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  • When historians talk about the atrocities of the 20th century,

    譯者: Crystal Yip 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • we often think of those that took place during and between the two World Wars.

    當歷史學家談論 二十世紀的歷史暴行

  • Along with the Armenian genocide in modern-day Turkey,

    我們經常想起發生在 兩次世界大戰前後和期間的那些事件

  • the Rape of Nanking in China,

    除了現今土耳其內的 亞美尼亞種族大屠殺

  • and Kristallnacht in Germany,

    中國的南京大屠殺

  • another horrific ethnic cleansing campaign

    德國的「水晶之夜」

  • occurred on an island between the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea.

    有另一場極其可怕的種族清洗

  • The roots of this conflict go back to 1492,

    發生在大西洋和加勒比海間的島嶼

  • when Christopher Columbus stumbled onto the Caribbean island

    衝突的根源可追溯至 1492 年

  • that would come to be named Hispaniola, launching a wave of European colonization.

    當克里斯多福·哥倫布 踏足這加勒比海島

  • The island's Taíno natives were decimated by violence and disease

    後會被命名為伊斯帕尼奥拉島, 展開一波歐洲殖民統治

  • and the Europeans imported large numbers of enslaved Africans

    島上旳原住民泰諾族 因為暴力和疾病而滅絕

  • to toil in profitable sugar plantations.

    歐洲人輸入大量非洲奴隸

  • By 1777, the island had become divided

    來種植利潤豐厚的甘蔗

  • between a French-controlled West and a Spanish-controlled East.

    時至 1777,島上分裂為

  • A mass slave revolt won Haiti its independence from France in 1804

    法國控制的西部和西班牙控制的東部

  • and it became the world's first black republic.

    大眾奴隸革命成功, 於 1804 年海地脫離法國獨立

  • But the new nation paid dearly,

    而它成為世界上首個黑人共和國

  • shut out of the world economy and saddled with debt by its former masters.

    但這新國家付出沉重代價

  • Meanwhile, the Dominican Republic would declare independence

    被世界經濟拒諸門外, 並欠了前宗主國債項。

  • by first overthrowing Haitian rule of eastern Hispaniola

    同時,多米尼加共和國將宣告獨立

  • and later Spanish and American colonialism.

    推翻海地在 伊斯帕尼奥拉島東部的統治

  • Despite the long and collaborative history shared by these two countries,

    和其後西班牙和美國的殖民統治

  • many Dominican elites saw Haiti as a racial threat

    雖然兩國合作已久

  • that imperiled political and commercial relations with white western nations.

    許多多米尼加精英視海地為種族威脅

  • In the years following World War I,

    危害他們與西方白人國家的 政治和商貿關係

  • the United States occupied both parts of the island.

    第一次世界大戰後

  • It did so to secure its power in the Western hemisphere

    美國同時佔據島上的兩地

  • by destroying local opposition and installing US-friendly governments.

    那是為了鞏固它在西半球的勢力

  • The brutal and racist nature of the US occupation,

    破壞當地反對者和安插親美政府

  • particularly along the remote Dominican-Haitian border,

    美國佔據時,殘暴並歧視種族

  • laid the foundation for bigger atrocities after its withdrawal.

    特別是沿著遙遠的多米尼加–海地邊界

  • In 1930, liberal Dominican president Horaciosquez

    為它撒出後更大型的 殘暴行為埋下種子

  • was overthrown by the chief of his army, Rafael Trujillo.

    1930 年,自由派的多米尼加總統 霍拉西奥·巴斯克斯

  • Despite being a quarter Haitian himself,

    被軍方首長拉斐爾·特魯希略推翻

  • Trujillo saw the presence of a bicultural Haitian and Dominican borderland

    雖然有四分一海地血統

  • as both a threat to his power

    但他認為海地和 多米尼加邊境的雙文化

  • and an escape route for political revolutionaries.

    是對他權力的威脅

  • In a chilling speech on October 2, 1937,

    也是政治革命者的逃生路線

  • he left no doubt about his intentions for the region.

    在 1937 年 10 月 2 日 使人寒心的演講裡

  • Claiming to be protecting Dominican farmers from theft and incursion,

    他不留餘地地顯示出 他對於那地區的意圖

  • Trujillo announced the killing of 300 Haitians along the border

    宣稱為了保護多米尼加農夫 免於盜竊和侵犯

  • and promised that this so-called "remedy" would continue.

