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  • By now you've probably heard of COVID-19, or coronavirus disease discovered in 2019,

    現在你們應該或多或少有聽過 2019 年被發現的新型冠狀病毒,

  • which is responsible for a global pandemic. Thus far the main country affected has been

    就是目前全球大爆發的新冠肺炎元兇,剛開始主要在中國流傳,

  • China, but it has spread to a number of other countries around the world to a varying degree.

    但現在已經擴散到世界上其他國家,嚴重程度不一,

  • The virus was initially referred to as the 2019-nCoV, or the 2019 novel coronavirus and

    這種病毒剛開始被稱為 2019 新型冠狀病毒,簡稱 2019 新冠病毒,

  • was informally calledWuhan coronavirus”. The World Health Organization named the disease

    另一個非正式稱呼是「新冠病毒」,世界衛生組織將這個疾病稱作 COVID-19,

  • COVID-19 because it doesn't refer to a geographical location, an animal, a person or group of

    因為這個名稱不代表任何地理位置、人名、或一群人,

  • people - all of which can lead to stigma. They also wanted to make it pronounceable

    否則會造成汙名化爭議,世衛組織也想讓這個名稱好念、又跟新冠肺炎有關 (字母與數字分別代表冠狀、病毒、疾病、與 2019 年),

  • and related to the disease - not an easy task! The virus was officially named SARS CoV-2,

    要達成這些條件可不簡單。新冠病毒的官方名稱為 SARS CoV-2,

  • or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, because it's genetically very similar

    也就是「嚴重急性呼吸系統綜合症冠狀病毒 2 型」,因為這種病毒整體上很類似

  • to the SARS coronavirus which was responsible forwell the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome,

    造成嚴重急性呼吸系統綜合症─的 SARS 冠狀病毒,

  • or SARS, outbreak in 2002. So SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19.

    SARS 疫情在 2002 年爆發,後來 SARS 冠狀病毒 2 型變異成 2019 年新型冠狀病毒,

  • Now, coronaviruses that circulate among humans are typically benign, and they cause about

    現今感染冠狀病毒的症狀通常都是良性的,

  • a quarter of all common cold illnesses. But occasionally, coronaviruses that circulate

    佔普通感冒症狀的四分之一,但有時冠狀病毒在動物體內時發生突變,

  • in an animal reservoir mutate just enough to where they're able to start infecting

    若有機會接觸到人類,就會感染人體並致病,

  • and causing disease in humans, if they're given an opportunity. In 2002 SARS was a coronavirus

    2002 年的 SARS 病毒也是冠狀病毒,

  • that hopped over from bats to civets, which is a cat-like mammal; and then over to humans.

    從蝙蝠傳染到麝貓─ 一種長得像貓的哺乳動物,再傳染給人類。

  • And in 2012, there was MERS, which was a coronavirus that hopped over from bats to camels a few

    2012 年又有 MERS 冠狀病毒,這種病毒在幾十年前從蝙蝠傳染到駱駝,

  • decades ago and then circulated among camels for quite some time before infecting humans.

    在駱駝之間流傳了一陣子就開始感染人類。

  • COVID-19 most likely also started with bats, but this time the intermediate host was probably

    這次的 2019 年新型冠狀病毒最初極有可能也在蝙蝠體內,但中間宿主可能是穿山甲─

  • a pangolin, an animal that looks like a cross between an anteater and an armadillo. That's

    一種看起來像介於食蟻獸與犰狳的動物,

  • based on the fact that scientists identified a coronavirus in pangolins that's a 96%

    根據科學家研究,指出穿山甲裡的冠狀病毒跟 SARS 冠狀病毒 2 型的基因相似度高達百分之 96,

  • genetic match to SARS-CoV-2. Sadly, pangolins are heavily trafficked around the planet,

    令人難過的是,全世界各地都有非法販售穿山甲,

  • largely because people believe that their scales have healing properties. Because they're

    主要是因為人們認為穿山甲的鱗片有療效,

  • moved around the world rather than left in the wild, there are ample opportunities for

    也因為牠們被帶到世界各地,無法在野外生活,

  • a coronavirus to go from a pangolin to a human.

