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  • I'm James Ladyman,

    我是詹姆斯-拉迪曼。

  • Professor of Philosophy at the University of Bristol.

    布里斯托爾大學哲學教授。

  • My name's Samir Okasha, I'm Professor of Philosophy of Science

    我叫薩米爾-奧卡沙,是科學哲學教授。

  • in the Philosophy Department, University of Bristol.

    在布里斯托爾大學哲學系。

  • The topic we're going to discuss concerns the status of ethics,

    我們要討論的話題是關於道德的現狀。

  • in particular, objective versus subjective views of ethics.

    特別是客觀與主觀的道德觀。

  • According to the subjective view,

    根據主觀看法。

  • there are no facts of the matter about ethical questions.

    倫理問題沒有事實依據。

  • For example, if someone says "euthanasia is right"

    例如,如果有人說"安樂死是對的&quot。

  • and someone else says "euthanasia is wrong",

    而別人卻說"安樂死是錯誤的"。

  • ultimately, that's a matter of subjective taste, not scientific fact.

    歸根結底,這是一個主觀品味的問題,而不是科學事實。

  • So if that's the case,

    所以如果是這樣的話。

  • why do people think they're having disagreements

    為什麼人們認為他們'有意見分歧

  • that can be resolved by argument?

    可以通過論證解決的?

  • After all, if I say "chocolate ice cream's nice"

    畢竟,如果我說"巧克力冰淇淋'不錯&quot。

  • and you say "No, it isn't",

    而你卻說"不,這不是"。

  • there's nothing more to be discussed

    無可奉告

  • because we acknowledge that each of us is expressing our taste

    因為我們承認,我們每個人都在表達自己的品味。

  • and there's no further fact of the matter.

    並沒有更多的事實的問題。

  • One of the strongest arguments for the subjective view,

    主觀觀點的最有力論據之一。

  • which in part responds to that objection,

    其中部分迴應了這一反對意見,

  • is the fact that different communities around the world at different times

    是世界上不同時期不同社區的事實。

  • have held widely divergent ethical views.

    倫理觀點大相徑庭。

  • Some people have thought, for example, it's OK to perform honour killing

    有些人認為,比如說,可以進行名譽殺人。

  • of young girls who get pregnant out of wedlock.

    非婚懷孕少女的比例;

  • Other communities find that to be an abhorrent thing to do.

    其他社區認為這是一件令人憎惡的事情。

  • And you can think of many examples like that.

    這樣的例子你可以想很多。

  • A natural response to that

    對此的自然反應

  • that the subjective view gives is to say

    主觀的觀點所給予的是說

  • "That's because there's no fact of the matter in the first place".

    "那'是因為本來就沒有事實的問題"。

  • It's a bit like a preference for chocolate ice cream over strawberry.

    這有點像喜歡吃巧克力冰淇淋而不是草莓。

  • There are also widespread divergences

    也有廣泛的分歧

  • in beliefs among different cultures

    不同文化間信仰的差異

  • about matters that we're not tempted to regard as not factual.

    關於我們不經意間認為不是事實的事情。

  • For example, different cultures have disagreed

    例如,不同的文化有不同的意見

  • about whether or not the Earth is round

    地球是否是圓的

  • as opposed to flat

    相對於平坦的

  • or about the origins of the universe of the nature of matter.

    或關於物質的本質宇宙的起源。

  • The difference with the ethical case is that, in those scientific cases,

    與倫理案例的不同之處在於,在這些科學案例中。

  • there's a reasonably agreed-upon method

    有一個合理的約定俗成的方法。

  • for establishing which answer is correct,

    用於確定哪個答案是正確的。

  • even if it's hard sometimes.

    即使它'的困難有時。

  • In the ethical case, there don't seem to be any comparable methods

    在倫理方面,似乎沒有任何可比的方法。

  • to decide whether, for example, euthanasia is or is not morally wrong.

    例如,決定安樂死在道德上是否錯誤。

  • I take your point that we can't do experiments

    我明白你的意思,我們不能做實驗。

  • to find out the answer to ethical questions, however,

    來尋找道德問題的答案,但是。

  • we do have procedures and methods.

    我們是有程序和方法的。

  • One of those methods is the method of rational persuasion which people use

    其中一種方法就是人們使用的理性說服法

  • in attempting to bring others round to their moral point of view.

    試圖讓別人接受他們的道德觀點。

  • So if we think of the Abolitionist Movement

    所以,如果我們想到廢奴運動的時候

  • or the campaign for the emancipation of women,

    或婦女解放運動。

  • in both cases, a large part of their methods

    在這兩種情況下,他們的方法有很大一部分是。

  • were that rational persuasion of other people through argument,

    是通過論證理性地說服他人。

  • so how do you explain what's going on in that process

    那你怎麼解釋這個過程中發生了什麼?

  • from a subjectivist point of view?

    從主觀主義的角度看?

  • It's certainly true that, from a subjective point of view,

    當然,從主觀的角度來說,這是事實。

  • it's difficult to account for the idea

    難以啟齒

  • that we've made moral progress, for example.

    比如說,我們'已經取得了道德上的進步。

  • We all tend to believe that we have made moral progress,

    我們都傾向於相信自己在道德上取得了進步。

  • we've moved from times when slavery was dominant

    我們已經從奴隸制占主導地位的時代走到了今天。

  • to its abolition, say, over a period of a few hundred years -

    到廢除,比如說,在幾百年的時間裡------------------------------------------。

  • and that seems to be progress.

    而這似乎是一種進步。

  • But a subjectivist will say that it doesn't follow

    但主觀主義者會說,它不'。

  • that we've learnt the truth of some factual thing about the world

    我們已經知道了世界上一些事實的真相

  • like slavery is wrong, where we used to think slavery was OK.

    就像奴隸制是錯誤的,而我們過去認為奴隸制是可以的。

  • But a subjectivist will try to account for our sense of moral progress

    但主觀主義者會試圖解釋我們的道德進步感。

  • without appealing to the idea

    不求甚解

  • that it involved apprehending the truth

    它涉及到抓捕真相。

  • about objective moral facts.

    關於客觀道德事實。

  • Yeah, that's interesting. I'm not yet persuaded

    是的,這很有趣。我還沒被說服呢 I'm not yet persuaded

  • that we have a reason to deny

    我們有理由拒絕

  • that there are ethical truths.

    有道德真理的存在。

I'm James Ladyman,

我是詹姆斯-拉迪曼。

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B1 中級 中文 主觀 道德 倫理 安樂死 事實 奴隸制

Questions in philosophy - ethics

  • 102 3
    fisher 發佈於 2013 年 03 月 24 日
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