字幕列表 影片播放 已審核 字幕已審核 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 ## This Video Will Hurt ## 令你感到頭痛的短片 Please, put on your headphones -- I promise that there won't be any loud sounds, but this 請戴上你的耳筒 我保證這短片不會有突然很大的聲音, 但是 video is going to hurt. There's a study about hypersounds and how they cause headaches: 這短片會令到你感到頭痛. 曾經有個學術研究 如何使用 "超級聲音" 令人產生頭痛的感覺: these sounds are too high-pitched to hear -- like the one added to this video, playing 這些聲音頻率比人能聽見的高 -- 就像我加入這短片的聲音, 現在正在 right now -- but cause headaches they still do. 播放的聲音 -- 儘管聽不見, 仍然會令人頭痛. The hypersound in your headphones is pressing on your inner ear, stressing the nerves leading 從耳筒穿出的 "超級聲音" 正在施加壓力於 你的內耳, 令到神經終端往 to your brain where, if the headache hasn't started already, it soon will as exposure 腦部產生壓力, 如果還沒有感受到頭痛, 你應該很快就會感受得到, causes headaches after only ten seconds. 因為這聲音只需要十秒就會令人頭痛. Oh my. 天啊. Can you feel it? That pressure on your ears spreading to your now throbbing brain? 你能感受到嗎? 從內耳往 腦內傳送的壓力? Because... 因為... ...you shouldn't: the study is made up and there's no hypersound in the audio, but still ...你其實不應該會感受到: 那學術研究是假的, 還有這短片根本就沒有 "超級聲音", 但仍然 some of you will have began to feel a headache. Why? The nocebo effect. 有些人會開始感受到頭痛. 為甚麼? 反安慰劑效應. A nocebo is a harmless thing -- like a video with nonexistent hypersounds -- that causes 反安慰劑效應並無害 -- 就像 這個沒有超級聲音的短片 -- 會導致 harm -- like a headache -- because you *believe* it's harmful. That sounds like Voodoo, but 傷害 -- 譬如頭痛 -- 只因為你 *相信* 它是有害的. 聽起來像巫術, 只不過 there's science behind the nocebo effect, which is more than an irritating parlor trick, 跟巫術比較起來, 反安慰劑效應 背後是有科學根據的, it causes real problems like in medicine. 而且會造成問題, 比如在醫學方面. When testing a new drug doctors get a group of sick people give half of them the new drug 在試新藥物的時候, 醫生會找來一班病人, 給其中一半的人新藥, and give the other have a fake pill that does nothing -- but which they're told is real. 另外一半就給沒有效用的假藥 -- 但卻 告訴病人們那些是真藥. This is how science finds the stuff that works amongst the junk that doesn't. 科學家就是這樣找出那些藥有作用, 那些沒有效用. But new drugs have side effects and sometimes patients drop out of the experiment because 但新藥有時會有副作用, 某些病人會中途退出, of them. No surprise there. 這不出奇. But some people on the fake *also* drop out from the side effects. Side effects they've 但有些服用假藥的人 *同時* 都會因為 有副作用退出. 他們沒有服用真藥但 gotten from a drug they *aren't* taking. But because they *think* they're on the real thing, 同時得到副作用. 因為他們 *以為* 自己正在服用真藥, they've also *thought* themselves into the side effects. 他們會 *說服* 自己都得到副作用. Now maybe this is just a case of misattribution: people get headaches and, if they're joined 這可能只是實驗錯誤: 人會頭痛, 如果他們加入了 a drug trial that lists headaches in the side effects, it's natural to blame the new drug 新藥實驗, 而頭痛是其中一樣副作用, 很正常就會說新藥導致頭痛 -- and that certainly happens to some extent. -- 這某程度上會發生. But the nocebo effects is more than just misattribution, it causes real, additional harm that scientists 但反安慰劑效應不止實驗錯誤這麼簡單, 它能導致真實, 能夠量度的附加傷害 can measure in cruel, cruel experiments -- and this is one of the reasons there not an over 這是其中一個原因導致沒有很多研究 abundance of research on nocoboes: approach your friendly neighborhood ethics board with 反安慰劑效應的實驗: 設計一個會傷害他人的實驗, an experiment designed to hurt people and they'll frown on that. But sometimes nocebo 別人不會批准. 但有時候反安慰劑效應 experiments do get approved to the benefit of science and humanity, if not the participants. 