    冠狀病毒有很大的機會是從穿山甲跑到人類體內。

  • As of February 11, 2020, there have been 43,103 cases of COVID-19 and 1,018 deaths, with a

    截至 2020 年二月十一日,已經有 43103 個確診病例,其中 1018 例死亡,

  • fatality rate of 2.4%, according to WHO. The vast majority of cases and deaths have occurred

    根據世衛組織統計,致死率為百分之 2.4,大部分的確診與死亡個案發生在中國,

  • in China. For a little perspective, the 2002 SARS outbreak resulted in 8,098 cases and 774 deaths,

    跟別的傳染病比較:2002 的 SARS 爆發導致 8098 個確診與 774 例死亡個案,

  • so the fatality rate was around 9.6%. And the 2012 MERS outbreak results in 2,494 cases

    致死率大約是百分之 9.6;2012 年的 MERS 有 2494 例確診與 858 例死亡,

  • and 858 deaths, bringing the fatality rate to 34%. Finally, for the 2014 Ebola outbreak,

    死亡率百分之 34,最後是 2014 的伊波拉病毒疫情,雖然不是冠狀病度造成的疾病,

  • which was not due to a coronavirus, there were 28,639 cases and 11,316 deaths. The fatality

    但有 28639 例確診與 11316 例死亡,

  • rate was a whooping 40%!

    致死率高達百分之 40!

  • At a microscopic level, coronaviruses are single strand positive sense RNA viruses with

    若以微觀的角度來看,冠狀病毒屬於正鏈單股核糖核酸病毒,

  • protein spikes on their surface that look a bit like a crown under a microscope. In

    表面帶有蛋白刺突,在顯微鏡下看起來像皇冠,

  • fact, “coronais latin for crown. Besides looking majestic, these spikes allow the virus

    其實 "corona" 在拉丁語的意思就是皇冠,除了看起來有威嚴,

  • to invade cells lining the respiratory tract and lungs. After binding, the coronavirus

    這些刺突能幫助病毒黏附與入侵呼吸道與肺部的細胞,

  • enters and takes over the cellular machinery to make more and more copies of itself so

    和細胞受體結合後,冠狀病毒進入細胞,控制其運作機制,以製造更多病毒複製體,

  • it can spread to the surrounding cells and get into the mucus.

    散播至周圍細胞,最終進入黏液內,

  • Sometimes the infection is mild, and some people don't develop any symptoms at all.

    有些人的感染症狀很輕微,甚至有人根本不會有症狀,

  • For others, they can develop symptoms that can range from mild symptoms like fever, cough,

    但有些人可能會有輕微病徵,例如發燒、咳嗽、

  • and shortness of breath, all the way to serious problems like pneumonia. Severe lung damage

    呼吸急促,甚至嚴重一點會造成肺炎,若肺部嚴重受損或受感染,

  • can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome, or ARDS, which occurs when the lung inflammation

    會導致急性呼吸窘迫症候群 (ARDS),

  • is so severe that fluid builds up around and within the lungs. The severe infection can

    這是因為肺部嚴重感染,液體開始在肺部周圍和內部堆積,

  • cause septic shock, which happens when the blood pressure falls dramatically and the

    可能造成血壓急速降低、器官缺氧,引發敗血性休克,

  • body's organs are starved for oxygen. ARDS and shock are the main cause of death for

    ARDS 與休克是新冠病毒肺炎患者的兩大主要死因,

  • people with the infection, and this is more likely to occur in those over the age of 60,

    發生在超過六十歲以上、

  • smokers, and people with previous medical conditions like hypertension.

    癮君子、與之前就有生病的人─例如高血壓患者─可能性最大,

  • In addition to causing disease, coronaviruses can spread quickly. Usually the virus spreads

    新冠病毒不僅會致病,散播速度也非常快,

  • when people cough or sneeze, and tiny droplets containing the virus are released. These droplets

    通常新冠病毒是在人類咳嗽或打噴嚏的時候藉由飛沫小水滴傳播,

  • can land on another person's mouth, nose, or eyes, and that allows the virus to enter

    小水滴可能會降落在人類嘴巴、鼻子、眼睛,就會感染另一個人。

  • a new person. Virus can also be found in a person's stool, and in rare situations coronavirus

    在感染者坐過的板凳也能找到新冠病毒,

  • has been transmitted from one apartment to another within a residential building. This

    極端情況下,新冠病毒也能在同一棟公寓的住房之間散播,

  • was seen in the 2002 SARS epidemic. At that time, faulty plumbing allowed virus-containing

    這在 2002 年 SARS 疫情期間就有發生過。當時某些建築物內的配管系統設計不當,

  • fecal matter originating from one person's apartment to drift from drainage pipes back

    使得一間住戶含有病毒的排泄物藉著排水管流到

  • up into fixtures like sinks and toilets within other apartments in the same building. This

    同棟大樓另一個住戶的裝置,例如水槽和馬桶,

  • created a terrible smell and allowed the virus-containing droplets to deposit on bathroom surfaces,

    不僅味道難聞,也讓病毒水滴沉積在浴室表面,

  • ultimately causing people in those apartments to get ill. Something similar may have happened

    最後那些住戶的鄰居也因此得病。

  • with COVID-19, and this is being actively investigated.

