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  • I'm an historian.

    譯者: Helen Chang 審譯者: Bruce Sung

  • And what I love about being an historian is it gives you perspective.

    我是歷史學家。

  • Today, I'd like to bring that perspective to education in the United States.

    我喜歡當歷史學家 是因為它帶來觀點。

  • About the only thing people can agree on

    今天,我想把這觀點 帶入美國的教育。

  • is that the most strategic time for a child to start learning

    人們唯一能夠達成的共識是

  • is early.

    最佳的兒童開始學習時間是學前。

  • Over 50 years ago,

    五十多年前,

  • there was a watershed moment in early education in the US

    美國的學前教育 出現了一個分水嶺

  • called "Head Start."

    叫做「Head Start」 (啟蒙方案)。

  • Now, historians love watersheds

    歷史學家喜歡分水嶺,

  • because it makes it so easy to talk about what came before

    因為它能夠容易區分

  • and what's happened since.

    之前和之後的情況。

  • Before Head Start, basically nothing.

    在 Head Start 之前 基本上什麼都沒有。

  • With Head Start,

    透過 Head Start 開始為我國

  • we began to get our nation's most at-risk children ready for school.

    處境最危險的兒童準備好上學。

  • Since Head Start, we've made strides,

    Head Start 帶來了長足的進步,

  • but there are still 2.2 million children in the US

    但美國仍有 220 萬名兒童

  • without access to early learning,

    沒得到學前教育,

  • or more than half of the four-year-olds in the country.

    超過我國四歲兒童的半數。

  • That's a problem.

    那是個問題。

  • But the bigger problem is what we know happens to those children.

    但更大的問題是我們知道 那些兒童的預後不良。

  • At-risk children who reach school without basic skills

    他們日後上學時不具備基本的技能,

  • are 25 percent more likely to drop out,

    輟學的可能性增加 25%,

  • 40 percent more likely to become teen parents

    成為未成年父母的可能性增加 40%,

  • and 60 percent less likely to go to college.

    上大學的可能性減少 60%。

  • So if we know how important early education is,

    既然我們知道它的重要性,

  • why aren't all children getting it?

    為何有些兒童還是沒受學前教育呢?

  • There are barriers that the solutions we've come up with to date

    迄今為止提出的解決方案

  • simply can't overcome.

    存在著無法克服的障礙。

  • Geography: think rural and remote.

    地理位置:偏鄉。

  • Transportation: think working parents everywhere.

    上學的交通:父母得要工作。

  • Parent choice: no state requires a four-year-old to go to school.

    家長的選擇:沒有任何一州 要求四歲的兒童必須得上學。

  • And cost: the average cost for a state to educate a preschooler

    還有成本:各州教育 學齡前兒童的平均成本是

  • is five thousand dollars a year.

    每年五千美元。

  • So am I just going to keep talking about problems?

    難道我只繼續列舉有多麼困難嗎?

  • No.

    不。

  • Today, I want to tell you about a cost-effective, technology-delivered,

    今天,我將講述一個具成本效益、

  • kindergarten-readiness program that can be done in the home.

    以科技為基礎和可在家完成的 幼稚園準備計劃。

  • It's called UPSTART,

    它被稱為 UPSTART,

  • and more than 60,000 preschoolers in the US have already used it.

    美國已有超過六萬名 學齡前兒童獲益。

  • Now, I know what you might be thinking:

    我知道你們在想什麼:

  • here's another person throwing tech at a national problem.

    又是一個嘗試以科技 解決我國問題的人。

  • And you'd be partially right.

    你們有部分正確。

  • We develop early learning software designed to individualize instruction,

    我們開發了個性化教學的 學前教育軟體,

  • so children can learn at their own pace.

    讓兒童們按照自己的進度學習。

  • To do that, we rely on experts from fields ranging from reading to sociology

    為此,我們倚賴各領域的專家——

  • to brain science development to all aspects of early learning,

    閱讀、社會學、大腦發育 和各方面學前教育的專家——

  • to tell us what the software should do and look like.

    來告訴我們這軟體該做什麼、 看起來該是什麼模樣。

  • Here's an example.

    舉個例子。

  • (Video) Zero (sings to the tune of "Day-O"): Zero!

    (影片)0(唱《Day-O》):0!

  • Zero!

    0!

  • Zero is the number that's different from the others.

    0 與其他的數字不同。

  • Seagulls: Zero is a big, round "O."

    海鷗:0 是一個大而圓的 「O」。

  • Zero: It's not like one, I'm sure you'll discover.

    0:它不像 1 我相信你會發現。

  • Seagulls: Zero is a big, round "O."

    海鷗:0 是一個大而圓的「O」。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Claudia Miner: That is "The Zero Song."