    特魯希略宣佈在邊境 殺害 300 名海地人

  • Over the next few weeks, the Dominican military,

    並承諾會繼續這所謂的「糾正」

  • acting on Trujillo's orders,

    在接下來數星期,多米尼加軍隊

  • murdered thousands of Haitian men and women,

    執行特魯希略的命令

  • and even their Dominican-born children.

    殺害數千海地人,有男有女

  • The military targeted black Haitians,

    甚至有多米尼加出生的兒童

  • even though many Dominicans themselves were also dark-skinned.

    軍隊瞄準黑海地人

  • Some accounts say that to distinguish the residents

    即使很多多米尼加人 自己也是黑皮膚的

  • of one country from the other,

    有些說法指為了分辨

  • the killers forced their victims to say the Spanish word for parsley.

    兩國居民

  • Dominicans pronounce it perejil, with a trilled Spanish "r."

    殺手強逼受害者說出 「香芹」的西班牙語

  • The primary Haitian language, however, is Kreyol, which doesn't use a trilled r.

    多米尼加人讀作「perejil」, 帶有「r」顫音

  • So if people struggled to say perejil,

    但在原初的海地語是克里奧爾語 沒有「r」顫音

  • they were judged to be Haitian and immediately killed.

    所以如果有人難以說出「perejil」

  • Yet recent scholarship suggests that tests like this

    他們就會被判斷為海地人 並立即被殺

  • weren't the sole factor used to determine who would be murdered,

    但最近學者指出如此測試

  • especially because many of the border residents were bilingual.

    不是唯一因素來決定誰會被殺害

  • The Dominican government censored any news of the massacre,

    特別是因為很多邊境居民懂得雙語

  • while bodies were thrown in ravines,

    多米尼加政府封鎖 任何關於那屠殺的報導

  • dumped in rivers,

    而屍體被丢進深谷裡

  • or burned to dispose of the evidence.

    扔下河裡

  • This is why no one knows exactly how many people were murdered,

    或燒掉來毀滅證據

  • though contemporary estimates range from about 4,000 to 15,000.

    這是無人知道確實被殺人數的原因

  • Yet the extent of the carnage was clear to many observers.

    而現今估計大約是四千至一萬五千

  • As the US Ambassador to the Dominican Republic at the time noted,

    但很多目擊者清楚知道 那場屠殺的規模

  • The entire northwest of the frontier on the Dajabón side

    據駐多米尼加共和國的 美國大使當時所記

  • is absolutely devoid of Haitians.

    「達哈翁內的整個西北邊境

  • Those not slain either fled across the frontier or are still hiding in the bush.”

    海地人完全絕跡

  • The government tried to disclaim responsibility

    那些沒被殺害的逃到了邊境另一方, 或仍然匿藏在叢林中

  • and blame the killings on vigilante civilians,

    政府嘗試拒絕承認責任

  • but Trujillo was condemned internationally.

    並歸咎於維持治安的平民

  • Eventually, the Dominican government

    但特魯希略受國際譴責

  • was forced to pay only $525,000 in reparations to Haiti,

    最後,多米尼加政府

  • but due to corrupt bureaucracy,

    被逼賠償,但只是 $525,000(美元)給海地

  • barely any of these funds reached survivors or their families.

    但因為腐敗的官僚

  • Neither Trujillo nor anyone in his government

    幾乎沒有任何金錢 到了倖存者或他們的家人手中

  • was ever punished for this crime against humanity.

    特魯希略或他政府的人

  • The legacy of the massacre remains a source of tension

    都未曾以危害人類罪被懲罰

  • between the two countries.

    那場屠殺仍然是 緊張關係的根源

  • Activists on both sides of the border have tried to heal the wounds of the past.

    在兩國之間

  • But the Dominican state has done little, if anything,

    邊境兩面的積極分子 都曾嘗試修補過去的傷口

  • to officially commemorate the massacre or its victims.

    但多米尼加政府做得很少,如有的話

  • Meanwhile, the memory of the Haitian massacre remains a chilling reminder

    來正式悼念那場屠殺或那些受害者

  • of how power-hungry leaders can manipulate people

    與此同時,海地大屠殺的回憶 仍是使人不寒而慄的提醒

  • into turning against their lifelong neighbors.

    貪戀權力的領袖能操控人

When historians talk about the atrocities of the 20th century,

譯者: Crystal Yip 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 海地 邊境 殺害 政府 大屠殺

醜陋的歷史。1937年海地大屠殺----愛德華-保利諾。 (Ugly history: The 1937 Haitian Massacre - Edward Paulino)

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    menghsuan228 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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