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  • Hey guys, I'm Stan Prokopenko.

    嘿伙計們,我是Stan Prokopenko。

  • I've been teaching drawing and painting for 10 years now.

    我已經教了10年的繪畫和繪畫。

  • I've seen a lot of portfolios.

    我見過很多投資組合。

  • I've critiqued thousands of assignments.

    我批評了成千上萬的任務。

  • And the problems I saw in student work back when I first started teaching are the same

    我在學生的工作中遇到的問題 當我第一次開始教學時是一樣的

  • one's I'm still seeing now.

    一個人我現在還在看。

  • These are fundamental issues that don't change with the latest version of photoshop or even

    這些是不會改變的基本問題 使用最新版本的photoshop甚至

  • what century you live in.

    你生活在哪個世紀。

  • Before we jump in, I want to quickly mention that I'm working on a drawing basics course.

    在我們進入之前,我想快速提一下 我正在學習繪圖基礎課程。

  • It's meant to be a new artist's first course.

    它意味著成為新藝術家的第一道菜。

  • Get you started doing the right things and hit the ground running.

    讓你開始做正確的事情 摔倒在地。

  • If you don't want to miss it when it comes out, get on the newsletter at proko.com/subscribe.

    如果您不想錯過它 在proko.com/subscribe上獲取時事通訊。

  • So, here are 5 shading mistakes you're probably making, and how to fix them.

    所以,這裡有5個陰影錯誤 製作,以及如何解決它們。

  • #5 - Icing Before Cake

    #5 - 蛋糕前結冰

  • I meet artists all the time who are just starting out, and they're practicing techniques and

    我一直在和剛剛開始的藝術家見面 他們正在練習技巧

  • anatomy and shading details and all this really cool stuff...

    解剖和陰影細節和這一切真的 酷的東西...

  • But it's not making their drawings better.

    但它並沒有讓他們的畫更好。

  • Why is that?

    這是為什麼?

  • While they're focused on all the fancy fun stuff, they're making huge proportion mistakes,

    雖然他們專注於所有花哨的樂趣 事情,他們犯了很大比例的錯誤,

  • their perspective is off, and their gesture is stiff.

    他們的觀點是關閉的,他們的姿態 很僵硬。

  • That's not even icing before cake, that's icing without cake.

    這甚至不是蛋糕之前的結冰,那是 沒有蛋糕的糖衣。

  • You've got to build your pictures and your skills with the fundamentals first.

    你必須建立你的照片和你的照片 首先是基礎知識的技能。

  • Each concept builds on the last.

    每個概念都建立在最後。

  • Surface stuff like anatomy, techniques and rendering details are all at the tippy-top,

    表面的東西,如解剖學,技術和 渲染細節都在頂部,

  • awesome but initially unnecessary and less important than the stuff at the bottom.

    很棒,但最初是不必要的,少了 比底部的東西重要。

  • You can't shade correctly if you don't know the simple form; you can't draw the simple

    如果你不知道,你不能正確遮蔭 簡單的形式;你不能畫出簡單的

  • form if you don't understand perspective; The forms don't matter if you can't draw a

    如果你不了解透視; 如果你不能畫一個表格無關緊要

  • straight line, keep your proportions in check or establish a dynamic pose.

    直線,控制你的比例 或建立動態姿勢。

  • This is a drawing I did a few years into my studies.

    這是我做了幾年的繪畫 學習。

  • If you think it's really good, you've fallen for my tricks.

    如果你認為它真的很好,你就會墮落 我的伎倆。

  • At this point in my development I got good at shading.

    在我的發展的這一點上,我變得很好 在陰影處。

  • But it's filled with structural errors.

    但它充滿了結構性錯誤。

  • I didn't really understand form.

    我真的不懂形式。

  • I just learned some effective tricks to make the drawing appear 3d.

    我剛學會了一些有效的技巧 圖紙顯示為3d。

  • An exaggerated core shadow, some reflected light, and a bright highlight as a cherry on top.

    一個誇張的核心影子,一些反映 光線明亮,作為櫻桃的亮點。

  • Wow, it's so easy!

    哇,這太容易了!

  • But it's all just a cheap distraction from the uninformed construction.

    但這只是一個廉價的分心 不知情的建築。

  • The icing might be the part that makes it look pretty or makes it stand out, but icing

    結冰可能是製造它的部分 看起來很漂亮或讓它脫穎而出,但結冰

  • by itself is gross...

    本身就是粗​​...

  • It's empty calories.

    這是空卡路里。

  • Remember this every time you want to draw eyelashes before the eye socket.