    克勞迪婭•麥訥:那是《0 的歌》。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And here are Odd Todd and Even Steven to teach you some things about numbers.

    有奇數陶德(Odd Todd) 和偶數史蒂芬(Even Steven)

  • And here are the Word Birds,

    教些關於數字的事。

  • and they're going to show you when you blend letter sounds together,

    還有字鳥(Word Birds)教

  • you can form words.

    把字母的聲音混在一起就形成字。

  • You can see that instruction is short, colorful and catchy,

    看得到該指令簡短、 色彩鮮豔、引人入勝,

  • designed to capture a child's attention.

    旨在吸引兒童的注意力。

  • But there's another piece to UPSTART

    但 UPSTART 的另一部分

  • that makes it different and more effective.

    使它與眾不同和更有效。

  • UPSTART puts parents in charge of their children's education.

    UPSTART 讓父母負責子女的教育。

  • We believe, with the right support,

    有了正確的支持,我們相信

  • all parents can get their children ready for school.

    父母全都能讓孩子為上學做好準備。

  • Here's how it works.

    做法如下。

  • This is the kindergarten readiness checklist from a state.

    這是某個州的幼稚園準備清單。

  • And almost every state has one.

    幾乎每個州都有一份清單。

  • We go to parents wherever they are,

    無論在哪裡,我們會和父母

  • and we conduct a key in-person group training.

    進行一次關鍵的面對面培訓,

  • And we tell them the software can check every reading, math and science box,

    告訴他們軟體能檢查每個閱讀、 數學和科學的框框,

  • but they're going to be responsible for motor skills and self-help skills,

    但他們得要負責教 運動和自助的技能。

  • and together, we're going to work on social emotional learning.

    我們將一起教孩子們 學習社交和情感。

  • Now, we know this is working

    我們知道這有效,

  • because we have a 90-percent completion rate for the program.

    因為我們的計劃完成率達到 90%。

  • Last year, that translated into 13,500 children

    去年已有 13,500 名獲得

  • "graduating," with diplomas, from UPSTART.

    畢業文憑的 UPSTART 兒童。

  • And the results have been amazing.

    結果太棒了。

  • We have an external evaluation

    外部的評估顯示

  • that shows our children have two to three times the learning gains

    我們兒童的學習成績是

  • as children who don't participate in the program.

    未參加此計劃兒童的二到三倍。

  • We have a random control trial that shows strong evidence of effectiveness,

    我們有一項隨機對照的試驗 呈現卓著成效的有力證據。

  • and we even have a longitudinal study

    我們還進行了一項縱向研究

  • that shows our children's gains last into third and fourth grade,

    顯示我們兒童的好成績持續到 三年級和四年級,

  • the highest grades the children had achieved at the time.

    這是目前兒童們上到的最高年級。

  • Those are academic gains.

    這些都是學術成果。

  • But another study has shown that our children's social emotional gains

    但另一項研究顯示 我們兒童的社交情商

  • are equal to those of children attending public and private preschool.

    與上公私立幼稚園的兒童相同。

  • The majority of the 60,000 children who have participated in UPSTART to date

    迄今為止,大多數 參加 UPSTART 的

  • have been from Utah.

    六萬名兒童來自猶他州。

  • But we have replicated our results

    但是我們在密西西比州的 非裔兒童中複製了結果——

  • with African-American children in Mississippi --

    這是金斯敦和他的母親;

  • this is Kingston and his mother;

    亞利桑那州學習英語的

  • with English language learners in Arizona --

    黛西和她的家人;

  • this is Daisy and her family;

    與費城的難民兒童——

  • with refugee children in Philadelphia -- this is my favorite graduation photo;

    這是我最喜歡的畢業照;

  • and with Native American children

    以及美國一些最偏遠地區的 美洲原住民兒童。

  • from some of the most remote parts of the United States.

    這是住在紀念碑谷的雪瑞。

  • This is Cherise, and this is where she lives in Monument Valley.

    有人對 UPSTART 存疑。

  • Now, there are skeptics about UPSTART.

    有人不認為應該給幼童用電腦。

  • Some people don't believe young children should have screen time.

    我們對他們的答覆是:

  • To them, we say:

    UPSTART 每週五天, 每天 15 分鐘的使用要求,

  • UPSTART's usage requirement of 15 minutes a day, five days a week,

    落在美國兒科學會建議給 四歲兒童的每天不超過一小時之內。

  • is well within the hour-a-day recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics

    有些人認為只有送去幼稚園才行。

  • for four-year-olds.

    我們的答覆是:上幼稚園很棒,

  • Some people believe only site-based preschool can work,

    但是如果住的地方離幼稚園很遠 或是父母不把孩子往那裡送,

  • and to them, we say: site-based preschool is great,

    那麼我們所提供的技術 是不是個好選項呢?

