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  • In the city of Alexandria in 415 CE,

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Bruce Sung

  • the bishop and the governor were in a fight.

    西元 415 年, 在亞歷山卓這個城市裡,

  • It started with a disagreement over the behavior of a militia of monks,

    主教和總督之間有所不和。

  • and ended with an accusation of witchcraft

    一開始是對於僧侶 民兵的行為有歧見,

  • leveled against one of the most powerful figures in the city.

    最後是指控該城市中

  • Hypatia of Alexandria was a prominent mathematician, philosopher,

    最有權勢的人物之一施行巫術。

  • and advisor to the city’s leaders.

    亞歷山卓的希帕提亞是位 知名的數學家、哲學家,

  • In the centuries since she lived,

    也是城市領導人的顧問。

  • the details of her life have been the subject of much dispute

    從她那時之後的數個世紀,

  • and have taken on an almost mythical status.

    她人生的細節一直 都是許多爭議的主題,

  • But while none of Hypatia’s own writings survive,

    可說幾乎就要有神話的地位了。

  • her contemporariesand studentsaccounts of her work and life

    但,雖然希帕提亞的 著作都沒有留下來,

  • paint a picture of the qualities that made her renowned as a scholar,

    與她同時期的人及她的學生 有些對她的作品及生活的描述,

  • beloved as a teacher, and ultimately led to her downfall.

    說明了是什麼特質 讓她成為知名的學者,

  • Hypatia was born around 355 in Alexandria,

    被當作老師來愛戴, 最終卻也導致她的沒落。

  • then part of the Egyptian province of the Eastern Roman Empire,

    希帕提亞大約在 355 年 生於亞歷山卓,

  • and an intellectual center.

    當時亞歷山卓是東羅馬帝國 埃及省的一部分,

  • Her father Theon was an accomplished Greek mathematician and astronomer;

    也是個知識中心。

  • her mother is unknown.

    她的父親席恩是有成就的 希臘數學家及天文學家;

  • Hypatia was likely an only child, and Theon educated her himself.

    她的母親不詳。

  • By adulthood, she had surpassed her father in both mathematics and philosophy,

    希帕提亞很有可能是獨生女,

  • becoming the city’s foremost scholar and taking over his position

    席恩親自教育她。

  • at the head of the Platonic school, similar to a modern university.

    成年後,她在數學和哲學方面 都超越了她的父親,

  • She refined scientific instruments, wrote math textbooks,

    成為該城市中最重要的學者,

  • and developed a more efficient method of long division.

    取代了他在柏拉圖學校 (類似現代大學)的首長位置。

  • But perhaps her most significant contributions to intellectual life

    她改良科學儀器、 撰寫數學教科書,

  • in Alexandria came through her teaching.

    還開發出更有效率的長除法方法。

  • The philosophy Hypatia taught drew from the legacy of Plato and Aristotle,

    但她對於在亞歷山卓的 知識生活最重要貢獻

  • as well as the mystical philosopher Plotinus and the mathematician Pythagoras.

    可能是透過教學來傳遞的。

  • The convergence of these influences merged to form a school called Neoplatonism.

    希帕提亞所教導的哲學 來自柏拉圖和亞里斯多德,

  • For the Neoplatonists, mathematics had a spiritual aspect,

    以及神秘哲學家普羅提諾 和數學家畢達哥拉斯留下的知識。

  • divided among the four branches of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music.

    這些影響整加在一起,促成了 一個學派,叫做新柏拉圖主義。

  • These subjects were not studied merely for the sake of curiosity

    對新柏拉圖主義者而言, 數學有一個靈性的面向,

  • or practical utility, but because they authenticated the belief

    分開為四個分支: 算術、幾何、天文、音樂。

  • that numbers were the sacred language of the universe.

    學習這四個科目,不只是出於好奇

  • In the repeated patterns of algebraic formulas and geometric shapes,

    或者實用,而是因為 它們能夠證明一個信念:

  • the orbits of the planets, and the harmonious intervals of musical tones,

    數字是宇宙中的神聖語言。

  • the Neoplatonists saw a rational cosmic force at work.