    每次想要畫畫時都要記住這一點 眼窩前的睫毛。

  • #4 - Bad reference

    #4 - 參考不好

  • Whoa, hold up guys, I just got tagged and I've got to take a selfie... let's see...

    哇,抱著傢伙,我剛剛被標記了 我必須自拍...讓我們看看...

  • First, camera up high, very slimming.

    首先,相機高,非常纖薄。

  • Kinda dark in here, turn flash on...

    有點黑暗在這裡,打開閃光燈......

  • Click...

    點擊...

  • Alright, now I've got to choose a nice filter...

    好吧,現在我必須選擇一個漂亮的過濾器......

  • Hmm... Tweak that a little bit...

    嗯...稍微調整一下......

  • Perfect.

    完善。

  • We've distorted and edited the shit out of that photo.

    我們歪曲並編輯了這個狗屎 那張照片。

  • It might be flattering or maybe even a good photo, but photography and drawing are two

    這可能是討人喜歡的,甚至可能是好的 照片,但攝影和繪畫是兩個

  • different fields.

    不同的領域。

  • Something that makes a good photo won't necessarily make good reference for drawing.

    製作好照片的東西不一定 為繪圖做好參考。

  • You won't be able to draw something like this, from a photo like this.

    你將無法畫出這樣的東西, 從這樣的照片。

  • Drawing from bad photos is super common, but super easy to fix.

    從糟糕的照片中汲取是非常常見的,但是 超級容易修復。

  • I wrote a blog post about it ages ago, so you can go there for a more detailed lesson

    我很久以前寫了一篇關於它的博客文章,所以 你可以去那裡學習更詳細的課程

  • on what makes good photo reference.

    什麼是好照片參考。

  • But to paraphrase...

    但是要解釋一下......

  • Don't use overexposed or underexposed photos.

    請勿使用過度曝光或曝光不足的照片。

  • Don't use flat-lit or flash-lit photos

    請勿使用平板照明或閃光燈照明

  • Don't use blurry photos

    不要使用模糊的照片

  • Don't use photos with extreme lens distortion

    請勿使用極端鏡頭失真的照片

  • Don't use tiny photos.

    不要使用微小的照片。

  • Make sure the resolution is high enough so you can at least see the forms of the nostrils

    確保分辨率足夠高 你至少可以看到鼻孔的形狀

  • and eyelids

    和眼皮

  • And don't use photoshopped photos from magazines

    並且不要使用雜誌上的photoshopped照片

  • When looking for reference, look for photos with good lighting and clear shadows, like this.

    尋找參考時,尋找照片 照明良好,陰影清晰,就像這樣。

  • This will translate into a dimensional drawing.

    這將轉化為尺寸圖。

  • Drawing from a flash photo like this with no shadows makes it much harder to define

    用這樣的flash照片繪製 沒有陰影使得定義更加困難

  • the forms in your drawing.

    圖紙中的表格。

  • It's possible, I've done it, but it takes a trained eye and ability to use subtle halftones

    這是可能的,我已經完成了,但它需要 訓練有素的眼睛和使用微妙半色調的能力

  • to define the forms.

    定義表單。

  • Beginners usually end up with flat, muddy looking patches of tone.

    初學者通常會變得扁平,泥濘 尋找色調。

  • If you're just getting started, I recommend sticking to photos with lighting that clearly

    如果你剛剛開始,我推薦 堅持照明清晰的照片

  • defines the forms.

    定義表格。

  • You can find photo packs made specifically for artists that have good lighting and minimal

    你可以找到專門製作的照片包 對於擁有良好照明和最小化的藝術家

  • touch-ups.

    觸摸起坐。

  • I've got some here.

    我有一些在這裡。

  • In the long run, the best thing to do is learn how to take your own reference photos.

    從長遠來看,最好的辦法是學習 如何拍攝自己的參考照片。

  • And if you can draw from life instead, well, that's better than any photo.

    如果你能從生活中汲取靈感,那就是 比任何照片都好。

  • #3 - Outlines

    #3 - 概述

  • There's always a silver lining, but there's also not, because the real world doesn't have

    總有一線希望,但有 也沒有,因為現實世界沒有

  • outlines.

    概括。

  • Yet as beginners, we all start by drawing thick, dark outlines around everything.

    然而作為初學者,我們都從繪畫開始 一切都很濃密,黑暗的輪廓。

  • Now, there's nothing wrong with linear drawing or cartoons if that's your intention.

    現在,線性繪圖沒有任何問題 或者漫畫,如果這是你的意圖。

  • But if you're trying to draw realistically, you need to be thoughtful about your outlines.

    但如果你想逼真地畫畫, 你需要考慮你的大綱。

  • It's ok to use them.