會因為科學及人類研究原因獲得批准. For example, under the right conditions some people who expect a harmless injection will 譬如, 在某些情況下, 如果 接受注射的人準備出現紅疹, give them a rash will get a rash, but for people who expect nothing to happen, nothing 他們身上的卻會出現紅疹, 相反其他不相信的人 is exactly what happens. 就沒有出現反應. And fake pills can be additive: take test subjects off pills they believe are addictive 假藥還可以上癮: 讓試驗者停止 服用他們以為會上癮的藥 and some will experience nocebic withdrawal symptoms -- like pain and fatigue -- from 有些試驗者會出現戒斷症狀 -- 比如疼痛和疲勞 the pills that they could never have been addicted to in the first place. 儘管這些藥根本就不會令人上癮 Another experiment gave people harmless injections, told half of them to just sit there and told 另外一個實驗給試驗者無害的注射, 其中一半什麼都不做, 跟另外一半 the other half that their pain would increase for the next thirty minutes -- which it did. 說一下半小時痛楚會增加 -- 這真的發生了. But in this situation there is a drug that can block the nocebo effect and those who 跟著加入可以暫緩反安慰劑效應的藥物, were told the injection would hurt, but were also secretly given the nocebo-blocking drug 然後同時注射給會導致痛楚的小組, did *not* report an increase in pain -- showing that the nocebo effect is a real, physical 結果他們 *沒有* 報告痛楚增加 -- 顯示反安慰劑效應是個真實 process. 和物理上的反應. In all these nocebo experiments it's the belief in harm that matters. If someone dressed as 所有反安慰劑效應實驗裏, 是 "相信會導致傷害" 造成分別. a voodoo witch doctor popped up and hexed you with a curse of great pain -- no effect. 如果有人穿成巫術醫生對你下痛楚詛咒 -- 沒有效用. But, in a room with a real doctor and his clipboard and a big science machine and a 相反, 如果一個真醫生拿著排版站在機器面前 needle in your arm, you'll take his words rather more seriously. 幫你打針, 你會頓時認真起來. Which is why doctors say: "This won't hurt a bit" rather than "Oh this? It's going to 這就是為甚麼醫生說 "這不會痛的" 而不說 hurt. Like *a lot*." -- which, by the way, was a real experiment done on women undergoing "這其實真的會非常痛". -- 這還是個對臨產女士做的實驗, labor during spinal injections. Guess how that turned out? 猜猜結果如何? But nocebos don't end here. While illnesses like the flu, spread from contact with disgusting, 反安慰劑效應不止如此. 疾病透過非常核突嘔心 germ-infected humans and the things they touch with their, disgusting germy hands -- a nocebo 密佈病菌的人類接觸傳染 -- 反安慰劑效應透過 spreads from mind to mind, no contact required. 思想傳染, 無需物理接觸. A notable example happened in a Tennessee high school. One teacher reported a strange 例子包括美國田納西州 一間中學, 一個老師匯報 smell in her classroom and developed symptoms of headache nausea, and difficulty breathing. 課室裏有怪味, 然後感到 頭痛作嘔, 難以呼吸. These symptoms spread to some of her students and from them to others in the school. Almost 這些症狀傳給某些學生, 然後傳給學校裏其他學生. two hundred people ended up at the local hospital but all medical tests came back with nothing, 差不多二百多個學生進了醫院, 但測試就什麼都沒發現, nor was anything harmful found at the school. 學校裏也沒有發現什麼有害的東西. This was a nocebo -- the belief that the air was making them sick -- spread mind to mind. 這就是反安慰劑效應 -- 相信空氣裏有 有害物質 -- 然後透過思想散播 Everyone who got sick heard about the symptoms from someone else. When this happens, it's 所有感到不適的人透過 別人聽到病症. 這就是 called mass psychogenic illness. 集體性精神上的疾病. The treatment in these cases is to separate those with symptoms from the rest and reassure 這個病的治療方法就是把 病症分辨出來, 確認病徵 the ill that yes, their symptoms are real, but no they haven't been exposed to anything 的確存在, 不過他們並沒有 接觸到任何有害物質, toxic, and yes people are getting better quickly: 的確他們會很快回復正常. The last is one of the indicators that separates a real poison gas leak or biological weapon 而最後一步是用來辨認 真正的毒氣泄露或生化襲擊 from mass psychogenic illness. But the final factor, number of cases increasing with greater 而不是集體性精神上的疾病. 