    在代數方程式 和幾何形狀中的重覆模式、

  • Students delved into this ordered mathematical world

    星球的軌道,

  • to achieve higher unity with this force, known asthe One.”

    以及音樂音調的和諧音程當中,

  • While Hypatia was considered pagan

    新柏拉圖主義者看到 一股理性運作的宇宙力量。

  • a term for traditional Roman belief before Christianity

    學生鑽研這個有秩序的數學世界,

  • she worshipped no particular deity or deities,

    以和這股力量形成更高階的合一, 也就是所謂的「一體」。

  • and her ideas could be applied alongside multiple religious viewpoints.

    雖然希帕提亞被視為異教徒——

  • Jewish and Christian as well as pagan students

    這個詞指的是選擇傳統 羅馬宗教而非基督教——

  • travelled from the farthest reaches of the empire to study with her.

    但她並沒有崇拜特定的神明,

  • The nonpartisan environment Hypatia fostered,

    且她的想法可以配合數種宗教觀點。

  • where all students could feel comfortable,

    猶太教、基督教,以及異教的學生

  • was especially remarkable given the religious and political turmoil

    都會從帝國最遙遠的地方 專程來找她學習。

  • that was fracturing the city of Alexandria at the time.

    希帕提亞營造了 一個無派系的環境,

  • Christianity had recently become the Empire’s state religion.

    在那裡,所有的學生都很自在,

  • The local archbishop Cyril had steadily gained political power,

    這點非常了不起,特別是因為當時

  • commanding zealous militias of Christian monks to destroy pagan temples

    宗教和政治的騷動 在破壞亞歷山卓。

  • and harass the Jewish population.

    基督教不久前才成為帝國的國教。

  • In doing so, he encroached on the secular authority of the Roman governor Orestes,

    當地的大主教西里爾 穩當地取得了政權,

  • himself a moderate Christian, leading to a bitter public feud between the two men.

    命令熱心的基督教僧侶 組成的民兵去摧毀異教寺廟

  • Because she was seen as a wise and impartial figure,

    並騷擾猶太人民。

  • governor Orestes consulted Hypatia,

    這麼做,他便可以侵犯羅馬總督 俄瑞斯忒斯的非宗教權威,

  • who advised him to act with fairness and restraint.

    總督本身是溫和的基督徒,

  • But when a group of Cyril’s monks incited a riot,

    因此兩人間形成了 公開的長期激烈爭鬥。

  • badly injuring Orestes in the process, he had their leader tortured to death.

    因為希帕提亞被視為 睿智且公正的人物,

  • Cyril and his followers blamed Hypatia,

    俄瑞斯忒斯總督去向她尋求意見,

  • accusing her of witchcraft to turn Orestes against Christianity.

    她建議總督要採取 公平且約束的措施。

  • In March 415, as Hypatia was traveling through the city,

    但,當一群西里爾的僧侶 煽動了一場暴亂,

  • the bishop’s militia of monks dragged her from her carriage

    俄瑞斯忒斯在過程中受了重傷,

  • and brutally murdered and dismembered her.

    因此下令將他們的 領導人刑求至死。

  • Hypatia’s death was a turning point in the politics of Alexandria.

    西里爾和他的追隨者 怪罪希帕提亞,

  • In the wake of her murder,

    控訴她施行巫術 讓俄瑞斯忒斯對抗基督教。

  • other philosophers in the Greek and Roman tradition fled,

    415 年三月,希帕提亞 在城市中乘車行進時,

  • and the city’s role as a center of learning declined.

    主教的僧侶民兵將她 從馬車中拉出來,

  • In a very real way,

    殘忍地殺害她,並將她肢解。

  • the spirit of inquisition, openness, and fairness she fostered

    希帕提亞的死, 是亞歷山卓的政治轉捩點。

  • died with her.

    在她被殺害之後,

In the city of Alexandria in 415 CE,

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Bruce Sung

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古代亞歷山大最偉大的學者--索拉亞-菲爾德-菲奧里奧被殺案。 (The murder of ancient Alexandria's greatest scholar - Soraya Field Fiorio)

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