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  • In the 8th century CE, Vikings surged across the misty seas.

    西元第八世紀,維京人穿越了洶湧又多霧的大海。

  • They came from Scandinavia in Northern Europe, but would travel far and wide.

    他們來自北歐的斯堪地那維亞,遍布足跡又遠又廣。

  • Some plundered and settled in the British Isles and France; others braved Artic exploration or forged clever new trade routes to the Middle East.

    有些維京人在不列顛群島和法國劫掠並定居;其他人則是到北極冒險,或者打造通往中東,全新且巧妙的新貿易路線。

  • With their steely navigational skills, advanced long-ships and fearsome tactics, the Vikings sustained their seafaring for over three hundred years.

    維京人有著堅實的導航技巧、先進的長型船隻,以及讓人生畏的戰略,便藉此維持了航海霸業超過三百年。

  • But for all their might, they left few monuments.

    然而儘管他們的能力出眾,卻僅留下少量的遺跡。

  • Instead, fragments of stone, bark, and bone provide the keys to their culture.

    相對的,石頭的碎片、樹皮以及骨頭反而提供了讓我們能了解他們文化的關鍵。

  • Found in graves, bogs, and sites of ancient settlements, many of these objects are inscribed with messages in Old Norse written in runic letters.

    這些物品多半是在墳墓、沼澤,和古老定居地找到的,上面以盧恩字母刻下了古北歐語的訊息。

  • But the Vikings also scratched runes into household goods, jewelry, weapons, and even shoes.

    但維京人也會在家庭物品、珠寶、武器,甚至是鞋子上刻下盧恩字母。

  • Deciphering these messages is no easy task.

    要破解這些訊息並不容易。

  • Runes are short, straight, and diagonal lines that make up an alphabet called the "futhark."

    盧恩文以短、直、對角的線條組成的文字,組合成一個叫做「弗薩克」的字母系統。

  • All classes of people spoke and wrote this language, in many different dialects.

    各種階級的人都會以許許多多不同的方言說寫這個語言。

  • There was no standard spelling, they wrote the individual runic letters by pronouncing the sounds of their regional accents.

    這種語言沒有標準的拼音,來自不同地區的人會各自用當地的口音來寫下盧恩字母。

  • Some of these inscriptions also bore the influence of other cultures the Vikings interacted with.

    有些刻文還受到和維京人有所接觸的其他文化所影響。

  • The runic inscription "love conquers all," for example, is originally a Latin phrase from the poet Virgil.

    像是盧恩刻文「愛能戰勝一切」原本是出自詩人維吉爾的拉丁文句子。

  • Many, like the enigmatic Rok runestone, were carved in verse, highlighting the tradition of Old Norse poetry.

    有許多刻文則像是洛克盧恩石一樣刻著古老詩句,彰顯出古北歐文的詩詞傳統。

  • So even though modern runologists can read runes, their meaning isn’t always obvious.

    所以,雖然現代的盧恩文學家能夠閱讀盧恩文,卻不見得對其中涵義一清二楚。

  • Still, in spite of the remaining mysteries, many inscriptions memorializing the dead and recording local histories have been decipheredalong with some containing magical incantations.

    儘管雖然仍然還有很多謎團,但已有許多關於紀念亡者及記錄當地的歷史的刻文已經破解完成了—其中部分還刻上了魔法咒語。

  • The Ramsund runes in Sweden are carved on a rocky outcrop beside a bridge for travelers passing over swampy ground.

    瑞典的羅母薩盧恩文被刻在一座用來讓旅客橫越沼澤地的橋,旁邊露出的岩石上。

  • This causeway was commissioned by a prominent local woman named Sigríðr.

    這條堤道是由當地著名的女子西格露德所委託打造的。

  • She proclaimed both her importance and her family’s power by carving their names in stone, and even associated herself and her family with mythical heroism by carving illustrations of Sigurd the dragon slayer.

    她把家人的名字刻在石頭上,以張揚她的重要性和家人的權力,甚至刻出西格露德屠龍勇士的圖像,用以將她自己和家人與神話英雄主義建立連結。

  • In the town of Jelling in Denmark, two standing stones from the 10th century memorialize different generations from a royal family.

    在丹麥的耶靈鎮上豎立著兩塊從西元十世紀就存在著的巨石,其上紀念了一個皇室家庭的不同世代。

  • The first was erected by King Gorm the Old in memory of his Queen Thyrvi, and the second by their son, Harald Bluetooth, after Gorm’s death.