最後一點就是病人會因為媒體報道增加 media coverage, can lead to this kind of thing spreading far and wide. 這會導致反安慰劑效應很快的擴散. Take, electrosensitives: people who get nausea (among other things) from exposure to parts 比如對射頻敏感. 有些人會因為射頻產生不適 of the electromagnetic spectrum, notably WiFi the density of which is increasing over time, 特別是現在有越來越多 WiFi 網絡, forcing particularly bad sufferers to retreat to places like the creepy-sounding radio science 有些射頻敏感的人會被迫搬往一些 聽起來像是科學怪人住的地方 zone in, where else, West Virginia. 譬如美國西弗吉尼亞州. But put electrosensitives in a room with a WiFi router and they can't actually tell via 但是如果把會射頻過敏的人和 WiFi 設備放在同一房間內 their symptoms if it's on or off. Instead their symptoms track with being told if it's 如果他們不能直接判斷設備 有沒有開啓, 症狀就會被被人控制. on or off. 如果你找一群沒有射頻敏感的人, 讓一半看關於 And if you make a group of people without electrosensitivity watch a news report on WiFi 導致不適的新聞, 另外一半看其他沒用的資料 how Wifi makes you ill while another group watches something uninformative and afterward 然後將兩組人暴露於假 WiFi 之下, 只有看了 WiFi 新聞的 expose both groups to a fake Wifi signal only some of those who watched the news report 一群會感到不適. feel sick. 同樣地有 "風力發電機疾病" 以及同類副作用, There's a similar phenomenon called 'wind farm disease' with similar side effects, which 當本地新聞報道過後就會有發生, 不過其他有發電風車的地方 turns up where it's been talked about on the local news, but not in other places in the 就沒有這個副作用. same country with the same wind farms where it isn't. 這很容易令人恥笑那些會因為有 Wifi, 發電風車 All this makes it too easy to mock people for thinking they're getting sick from WiFi 或 發電風力WiFi車 而感到不適的人, 但需要明白他們並不是瘋子 or Wind farms or *Wind farms with WiFi* -- but it's important to realize they're not crazy, 這些副作用的確存在, 不過他們不了解副作用的來源, the side effects are real, they're just wrong about the source: all evidence points to the 所有研究都認為射頻敏感其實 是因為他們相信射頻會導致敏感. belief in electrosensitivy as the cause of electrosensitivity. 即是新聞報道這類疾病, 其實正在散播 Which means the news reports talking about these illnesses are spreading a kind of mind 心理病毒. 這些是比較奇異 的例子, 不過亦都有例子表示 virus. And while these are exotic examples, there is also evidence that some allergies 某些哮喘的致敏原是一種 反安慰劑效應, 同樣可以以心理傳播 and asthma cases are nocebic and thus able to be spread in the same way. 特別澄清: 如果你見到有人哮喘, 不要因為你看了一個 To be clear: if someone's having an asthma attack, that's not the time to tell them you 短片然後開始跟他們解釋哮喘的原因, know they're being a drama llama because you watched an Internet video about the nocebo 他們真的有哮喘, 他們急需幫助 effect. *They're really having an asthma attack* and they *really* need something to make it 這不是拋書包的最好時機. stop and that's *really* not you showing off your knowledge. 有害的東西並不只是我們 *認為* 他們多有害 -- 某分量的砷 Harmful things aren't harmful just because we believe they are -- the right dose of arsenic 足以致命, 就如被石扑頭, 就算你不相信有害都會死掉. will kill you as surely as an anvil to the head, no matter your insistence otherwise. 但反安慰劑效應告訴我們原本無害的東西, 都可以被我們 But the nocebo effect does show that our beliefs about otherwise harmless things can make them 變為有害. harmful. 即是之前的巫術醫生的詛咒的確可以成真, Which means that our voodoo doctor's hex from before really could work, but only if you 如果你真的夠蠢去相信他. were foolish enough to believe him.