  • but if you can't get a child there or if a parent won't send a child there,

    我們也喜歡與幼稚園合作。

  • isn't a technology-delivered, results-based option a great alternative?

    現在密西西比州有八百名兒童

  • And we love working with site-based preschools.

    在白天前往 Head Start,

  • Right now, there are 800 children in Mississippi

    還在晚上與家人 一起做 UPSTART。

  • going to Head Start during the day

    我們的大膽主意是 將 UPSTART 帶到全國各地——

  • and doing UPSTART at night with their families.

    不是要取而代之,

  • Our audacious idea is to take UPSTART across the country --

    而是希望服務那些 沒接受學前教育的兒童。

  • not to replace anything;

    我們有勇氣與懷疑的人較量,

  • we want to serve children who otherwise would not have access to early education.

    我們有充沛的精力去做,

  • We have the guts to take on the skeptics,

    我們還有計劃。

  • we have the energy to do the work,

    教育孩童是各州的責任。

  • and we have a plan.

    因此我們將先用慈善資金

  • It is the role of the states to educate their children.

    啟動州政府進行試點計劃 以及收取數據。

  • So first we will use philanthropy dollars

    各州都自認獨一無二,

  • to go into a state to pilot the program and get data.

    在把錢投入計劃之前 希望確定它會對孩童有用。

  • Every state believes it's unique

    所以我們找出州內的關鍵領導人 來幫助和倡議支持 UPSTART

  • and wants to know that the program will work with its children

    作為得不到學前教育的兒童的選項。

  • before investing.

    然後我們一起去州立法機構,

  • Then we identify key leaders in the state to help us champion UPSTART

    將 UPSTART 從慈善事業

  • as an option for unserved children.

    轉為由可持續、 可擴展的政府資金支持。

  • And together, we go to state legislatures

    那個計劃奏效了......

  • to transition UPSTART from philanthropy

    (掌聲)

  • to sustainable and scalable state funding.

    謝謝。

  • That plan has worked --

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    到目前為止,該計劃 已在三個州展開:

  • Thanks.

    猶他州、印第安納州 和南卡羅來納州。

  • Thank you.

    我們還在多個州試行和找出倡議者。

  • That plan has worked in three states to date:

    接下來,我們將移到 地理障礙最大的州來實施。

  • Utah, Indiana and South Carolina.

    然後到那些已有學前教育

  • We've also piloted the program in a number of states

    但學術成績可能不佳

  • and identified champions.

    或缺少多數家長參與和支持的州。

  • Next, we're moving to states with the greatest geographic barriers

    然後我們會前往需要 最多數據和說服的州,

  • to work the plan,

    希望我們的動能有助於 扭轉當地的局勢。

  • and then on to states that already have early education

    我們將在五年內為 25 萬名兒童服務,

  • but may not be getting great academic results

    確保各州繼續為其孩童 提供 UPSTART。

  • or great parent buy-in to participate.

    你們可以幫忙:

  • From there, we go to the states

    用兩千美元

  • that are going to require the most data and work to convince,

    可提供一名兒童 UPSTART、 電腦和網際網路,

  • and we'll hope our momentum helps turn the tide there.

    該兒童將成為其他兒童

  • We will serve a quarter of a million children in five years,

    將來獲得 UPSTART 先期測試的一部分。

  • and we will ensure that states continue to offer UPSTART to their children.

    我們還需要參與的公民 去說服他們的政府

  • Here's how you can help:

    讓兒童們準備好上學有多麼容易。

  • for two thousand dollars,

    你們是熱心參與的公民 所以今天人在這裡,

  • we can provide a child with UPSTART, a computer and internet,

    因此我們懇請你們幫忙。

  • and that child will be part of the pilot

    我們一起能讓 UPSTART 成為學前教育的分水嶺嗎?

  • that makes certain other children get UPSTART in the future.

    我相信我們能夠攜手共創。

  • We also need engaged citizens to go to their government

    但毫無疑問,我能告訴你們,

  • and say just how easy it can be to get children ready for school.

    UPSTART 是若干兒童 生命中的一個分水嶺,

  • You wouldn't be here if you weren't an engaged citizen,

    否則他們將無法準備好去上學。

  • so we're asking for your help.

    謝謝。

  • Now, will all of us this make UPSTART a watershed moment in early education?

    (掌聲)

  • I believe together we can make it one.

  • But I can tell you without a doubt

  • that UPSTART is a watershed moment

  • in the life of a child who otherwise would not be ready for school.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

I'm an historian.

譯者: Helen Chang 審譯者: Bruce Sung

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