    現在新冠疫情中可能有發生類似的事情,官方也在積極調查中。

  • Once a person is infected, symptoms develop an average of 5 days later. This is called

    人類一旦感染新冠病毒,症狀平均會在五天後開始出現,

  • the incubation period. However the incubation period varies from person to person, and in

    這段無症狀的時間稱為潛伏期,然而潛伏期長短因人而異,

  • some studies, the incubation period lasted as long as 24 days! Now there's debate about

    有些研究指出新冠病毒的潛伏期可能長達 24 天!

  • whether or not asymptomatic people can spread the disease, because these people typically

    現在有人在討論無症狀者是否也有傳染力,

  • have low levels of circulating virus. But even if they do, asymptomatic transmission

    因為這些人體內的病毒含量通常較低,就算帶有病毒,

  • likely plays a minor role in the overall epidemic. Viruses are given a reproductive number or

    無症狀感染者的傳染程度在整個疫情來看也不會太嚴重。

  • R-naught based on how quickly they spread, and person to person transmission has been

    科學家會根據病毒的傳播速度估計病毒的 R0 值、或稱傳染數,

  • confirmed both in and outside of China. An R naught of 1 means that an infected person

    而在中國國內外都證實出現冠狀病毒人傳人。再生數 1 代表受感染的人會傳染給另一個人,

  • passes it on to 1 new person, an R-naught of 2 means that 1 person spreads it to 2 new

    2 代表一人傳染兩人,

  • people, and so forth. If the R naught is below 1, the infection peters out, if it's 1 it

    以此類推。如果 R0 值小於 1,代表傳染人數會持續減少,

  • stays steady, and if it's above 1, then it continues to spread. The current estimate

    若等於 1,人數維持穩定,若大於 1,則病毒會持續擴散,

  • for the SARS-CoV-2 R naught is between 2 and 2.5. Of course that's an average, with some

    目前科學家估計SARS 冠狀病毒 2 型的傳染基數介於 2 和 2.5,當然這只是平均值,

  • spreading the disease less, and others - called superspreaders - spreading the disease at

    有時新冠病毒不會傳染給這麼多人,但有些人─稱為超級傳染者─ 散播病毒的速度高出許多,

  • a much much higher rate. The exact cause of these superspreaders is unclear, perhaps they

    超級傳染者的出現原因尚不清楚,

  • are just in contact with more folks, perhaps their bodies naturally shed more virus, or

    也許他們只是接觸比較多人,或他們的體質本來就容易讓病毒流出、

  • perhaps there's some other reason altogether.

    或者還有其他原因。

  • To confirm the diagnosis, there should be a real time polymerase chain reaction or rt-PCR

    若要篩檢病毒,需要有即時聚合酶連鎖反應,簡稱 rt-PCR 測試,

  • tests, a quick test used in many labs and hospitals that can detect very small amounts

    這是一種用在許多實驗室與醫院的快篩,

  • of viral RNA.

    非常少量的核醣核酸病毒也能測出。

  • Treatment is focused on supportive care - providing fluids, oxygen, and ventilatory support for

    目前新冠肺炎主要使用支持治療:提供輸液、氧氣,對重症患者給予呼吸器輔助,

  • really ill people. There's also some early data showing that three medications are highly

    先前研究數據顯示在實驗室環境下

  • effective against SARS-CoV-2 in the laboratory setting. These medications are chloroquine,

    有三種療法對抗擊新冠病毒非常有效:治療瘧疾的「奎寧」、

  • an anti-malarial drug; ritonavir, an anti-HIV medication; and remdesivir, an antiviral drug

    治愛滋病的「利托那韋」、以及瑞德西韋,一種先前用在伊波拉病毒的抗病毒藥物,

  • previously used against Ebola. Remdesivir was given to the first US patient with COVID-19

    美國第一例新冠肺炎病患在發病第 11 天時,病情持續惡化,

  • on day 11 of his illness as he was clinically worsening, and he began to improve the very

    使用瑞德西韋後的隔天即開始改善,

  • next day. Large scale clinical trials using remdesivir are already underway in China.