    可以使用它們。

  • It's a mistake to overuse them, or use them as a crutch.

    過度使用或使用它們是錯誤的 作為拐杖。

  • Stop thinking of 2D shapes and start thinking of 3D planes.

    停止思考2D形狀並開始思考 3D飛機

  • Knowing the structure of the nose - that means the planes of the nose, which are based off

    知道鼻子的結構 - 這意味著 鼻子的平面,基於

  • of anatomy, will help you place patches of tone that make it look like a convincing nose.

    解剖學,將幫助你擺放補丁 使它看起來像一個令人信服的鼻子的音調。

  • No need for outlines.

    不需要大綱。

  • You can draw a whole picture without any outlines, since that's how we actually see things.

    您可以繪製整個圖片,沒有任何輪廓, 因為那是我們實際看到的東西。

  • Masters like John Singer Sargent, know how to use both.

    像John Singer Sargent這樣的大師知道如何 同時使用兩者。

  • In the face of this drawing, he's not using outlines, just tone.

    面對這幅畫,他沒有使用 概述,只是語氣。

  • It's the center of interest, so he makes it more realistic.

    它是感興趣的中心,所以他成功了 更現實。

  • In all these secondary elements, he uses outlines.

    在所有這些次要元素中,他使用輪廓。

  • The outlines are deliberate.

    大綱是刻意的。

  • The tonal face and the outlined parts have a nice contrast.

    色調面和輪廓部分有 一個很好的對比。

  • And the outlines don't look boring.

    大綱看起來並不乏味。

  • They have a variety to their weight.

    它們的重量各不相同。

  • The jaw and neck are outlined.

    下顎和頸部有輪廓。

  • But the ear isn't.

    但耳朵不是。

  • The edge is lost into the background.

    邊緣丟失在背景中。

  • He used the outline sparingly, and only in areas where he wanted the forms to pop.

    他謹慎地使用了輪廓,只在區域使用 他想要表格流行的地方。

  • The left side of the figure is separated from the background with a value difference.

    圖的左側是分開的 具有價值差異的背景。

  • The jaw, neck, shirt, bowtie, and jacket are all very similar in value.

    下巴,脖子,襯衫,領結和夾克都是 價值非常相似。

  • To separate them with tone, would require very subtle shading.

    要用音調來區分它們 非常微妙的陰影。

  • In a quick drawing like this, too much detail in secondary elements could look overworked.

    像這樣的快速繪圖,太多細節 次要元素可能看起來過度勞累。

  • A well placed outline is clean and simple.

    放置好的輪廓清晰簡潔。

  • It does the job.

    它完成了這項工作。

  • #2 - Afraid of the Dark

    #2 - 害怕黑暗

  • The next mistake is not going dark enough with your shadows.

    下一個錯誤是不夠黑暗 與你的陰影。

  • I see this all the time, especially on portraits.

    我一直都會看到這一點,特別是在肖像畫上。

  • People are afraid to put dark shadows on fair skin, because they know that the local color

    人們害怕將陰影放在公平的地方 皮膚,因為他們知道當地的顏色

  • of the skin is pale, so they think light skin, light values.

    皮膚很蒼白,所以他們覺得皮膚很淺, 光值。

  • But the shadow is just a shadow.

    但影子只是一個影子。

  • It's the lack of light.

    這是缺乏光明。

  • It's supposed to be dark.

    它應該是黑暗的。

  • Or some people are afraid to go too dark because they might not be able to erase it, so their

    或者有些人害怕因為太黑暗 他們可能無法抹去它,所以他們的

  • shadows end up being just as light as their halftones.

    陰影最終和他們一樣輕 半色調。

  • By removing the shadows, you remove the mood that the lighting created.

    通過刪除陰影,您可以消除情緒 照明創造了。

  • And you're losing the 3-dimensionality of the forms.

    你正在失去三維性 形式。

  • If you don't like the lighting in the photo, why did you use the photo?

    如果您不喜歡照片中的照明, 你為什麼用這張照片?

  • Retake it!

    重新開始吧!

  • Don't make it that hard on yourself.

    不要讓自己變得那麼難。

  • Inventing a new light setup on a face is really hard.

    實際上,在臉上發明新的燈光設置 硬。

  • If you're advanced you can do whatever.

    如果你先進,你可以做任何事情。

  • You can draw a pretty girl while looking at a beaver!

    你可以在看的同時畫一個漂亮的女孩 海狸!

  • But if you're a beginner, don't.

    但如果你是初學者,不要。

  • So, to avoid muddy or cartoony drawings, learn how to see values correctly.

