經有個學術研究 如何使用 "超級聲音" 令人產生頭痛的感覺:

  • these sounds are too high-pitched to hear -- like the one added to this video, playing

    這些聲音頻率比人能聽見的高 -- 就像我加入這短片的聲音, 現在正在

  • right now -- but cause headaches they still do.

    播放的聲音 -- 儘管聽不見, 仍然會令人頭痛.

  • The hypersound in your headphones is pressing on your inner ear, stressing the nerves leading

    從耳筒穿出的 "超級聲音" 正在施加壓力於 你的內耳, 令到神經終端往

  • to your brain where, if the headache hasn't started already, it soon will as exposure

    腦部產生壓力, 如果還沒有感受到頭痛, 你應該很快就會感受得到,

  • causes headaches after only ten seconds.


  • Oh my.


  • Can you feel it? That pressure on your ears spreading to your now throbbing brain?

    你能感受到嗎? 從內耳往 腦內傳送的壓力?

  • Because...


  • shouldn't: the study is made up and there's no hypersound in the audio, but still

    ...你其實不應該會感受到: 那學術研究是假的, 還有這短片根本就沒有 "超級聲音", 但仍然

  • some of you will have began to feel a headache. Why? The nocebo effect.

    有些人會開始感受到頭痛. 為甚麼? 反安慰劑效應.

  • A nocebo is a harmless thing -- like a video with nonexistent hypersounds -- that causes

    反安慰劑效應並無害 -- 就像 這個沒有超級聲音的短片 -- 會導致

  • harm -- like a headache -- because you *believe* it's harmful. That sounds like Voodoo, but

    傷害 -- 譬如頭痛 -- 只因為你 *相信* 它是有害的. 聽起來像巫術, 只不過

  • there's science behind the nocebo effect, which is more than an irritating parlor trick,

    跟巫術比較起來, 反安慰劑效應 背後是有科學根據的,

  • it causes real problems like in medicine.

    而且會造成問題, 比如在醫學方面.

  • When testing a new drug doctors get a group of sick people give half of them the new drug

    在試新藥物的時候, 醫生會找來一班病人, 給其中一半的人新藥,

  • and give the other have a fake pill that does nothing -- but which they're told is real.

    另外一半就給沒有效用的假藥 -- 但卻 告訴病人們那些是真藥.

  • This is how science finds the stuff that works amongst the junk that doesn't.

    科學家就是這樣找出那些藥有作用, 那些沒有效用.

  • But new drugs have side effects and sometimes patients drop out of the experiment because

    但新藥有時會有副作用, 某些病人會中途退出,

  • of them. No surprise there.


  • But some people on the fake *also* drop out from the side effects. Side effects they've

    但有些服用假藥的人 *同時* 都會因為 有副作用退出. 他們沒有服用真藥但

  • gotten from a drug they *aren't* taking. But because they *think* they're on the real thing,

    同時得到副作用. 因為他們 *以為* 自己正在服用真藥,

  • they've also *thought* themselves into the side effects.

    他們會 *說服* 自己都得到副作用.

  • Now maybe this is just a case of misattribution: people get headaches and, if they're joined

    這可能只是實驗錯誤: 人會頭痛, 如果他們加入了

  • a drug trial that lists headaches in the side effects, it's natural to blame the new drug

    新藥實驗, 而頭痛是其中一樣副作用, 很正常就會說新藥導致頭痛

  • -- and that certainly happens to some extent.

    -- 這某程度上會發生.

  • But the nocebo effects is more than just misattribution, it causes real, additional harm that scientists

    但反安慰劑效應不止實驗錯誤這麼簡單, 它能導致真實, 能夠量度的附加傷害

  • can measure in cruel, cruel experiments -- and this is one of the reasons there not an over


  • abundance of research on nocoboes: approach your friendly neighborhood ethics board with

    反安慰劑效應的實驗: 設計一個會傷害他人的實驗,

  • an experiment designed to hurt people and they'll frown on that. But sometimes nocebo

    別人不會批准. 但有時候反安慰劑效應

  • experiments do get approved to the benefit of science and humanity, if not the participants.