    第一塊立石是由老高姆國王所豎立,用以紀念他的皇后索維。而第二塊立石則是他們的兒子哈拉爾·藍芽在高姆死後所豎立。

  • The stones announce the power of this Viking Age dynasty, and they are among the earliest historical documents of Denmark.

    這兩塊石頭宣揚了這個維京時代王朝的權力,而且是丹麥最早的歷史記錄之一。

  • They indicate that Denmark was the earliest major Viking Age kingdom, by telling that Harald controlled southern Norway, and that he converted to Christianity.

    我們能藉此得知丹麥是最早的大型維京時代王國,因為上面的刻文指出:哈拉爾控制了南挪威,而且改信了基督教。

  • Today, Harald Bluetooth’s initials make up the Bluetooth logo.

    現今的藍芽符號便是由哈拉爾·藍芽字首的盧恩字母所組成的。

  • The 10th century warrior poet Egil was a well-known carver of runes.

    西元十世紀的戰士詩人埃吉爾是知名的盧恩符文雕刻者。

  • According to poetic accounts, he once carved runes on a horn filled with poison, causing the horn to shatter.

    根據詩文中的記述,他曾經在滿是毒液的號角上刻下盧恩文,導致號角破碎。

  • In another story, Egil saves a young girl’s life by placing a piece of whale bone carved with healing runes under her pillow.

    在另一個故事中,埃吉爾藉由將一片刻上了療癒盧恩文的鯨魚骨放到女孩的枕頭下,拯救了她的性命。

  • Norse poetry tells of runic spells, cast to ensure calm seas, safe childbirth and triumphant battles.

    北歐詩作中有著盧恩文的咒語,用來確保海洋風平浪靜、孩子安全出生,以及戰爭勝利。

  • But the exact nature of these spells isn’t fully understoodmany of the inscriptions on swords, axes, and spears are indecipherable.

    但這些咒語的確切本質仍然未被全部了解—許多刻在劍、斧、茅上面的刻文皆仍無法破解。

  • Other objects, like the Lindholm amulet, have inscriptions that could be incantations, riddles, or religious messages.

    其他物品,如林德霍爾姆護身符,上面的刻文可能是咒語、謎題,或者宗教訊息。

  • While it’s difficult to pinpoint the end of the Viking era, by 1100 CE their sea-borne expansion had mostly come to an end.

    雖然很難確定維京時代究竟在何時結束,到了西元 1100 年時,他們在海上的勢力擴展差不多就告一段落了。

  • However, people continued to speak versions of Old Norse throughout Scandinavia, and runes remained in use in rural areas into the 19th century.

    然而,在斯堪的那維亞各地,人們仍然持續說著不同版本的古北歐語;到了十九世紀,在偏遠地區仍然有人持續使用著盧恩文字。

  • Today, many runestones remain standing at their original sites.

    現今,許多盧恩石仍然在它們原本的位置上屹立不搖。

  • The inscription on the Danish Glavendrup stone has fearsomely declared for a thousand years:

    丹麥葛蘭維德魯普石上的刻文在這一千年以來都令人生畏地持續宣示著:

  • “A warlock be he who damages this stone or drags it in memory of another!”

    「能破壞這塊石頭,或者能為了紀念他人而拖動它的人,就是巫師!」

  • Did you know that the Hagia Sophia, an ancient Byzantine structure erected on the Mediterranean Sea in 360 A.D., is decorated with ancient runes?

    你知道索菲亞大教堂,一座在西元 360 年時建造於地中海的古老拜占庭建築,上面有著盧恩符文的點綴作為裝飾嗎?

  • How did they get there? Watch this lesson to dwell into this fascinating history of one of the most significant buildings in human history.

    它們究竟是怎麼被送到那裡去的?觀賞這個課程來深入瞭解這座人類史上最重要的建築物之一,背後的精采歷史吧。

In the 8th century CE, Vikings surged across the misty seas.

西元第八世紀,維京人穿越了洶湧又多霧的大海。

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 維京人 紀念 咒語 石頭 破解

以為北歐的斯堪地那維亞只有極光?破解維京符文石的祕密 (The secret messages of Viking runestones - Jesse Byock)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 10 月 21 日
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