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  • In March of 1892,

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • three Black grocery store owners in Memphis, Tennessee,

    1982 年三月,

  • were murdered by a mob of white men.

    田納西州曼非斯的 三位雜貨店黑人店主

  • Lynchings like these were happening all over the American South,

    被一群白人暴民謀殺。

  • often without any subsequent legal investigation

    像這樣的私刑在美國 南方各地都在發生,

  • or consequences for the murderers.

    通常事後也不會有相關法律調查,

  • But this time,

    兇手不用承受任何後果。

  • a young journalist and friend of the victims

    但,這次,

  • set out to expose the truth about these killings.

    一位年輕記者, 也是受害者的朋友,

  • Her reports would shock the nation

    打算揭露這些殺戮的真相。

  • and launch her career as an investigative journalist,

    她的報導震驚了全國,

  • civic leader, and civil rights advocate.

    也讓她開始了新的職涯, 身為調查記者、

  • Her name was Ida B. Wells.

    公民領袖,以及民權捍衛者。

  • Ida Bell Wells was born into slavery in Holly Springs, Mississippi

    她的名字叫做艾達威爾斯。

  • on July 16, 1862, several months before the Emancipation Proclamation

    艾達威爾斯生在密西西比州的 霍利斯普林斯,出生就是奴隸,

  • released her and her family.

    生於 1862 年 7 月 16 日, 幾個月之後,

  • After losing both parents and a brother to yellow fever at the age of 16,

    解放奴隸宣言就解放了 她和她的家人。

  • she supported her five remaining siblings

    十六歲時,因為黃熱病, 她失去了雙親和一位兄弟,

  • by working as a schoolteacher in Memphis, Tennessee.

    之後就由她來扶養 剩下的五位手足,

  • During this time,

    她在田納西州曼非斯 擔任學校老師。

  • she began working as a journalist.

    在這段時間,她也開始當記者。

  • Writing under the pen nameIola,”

    用「艾歐拉」的筆寫文章,

  • by the early 1890s she gained a reputation

    1890 年代初期,

  • as a clear voice against racial injustice

    因為明確發聲對抗 種族不公,讓她成名,

  • and become co-owner and editor

    成為《曼非斯自由言論與前照燈》的

  • of the Memphis Free Speech and Headlight newspaper.

    共同所有人及編輯。

  • She had no shortage of material:

    她完全不缺素材:

  • in the decades following the Civil War,

    在內戰之後的數十年,

  • Southern whites attempted to reassert their power

    南方白人嘗試重申他們的權力,

  • by committing crimes against Black people

    做法是對黑人做出犯罪行為,

  • including suppressing their votes,

    包括打壓他們的投票,

  • vandalizing their businesses, and even murdering them.

    任意破壞他們的生意, 甚至謀殺他們。

  • After the murder of her friends,

    在她的朋友被謀殺之後,

  • Wells launched an investigation into lynching.

    威爾斯發動了對私刑的調查。

  • She analyzed specific cases through newspaper reports and police records,

    她分析了報紙報導 和警方記錄中的特定案件,

  • and interviewed people who had lost friends and family to lynch mobs.

    訪問了因為私刑暴民 而失去朋友和家人的人。

  • She risked her life to get this information.

    她冒著她的生命危險 取得這些資訊。

  • As a Black person investigating racially motivated murders,

    她是黑人,且在調查 因種族動機而行兇的兇手,

  • she enraged many of the same southern white men involved in lynchings.

    因此惹火了這些 涉入私刑的南方白人。

  • Her bravery paid off.

    她的勇氣帶來了好結果。

  • Most whites had claimed and subsequently reported

    大部分的白人都聲稱, 且後續也描述說

  • that lynchings were responses to criminal acts by Black people.

    私刑的原因是因為 這些黑人有犯罪行為在先。

  • But that was not usually the case.

    但通常實情都不是如此。

  • Through her research,

    透過她的研究,

  • Wells showed that these murders were actually a deliberate,

    威爾斯證明了這些兇手 其實都是深思熟慮的人,

  • brutal tactic to control or punish black people who competed with whites.

    用殘酷的戰術來控制 或懲罰和白人競爭的黑人。

  • Her friends, for example,

    比如,她的朋友,

  • had been lynched when their grocery store

    被私刑殺害的是因為 他們的雜貨店當時變得很熱門,

  • became popular enough to divert business from a white competitor.

    會影響到白人競爭者的生意。

  • Wells published her findings in 1892.

    1982 年,威爾斯發表了她的發現。

  • In response, a white mob destroyed her newspaper presses.