  • For example, under the right conditions some people who expect a harmless injection will

    譬如, 在某些情況下, 如果 接受注射的人準備出現紅疹,

  • give them a rash will get a rash, but for people who expect nothing to happen, nothing

    他們身上的卻會出現紅疹, 相反其他不相信的人

  • is exactly what happens.


  • And fake pills can be additive: take test subjects off pills they believe are addictive

    假藥還可以上癮: 讓試驗者停止 服用他們以為會上癮的藥

  • and some will experience nocebic withdrawal symptoms -- like pain and fatigue -- from

    有些試驗者會出現戒斷症狀 -- 比如疼痛和疲勞

  • the pills that they could never have been addicted to in the first place.


  • Another experiment gave people harmless injections, told half of them to just sit there and told

    另外一個實驗給試驗者無害的注射, 其中一半什麼都不做, 跟另外一半

  • the other half that their pain would increase for the next thirty minutes -- which it did.

    說一下半小時痛楚會增加 -- 這真的發生了.

  • But in this situation there is a drug that can block the nocebo effect and those who


  • were told the injection would hurt, but were also secretly given the nocebo-blocking drug


  • did *not* report an increase in pain -- showing that the nocebo effect is a real, physical

    結果他們 *沒有* 報告痛楚增加 -- 顯示反安慰劑效應是個真實

  • process.


  • In all these nocebo experiments it's the belief in harm that matters. If someone dressed as

    所有反安慰劑效應實驗裏, 是 "相信會導致傷害" 造成分別.

  • a voodoo witch doctor popped up and hexed you with a curse of great pain -- no effect.

    如果有人穿成巫術醫生對你下痛楚詛咒 -- 沒有效用.

  • But, in a room with a real doctor and his clipboard and a big science machine and a

    相反, 如果一個真醫生拿著排版站在機器面前

  • needle in your arm, you'll take his words rather more seriously.

    幫你打針, 你會頓時認真起來.

  • Which is why doctors say: "This won't hurt a bit" rather than "Oh this? It's going to

    這就是為甚麼醫生說 "這不會痛的" 而不說

  • hurt. Like *a lot*." -- which, by the way, was a real experiment done on women undergoing

    "這其實真的會非常痛". -- 這還是個對臨產女士做的實驗,

  • labor during spinal injections. Guess how that turned out?


  • But nocebos don't end here. While illnesses like the flu, spread from contact with disgusting,

    反安慰劑效應不止如此. 疾病透過非常核突嘔心

  • germ-infected humans and the things they touch with their, disgusting germy hands -- a nocebo

    密佈病菌的人類接觸傳染 -- 反安慰劑效應透過

  • spreads from mind to mind, no contact required.

    思想傳染, 無需物理接觸.

  • A notable example happened in a Tennessee high school. One teacher reported a strange

    例子包括美國田納西州 一間中學, 一個老師匯報

  • smell in her classroom and developed symptoms of headache nausea, and difficulty breathing.

    課室裏有怪味, 然後感到 頭痛作嘔, 難以呼吸.

  • These symptoms spread to some of her students and from them to others in the school. Almost

    這些症狀傳給某些學生, 然後傳給學校裏其他學生.

  • two hundred people ended up at the local hospital but all medical tests came back with nothing,

    差不多二百多個學生進了醫院, 但測試就什麼都沒發現,

  • nor was anything harmful found at the school.


  • This was a nocebo -- the belief that the air was making them sick -- spread mind to mind.

    這就是反安慰劑效應 -- 相信空氣裏有 有害物質 -- 然後透過思想散播

  • Everyone who got sick heard about the symptoms from someone else. When this happens, it's

    所有感到不適的人透過 別人聽到病症. 這就是

  • called mass psychogenic illness.


  • The treatment in these cases is to separate those with symptoms from the rest and reassure

    這個病的治療方法就是把 病症分辨出來, 確認病徵

  • the ill that yes, their symptoms are real, but no they haven't been exposed to anything

    的確存在, 不過他們並沒有 接觸到任何有害物質,

  • toxic, and yes people are getting better quickly:


  • The last is one of the indicators that separates a real poison gas leak or biological weapon

    而最後一步是用來辨認 真正的毒氣泄露或生化襲擊

  • from mass psychogenic illness. But the final factor, number of cases increasing with greater

    而不是集體性精神上的疾病. 最後一點就是病人會因為媒體報道增加

  • media coverage, can lead to this kind of thing spreading far and wide.