    因此,為了避免泥濘或卡通圖紙,請學習 如何正確看待價值觀。

  • When you're drawing, make sure you separate the light family from the shadow family.

    在繪畫時,請確保分開 來自影子世家的光明家族。

  • Remember the rule: the lightest dark is darker than the darkest light.

    記住規則:最亮的黑暗更暗 比最黑暗的光。

  • If you're not sure what that means, this next mistake is for you.

    如果您不確定這意味著什麼,那麼下一步 錯誤是給你的。

  • And #1 - Sloppy Values

    而#1 - 邋Values的價值觀

  • The most common shading mistake I see is not organizing your values correctly.

    我看到的最常見的陰影錯誤不是 正確組織你的價值觀。

  • Not making your shadows dark enough like I mentioned in the last mistake is one way,

    不像我一樣讓你的陰影變暗 在最後一個錯誤中提到的是一種方式,

  • but making your halftones too dark is just as bad.

    但是你的半色調太暗了 一樣糟糕。

  • So, general sloppiness with your value control is the bigger issue.

    所以,你的價值控制一般邋.. 是一個更大的問題。

  • The first thing that is important to understand is that the value on any particular point

    首先要理解的是重要的事情 是任何特定點的價值

  • on the surface is mostly determined by the angle of the surface in relation to the light source.

    在表面上大多是由 表面相對於光源的角度。

  • Unless you're dealing with highly reflective surfaces, then they act more like a mirror

    除非你處理高度反思 表面,然後它們更像鏡子

  • to the environment.

    對環境。

  • For now, let's stick to surfaces like skin, which are slightly reflective.

    現在,讓我們堅持像皮膚一樣的表面, 有點反光。

  • I did a lesson on "How to Shade a Drawing" a while ago.

    我做了一個關於“如何遮蔽繪畫”的課程 不久前。

  • I highly recommend you watch that next.

    我強烈建議你注意下一步。

  • But generally, the part of the surface that points directly toward the light is called

    但一般來說,表面的那部分 直接指向光的點被稱為

  • the center light.

    中心燈。

  • It will be the brightest spot, excluding any reflected highlights.

    這將是最亮點,不包括任何 反映亮點。

  • As the surface turns away from the light source, those planes will get progressively darker.

    當表面遠離光源時, 那些飛機將逐漸變暗。

  • These are known as halftones.

    這些被稱為半色調。

  • The more they face away the darker they are.

    他們越是面對他們越黑暗。

  • After we pass what's called the "terminator" the planes don't receive any direct light

    在我們通過所謂的“終結者”之後 飛機沒有任何直射光

  • from the light source, since they are facing away from the light.

    來自光源,因為他們正面臨著 遠離光明。

  • Everything in there is shadow.

    那裡的一切都是陰影。

  • Unless you're in space, shadows won't be pure black.

    除非你在太空,否則陰影不會是純粹的 黑色。

  • Light will bounce off other things in the environment.

    光會從其他東西中彈回來 環境。

  • So, within the shadows you'll have bounce light, or reflected light.

    所以,在陰影中你會反彈 光或反射光。

  • But those are still darker than the halftones in the lit side.

    但那些仍然比半色調更暗 在光明的一面。

  • That's the general concept.

    這是一般概念。

  • There's also occlusion shadows, cast shadows, core shadows and highlights, but you can go

    還有遮擋陰影,投射陰影, 核心陰影和亮點,但你可以去

  • go over the other lesson for the full explanation.

    翻閱另一課以獲得完整的解釋。

  • Ok, now that you understand form and how light reveals form, it's important to stay consistent

    好的,現在你了解形式和光線 揭示形式,保持一致是很重要的

  • throughout your drawing.

    整個繪圖。

  • Light revealed the 3 dimensional forms because the value of a plane tells the viewer the

    光顯示了三維形式,因為 飛機的價值告訴觀眾

  • angle of that plane.

    那個飛機的角度。

  • If you make your halftones as dark as your shadows, then you're not communicating the

    如果你讓你的半色調像你的一樣黑暗 陰影,然後你沒有溝通

  • correct plane angles and that breaks the illusion of form.

    正確的平面角度,打破了幻覺 形式。

  • That brings us back to that rule: the lightest dark is darker than the darkest light.

    這讓我們回到了那個規則:最輕的 黑暗比最黑暗的光暗。

  • Let me rephrase that a little.

    讓我重新說一點。

  • The lightest shadow is darker than the darkest halftone.

    最淺的陰影比最黑暗的陰影暗 半色調。

  • Make a little more sense?

    更有意義嗎?

  • You'd think that this reflected light under the jaw is lighter than this halftone on the

    你會認為這反映了光線 顎比這個半色調輕

  • side of his check, right?

