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  • I like to think of life science as one big pyramid.

    我喜歡將生命科學比喻成一座金字塔。

  • Let's call the pyramid, "biological organization".

    我們把這金字塔叫作 「生物組織」。

  • Let's work our way from very small and specific concepts

    讓我們從小而明確的概念

  • to very large and complex topics.

    一路談到大而複雜的主題。

  • So let's start at the tip of the pyramid,

    從金字塔頂端開始,

  • with something so small, it can't be seen by the human eye,

    那是一種小到肉眼沒辦看到的東西

  • a single cell.

    ──細胞(cell)。

  • A cell by itself is the most basic component of life.

    細胞本身是生命最基本的組成元素。

  • A single cell, which is capable of living on its own,

    單一細胞可以單獨存活,

  • is called a unicellular organism,

    叫做單細胞生物,

  • organisms like bacteria or protists.

    例如細菌或原生生物。

  • These organisms are everywhere you look,

    這些生物遍佈四處,

  • you just can't see them.

    只是你看不見。

  • But, when cells join together,

    然而,當細胞聚集在一起,

  • with more than one cell like itself

    有不只一個細胞

  • to perform a similar function,

    在執行類似的功能,

  • it's no longer a unicellular organism.

    那就不再叫做單細胞生物。

  • It's then called a tissue.

    它叫做組織(tissue)。

  • No, not that kind of tissue.

    不,不是在說紙巾(tissue)。

  • There are four types of tissues found in the human body:

    人體中有四種組織:

  • connective,

    結締組織、

  • muscle,

    肌肉組織、

  • nervous,

    神經組織、

  • and epithelial.

    還有上皮組織。

  • Bone tissue is a type of connective tissue

    骨骼組織是一種結締組織,

  • and it's not flimsy like a Kleenex at all.

    它當然跟薄薄的舒潔紙巾不一樣。 (譯註:原文為 Kleenex,美國紙業廠牌。)

  • Blood is also an example

    血液也是個

  • of the same cells working together to perform the same job,

    一群細胞共同完成 同一件工作的例子,

  • but it's a liquid,

    只不過它是液體。

  • again, not like a Kleenex at all.

    同樣地,它也不是舒潔。

  • No matter what the consistency is,

    不論它的稠密度如何,

  • a tissue is a group of the same cells,

    組織就是指一群同類的細胞,

  • working together to perform a similar function.

    它們共同執行類似的功能。

  • Any time there are different tissues working together,

    而只要有不同的組織一起合作,

  • we then call it an organ.

    我們就叫它器官。

  • That's the next level of the pyramid.

    這是金字塔上的下一個層級。

  • Animals aren't the only ones with organs;

    不只有動物有器官;

  • plants have organs too.

    植物身上也有。

  • When we find multiple different organs

    如果有許多器官

  • working together to perform the same job,

    為同一個任務共同合作,

  • we then call it an organ system.

    它就成了系統。

  • Take the digestive system, for example.

    以消化系統為例:

  • It's made up of a mouth,

    它由嘴巴、

  • esophagus,

    食道、

  • stomach,

    胃、

  • pancreas,

    胰臟、

  • liver,

    肝、

  • gall bladder,

    膽囊、

  • small intestine,

    小腸、

  • and large intestine,

    還有大腸、

  • also known as your colon.

    或者叫結腸。 (譯註:有些定義的大腸包含盲腸、結腸、和直腸。)

  • Although each individual organ in this organ system

    雖然消化系統中的每一個器官

  • does a very different job,

    都執行不同的工作,

  • together, these organs work to achieve the one goal

    但合在一起,這些器官都是為了同一個目標

  • of taking all the nutrients out of the food we eat

    ──從我們吃的食物裡吸收養分、

  • and getting rid of what we don't need.

    然後排除體內廢物。

  • An organ system, by definition,

    依照定義,一個系統

  • can only do one job,

    只會有一個工作目標,

  • like get the nutrients from our food,

    比如說是從食物吸收養分、

  • send and receive electrical signals,

    傳遞接收電流訊號、

  • or exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide.