  • Take, electrosensitives: people who get nausea (among other things) from exposure to parts

    比如對射頻敏感. 有些人會因為射頻產生不適

  • of the electromagnetic spectrum, notably WiFi the density of which is increasing over time,

    特別是現在有越來越多 WiFi 網絡,

  • forcing particularly bad sufferers to retreat to places like the creepy-sounding radio science

    有些射頻敏感的人會被迫搬往一些 聽起來像是科學怪人住的地方

  • zone in, where else, West Virginia.


  • But put electrosensitives in a room with a WiFi router and they can't actually tell via

    但是如果把會射頻過敏的人和 WiFi 設備放在同一房間內

  • their symptoms if it's on or off. Instead their symptoms track with being told if it's

    如果他們不能直接判斷設備 有沒有開啓, 症狀就會被被人控制.

  • on or off.

    如果你找一群沒有射頻敏感的人, 讓一半看關於

  • And if you make a group of people without electrosensitivity watch a news report on

    WiFi 導致不適的新聞, 另外一半看其他沒用的資料

  • how Wifi makes you ill while another group watches something uninformative and afterward

    然後將兩組人暴露於假 WiFi 之下, 只有看了 WiFi 新聞的

  • expose both groups to a fake Wifi signal only some of those who watched the news report


  • feel sick.

    同樣地有 "風力發電機疾病" 以及同類副作用,

  • There's a similar phenomenon called 'wind farm disease' with similar side effects, which

    當本地新聞報道過後就會有發生, 不過其他有發電風車的地方

  • turns up where it's been talked about on the local news, but not in other places in the


  • same country with the same wind farms where it isn't.

    這很容易令人恥笑那些會因為有 Wifi, 發電風車

  • All this makes it too easy to mock people for thinking they're getting sick from WiFi

    或 發電風力WiFi車 而感到不適的人, 但需要明白他們並不是瘋子

  • or Wind farms or *Wind farms with WiFi* -- but it's important to realize they're not crazy,

    這些副作用的確存在, 不過他們不了解副作用的來源,

  • the side effects are real, they're just wrong about the source: all evidence points to the

    所有研究都認為射頻敏感其實 是因為他們相信射頻會導致敏感.

  • belief in electrosensitivy as the cause of electrosensitivity.

    即是新聞報道這類疾病, 其實正在散播

  • Which means the news reports talking about these illnesses are spreading a kind of mind

    心理病毒. 這些是比較奇異 的例子, 不過亦都有例子表示

  • virus. And while these are exotic examples, there is also evidence that some allergies

    某些哮喘的致敏原是一種 反安慰劑效應, 同樣可以以心理傳播

  • and asthma cases are nocebic and thus able to be spread in the same way.

    特別澄清: 如果你見到有人哮喘, 不要因為你看了一個

  • To be clear: if someone's having an asthma attack, that's not the time to tell them you


  • know they're being a drama llama because you watched an Internet video about the nocebo

    他們真的有哮喘, 他們急需幫助

  • effect. *They're really having an asthma attack* and they *really* need something to make it


  • stop and that's *really* not you showing off your knowledge.

    有害的東西並不只是我們 *認為* 他們多有害 -- 某分量的砷

  • Harmful things aren't harmful just because we believe they are -- the right dose of arsenic

    足以致命, 就如被石扑頭, 就算你不相信有害都會死掉.

  • will kill you as surely as an anvil to the head, no matter your insistence otherwise.

    但反安慰劑效應告訴我們原本無害的東西, 都可以被我們

  • But the nocebo effect does show that our beliefs about otherwise harmless things can make them


  • harmful.


  • Which means that our voodoo doctor's hex from before really could work, but only if you


  • were foolish enough to believe him.

## This Video Will Hurt

## 令你感到頭痛的短片

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