    中國已開始著手進行大規模的瑞德西韋臨床試驗。

  • Unfortunately there's no vaccine currently available to protect against COVID-19. At

    不幸的是,目前新冠病毒肺炎的疫苗仍未問世,

  • best, it looks like a vaccine will be many months away. So the goal is to avoid human

    最快還要幾個月,所以現在應盡可能避免人傳人,

  • to human transmission, starting with isolating people with COVID-19. Coronaviruses don't

    首先要隔離新冠肺炎病患,

  • usually spread over long distances in the air, but they can travel roughly 3 feet or

    新型冠狀病毒通常無法在空氣中長距離擴散,

  • 1 meter from one person to another on tiny droplets of saliva, which are produced when

    但病患咳嗽或打噴嚏時,

  • someone's coughing or sneezing. In addition, some strains of coronavirus can survive on

    病毒可以藉由飛沫擴散約一公尺左右。除此之外,有些種類的冠狀病毒

  • surfaces for over a day. With that in mind, if you're a healthy person living in a non-outbreak

    可以在物體表面上生存超過一天。從這點來看,如果你身體健康、也不是住在疫區,

  • area, the recommendation is to avoid travel to disease outbreak areas, generally stay

    最好的方法是避免到疫情爆發的地區,

  • away from crowded places, and stay at least 6 feet or 2 meters away from anyone with symptoms.

    盡量別到人多的地方,跟有症狀的人要保持兩公尺以上的安全距離,

  • Wearing a surgical mask is not recommended because the general risk of getting COVID-19

    然而手術口罩並不推薦,因為在這些情況下,感染新型冠狀病毒的風險並不高,

  • in these settings is so low. As always, careful hand washing is key and it should be done

    所以還是那一句老話,仔細洗手才是關鍵,而且洗手的時候要用肥皂

  • with soap or alcohol-based hand sanitizers and scrubbing. Also, avoid touching your eyes,

    或酒精洗手液,

  • nose, and mouththis is the area, known as your T-zone is a common entry point for

    此外不要碰你的眼睛、鼻子和嘴巴,這三個地方稱為臉部 T 區,

  • viruses into the body.

    常常是病毒進入人體的管道。

  • For healthcare workers who are around people with COVID-19, the recommendation is to apply

    若你是常待在新冠肺炎患者身邊的醫護人員,

  • droplet and contact precautions. That includes wearing personal protective equipment like

    最好採用飛沫與接觸防護措施,包括個人保護裝置,

  • a clean, dry surgical mask, gloves, long-sleeved gowns, and eye protection like goggles or

    例如乾淨乾燥的手術口罩、手套、長袖手術衣、眼鏡防護物,像是護目鏡或是護面罩。

  • a face shield. When performing a procedure that generates aerosol, like tracheal intubation,

    如果進行會產生飛沫微粒的手術或治療,像是氣管插管、

  • bronchoscopy, CPR, or noninvasive ventilation, it's important to wear a N95 respirator.

    支氣管鏡檢、心肺復甦、或植入非侵入性呼吸器,務必要帶 N95 口罩,

  • This prevents 95% of the small particles, like respiratory droplets, from passing through.

    這樣可以阻擋百分之 95 的飛沫等微粒進入體內。

  • To recap, the SARS-CoV-2 virus causes a respiratory disease called COVID-19. The virus probably

    現在來稍微複習一下:SARS 冠狀病毒 2 型會引發一種稱為「新型冠狀肺炎」的呼吸道疾病,

  • originated from bats, then went to pangolins as an intermediate host, and finally to humans.

    這種病毒最初可能來自蝙蝠,後來以穿山甲當作中間宿主,最後開始感染人類。

  • The virus travels in respiratory droplets and enters the body via the mouth, nose, or

    它藉由飛沫傳播,從嘴巴、鼻子或眼睛進入人類體內,

  • eyes. Once inside the body, it replicates in the respiratory system, causing symptoms

    一旦進去了,新冠病毒會在呼吸系統內複製,

  • like fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Some people might develop more dangerous complications

    導致發燒、咳嗽、與呼吸急促,有些人可能會有更危險的併發症:

  • like pneumonia, ARDS, and shock. Treatments are focused on supportive care, but certain

    像是肺炎、急性呼吸窘迫症候群、和休克。治療方法主要為支持治療,

  • medications like Remdesivir are currently in clinical trials. In the meantime, the best

    雖然目前有在針對瑞德西韋等某些藥物進行臨床試驗。

  • strategy is prevention -- this includes careful hand washing, avoiding traveling to disease

    不過預防仍然勝於治療,防疫方法包括確實洗手、

  • outbreak areas and crowded places when possible, avoiding touching your T-zone, and if you're

    避免到疫區旅遊,若可以的話,也盡量不去人多的地方、不要摸臉部的 T 區部位,

  • a healthcare worker to use personal protective equipment.

    醫護人員則要使用個人防護裝備。

By now you've probably heard of COVID-19, or coronavirus disease discovered in 2019,

現在你們應該或多或少有聽過 2019 年被發現的新型冠狀病毒,

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 病毒 新冠 冠狀 飛沫 冠狀病毒 症狀

COVID-19(冠狀病毒病19)--原因、症狀、診斷、治療、病理。 (COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 19) - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology)

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    Tina Huang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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