    或是交換氧氣和二氧化碳。

  • Regardless of their individual function,

    儘管各個系統功能不同,

  • all organ systems rely on one another

    但它們彼此互相依賴以維持生命

  • to do the vital jobs which they can't do themselves.

    它們無法只靠自己。

  • If one organ system doesn't work,

    如果一個系統失效了,

  • the others will shut down, too.

    其他的系統也會跟著無法運作。

  • An organism is a complicated, living thing,

    生命體是指 一個複雜的、有生命的個體,

  • which requires the proper functioning

    它依賴各個系統的

  • of multiple organ systems to maintain stability.

    不同功能 來維持一種穩定的狀態。

  • This stability is called homeostasis.

    這穩定的狀態稱為 體內平衡(homeostasis)。

  • When all organ systems are working together

    當所有系統相互合作

  • and maintaining homeostasis,

    維持體內平衡,

  • then it results in a happy, living organism.

    那這就會是個快樂的、存活的生命體。

  • Organisms are incredibly diverse

    有各式各樣的生命體,

  • and can be as simple as a bacteria

    它可以像細菌那樣簡單,

  • or as complex as you.

    也可以跟你一樣複雜。

  • When a group of the same organisms,

    當一群同樣的、

  • also known as a species,

    或說是同種的生命體

  • live together in the same environment,

    共同存活在同一個環境裡,

  • we then call it a population.

    我們稱之為族群。

  • Often there are several populations

    往往有許多族群

  • all living in one environment.

    生活在同一個環境裡。

  • That is what we call a community.

    這就是我們說的群落。

  • Each time you look out the window,

    當你看著窗外時,

  • you're seeing a community.

    你就會看到一個群落。

  • When we look at multiple communities,

    當我們看到許多不同群落

  • along with how all of the organisms

    還有所有生命體

  • interact with the physical environment,

    和外在環境互動時,

  • then we refer to it as an ecosystem.

    我們就把它叫作生態系統。

  • When you look at all the ecosystems of Earth together,

    而地球上所有生態系統結合在一起

  • you're looking at

    我們就能看見

  • the Earth.

    整個地球。

  • The Earth is a big, round circle of life.

    地球是一個巨大、充滿生物的球體

  • That's why we call it a biosphere -

    這也是為什麼我們把它稱作 生物圈(biosphere):

  • bio, meaning life

    bio 指的是生命

  • and sphere, meaning circle.

    而 sphere 指的就是圓圈。

  • And there you go!

    事情就是這樣!

  • When you break it down to each level,

    當你把它分成各個層級,

  • a very complex concept and phrase

    複雜的觀念和名詞

  • becomes easy to understand.

    就會變得簡單易懂。

  • All life starts with a single cell.

    所有生命源自於細胞。

  • When cells join together,

    當細胞聚在一起

  • they are called a tissue.

    就成了組織。

  • A group of different tissues are called an organ,

    一群不一樣的組織組成器官,

  • and a group of different organs are an organ system.

    而一群不一樣的器官組成系統。

  • A group of organ systems working together

    當系統一起運作時

  • make up an organism,

    就成了生命體,

  • and a group of the same organisms are a population.

    而一群同種生命體叫作族群。

  • Combining several different populations together

    把許多不同族群合在一起

  • give us a community.

    會得到群落。

  • And several different communities in a large area

    一個大區域裡的眾多群落

  • is an ecosystem.

    稱為生態系統。

  • And every ecosystem together

    而每一個生態系共同組成了

  • makes up our biosphere.

    我們的生命圈。

  • And that, my friends, is biological organization,

    而我的朋友,這就是生物組織

  • the pyramid of life.

    ──生命的金字塔。

I like to think of life science as one big pyramid.

我喜歡將生命科學比喻成一座金字塔。

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 組織 細胞 群落 金字塔 生物

【TED-Ed】瞭解不同層次的生命組織 (Making sense of how life fits together - Bobbi Seleski) (Making sense of how life fits together - Bobbi Seleski)

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    VoiceTube 發佈於 2013 年 11 月 30 日
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