    他的支票一邊吧?

  • Well... wrong!

    嗯......錯!

  • I'll prove it.

    我會證明這一點。

  • Sample this color.

    採樣這種顏色。

  • Extend it out so you can see it's the same color.

    擴展它,這樣你就可以看到它是一樣的 顏色。

  • Then do the same with this side.

    然後對這一方做同樣的事情。

  • Whoooooa.

    Whoooooa。

  • So, if it's in the shadow family, it should be darker than anything in the light family.

    所以,如果它在陰影家族中,它應該 比光明家族的任何東西都要暗。

  • Organize your values and use them correctly in your drawing.

    組織您的價值觀並正確使用它們 在你的繪畫中。

  • And I don't mean that you have to organize your values exactly like this.

    我並不是說你必須組織起來 你的價值觀就像這樣。

  • You can stretch your light family and shrink the shadows.

    你可以拉伸你的光系列並縮小 陰影。

  • Or you can add more contrast between the two.

    或者您可以在兩者之間添加更多對比度。

  • You don't even have to use the full value scale.

    您甚至不必使用完整的值 規模。

  • You can limit your values so that your darkest dark is a value 5.

    您可以限制您的價值,以便最黑暗 黑暗是一個值5。

  • But the relationship of the values are still organized.

    但價值觀的關係仍然存在 舉辦。

  • And the key is to stay consistent with that throughout your drawing.

    關鍵是要與之保持一致 整個繪圖。

  • If you break that, it should be intentional.

    如果你打破它,它應該是故意的。

  • There's also incomplete shadows.

    還有不完整的陰影。

  • Scratchy shading that has all these little holes of light in the shadow.

    具有所有這些的小刮痕陰影 陰影中的光洞。

  • The holes are as light as a highlight, and they break up the shadow and ruin the effect

    這些洞和高光一樣輕盈 他們打破陰影並破壞效果

  • of light on form.

    形式上的光。

  • So the shadows don't actually look dark, they just look spotty.

    所以陰影實際上看起來並不暗,他們 看起來不穩定。

  • Shadows look like halftones and halftones look like shadows...The result is dirty looking skin.

    陰影看起來像半色調和半色調 看起來像陰影......結果是看起來很髒的皮膚。

  • You can fix this by filling in the holes manually, blending, or preventing it from happening

    您可以通過手動填充孔來解決此問題, 混合或防止它發生

  • in the first place by shading with tight, close-together lines.

    首先用陰影著色, 緊密的線。

  • When the shadows are consistent and clean like this, it has a much more realistic and

    當陰影一致且乾淨時 像這樣,它有一個更現實和

  • 3-dimensional feeling.

    立體感。

  • The goal is to clearly communicate what is light and what is shadow.

    目標是清楚地傳達什麼是 光和什麼是影子。

  • That makes clear 3D form.

    這清楚地表明了3D形式。

  • Here's another example of a master breaking the rules.

    這是另一個打破大師的例子 規則。

  • Harry Carmean doesn't always fill in his shadows with clean tone.

    Harry Carmean並不總是填補他的陰影 乾淨的語氣。

  • But, he's still clearly communicating what is shadow and what is light.

    但是,他仍然清楚地傳達了什麼 是影子,什麼是光。

  • He uses the dark pencil only in the shadows.

    他只在陰影中使用深色鉛筆。

  • He uses the white pencil only in the lights.

    他只在燈光下使用白色鉛筆。

  • This clearly distinguishes the two.

    這清楚地區分了兩者。

  • His mess is extremely well controlled.

    他的混亂得到了很好的控制。

  • It's full of energy and fun to look at.

    看起來充滿活力和樂趣。

  • It's skillfully designed, the anatomy is accurate and dynamic.

    它設計巧妙,解剖結構準確 和動態。

  • It all holds together.

    這一切都在一起。

  • Again, if you want to participate in the Drawing Basics course, make sure you're subscribed.

    再次,如果你想參與繪圖 基礎知識課程,請確保您已訂閱。

  • And if you have a few seconds, do me a favor.

    如果你有幾秒鐘,幫我一個忙。

  • If you have any friends or classmates that make some of these mistakes, save them!

    如果你有任何朋友或同學 做出一些這些錯誤,拯救他們!

  • Tell them about this video.

    告訴他們這個視頻。

Hey guys, I'm Stan Prokopenko.

嘿伙計們,我是Stan Prokopenko。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 照片 黑暗 繪畫 使用 輪廓 影子

5大遮光錯誤 (Top 5 Shading Mistakes)

  • 160 11
    qqqzero1 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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