    回應她的是一群白人暴民 摧毀了她的報紙出版社。

  • She was out of town when they struck,

    他們攻擊時,她不在鎮上,

  • but they threatened to kill her if she ever returned to Memphis.

    但他們威脅說如果她回到 曼非斯就要殺害她。

  • So she traveled to New York,

    所以她到了紐約,

  • where that same year she re-published her research in a pamphlet titled

    同一年,她再次用一本小冊子 發表了她的研究,叫做:

  • Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases.

    《南方恐怖:私刑法的各種面向》。

  • In 1895, after settling in Chicago,

    1895 年,她在芝加哥定居,

  • she built on Southern Horrors in a longer piece called The Red Record.

    根據《南方恐怖》, 她又寫了一篇更長的文章,

  • Her careful documentation of the horrors of lynching

    題目叫《紅色記錄》。

  • and impassioned public speeches drew international attention.

    她細節記載了私刑的恐怖,

  • Wells used her newfound fame to amplify her message.

    再加上她充滿激情的公開演說, 吸引了國際的關注。

  • She traveled to Europe,

    威爾斯用她的新名氣 來擴大她的訊息。

  • where she rallied European outrage against racial violence in the American South

    她旅行到歐洲,在那裡,

  • in hopes that the US government and public would follow their example.

    她團結了歐洲人對於 美國南方種族暴力的怒火,

  • Back in the US,

    希望美國政府 和大眾能夠追隨他們。

  • she didn’t hesitate to confront powerful organizations,

    回到美國,她毫不猶豫地 面對強大的組織,

  • fighting the segregationist policies of the YMCA

    對抗種 YMCA 的族隔離政策, 並領導一個代表團到白宮,

  • and leading a delegation to the White House

    去抗議在工作場所的歧視行為。

  • to protest discriminatory workplace practices.

    在做這些的時候, 她是沒有公民權的。

  • She did all this while disenfranchised herself.

    到了威爾斯快六十歲時, 女性才贏得投票權。

  • Women didn’t win the right to vote until Wells was in her late 50s.

    即使那時,有投票權的 也主要是白人女性。

  • And even then, the vote was primarily extended to white women only.

    在擴展投票權上, 威爾斯扮演了關鍵的角色,

  • Wells was a key player in the battle for voting inclusion,

    她在芝加哥創始了 一個女性的投票權組織。

  • starting a Black women’s suffrage organization in Chicago.

    雖然她對女權投入許多心力,

  • But in spite of her deep commitment to women’s rights,

    她和運動的白人領袖發生衝突。

  • she clashed with white leaders of the movement.

    在華盛頓特區的一次 女性投票權遊行中,

  • During a march for women’s suffrage in Washington D.C.,

    主辦人試圖緩解南方的偏執, 因而將黑人女性排在後方,

  • she ignored the organizersattempt to placate Southern bigotry

    她沒有理會這項規則,

  • by placing Black women in the back,

    在隊伍前方和白人女性一起遊行。

  • and marched up front alongside the white women.

    她也和其他民權運動領袖有磨擦,

  • She also chafed with other civil rights leaders,

    他們認為她是危險的激進分子。

  • who saw her as a dangerous radical.

    她堅持要轉播南方殘暴的所有細節,

  • She insisted on airing, in full detail, the atrocities taking place in the South,

    其他人則認為這麼做 可能會有反效果,

  • while others thought doing so would be counterproductive

    更難和白人政客談判。

  • to negotiations with white politicians.

    雖然她參與了美國全國 有色人種協進會的成立,

  • Although she participated in the founding of the NAACP,

    但很快她就被該組織排擠。

  • she was soon sidelined from the organization.

    威爾斯不願意將她的正義遠景 在任何面向上做妥協,

  • Wellsunwillingness to compromise any aspect of her vision of justice

    協助了許多民權運動的弱點,

  • shined a light on the weak points of the various rights movements,

    最終,讓它們變得更強壯——

  • and ultimately made them stronger

    但也讓她更難在這些 運動中找到容身之處。

  • but also made it difficult for her to find a place within them.

    她走在那個時代的最前面,

  • She was ahead of her time,

    為平等和正義不懈地努力著,

  • waging a tireless struggle for equality and justice

    在許多人認為有可能這麼做 之前的數十年她就已經在做了。

  • decades before many had even begun to imagine it possible.

In March of 1892,

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 白人 威爾斯 投票權 黑人 女性

一位記者如何冒著生命危險追究凶手的責任--克里斯蒂娜-格里爾。 (How one journalist risked her life to hold murderers accountable - Christina Greer)

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