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  • They've been called a generation of dreams deferred.

    他們被稱為夢想遲來的世代。

  • One out of every seven people here in Europe between the ages of 15 and 24 who wants a job can't find one.

    在歐洲,每七個就有一個 15 歲至 24 歲的青年想找工作卻找不到。

  • And many who do have found jobs are stuck in part-time or temporary positions.

    而許多有工作的人,做的都是兼職或臨時工。

  • And it's not just a phenomenon happening here in Europe.

    且這並不只是歐洲才有的現象。

  • Young people all around the world are feeling the pain from income inequality.

    全世界的年輕人都正因收入不平等而痛苦。

  • There are all kinds of inequality in the world like gender, wealth, or race.

    世上有許多不同的不平等,如性別、財富或種族。

  • We're going to look specifically at income inequality and the effect that it's having on younger generations.

    今天,我們要專注於收入不平等,與它對年輕族群的影響。

  • Simply put, income inequality refers to the gap in income which is the money you earn from your job or investments between the rich and the poor.

    簡而言之,收入不平等指的是富人與窮人間,工作收入與投資收入總和的差距。

  • It's not exactly a pretty picture right now.

    現在,這差距並不太好看。

  • Since 1980, the top 1% has taken a bigger slice of the world's income, while the bottom 50%'s share has stagnated.

    從 1980 年以來,最富有的 1% 拿走世上更多的財富,而底層 50% 的人卻仍原地踏步。

  • That picture is even more dramatic in the world's biggest economy, the U.S.

    在世上最大的經濟體,美國,情況更加嚴重。

  • And in many ways, it's even worse for young people.

    許多方面來說,這對年輕人來說更不好。

  • Let's come back to Europe to help understand why.

    讓我們回到歐洲,了解一切的原因。

  • After the financial crisis in 2007, incomes declined across the board as people lost their jobs.

    在 2007 年金融危機後,人們因失業而造成收入普遍下降。

  • Research from the International Monetary Fund found that as the European economy started to recover, the incomes of people aged 65 or older increased by 10%, in part because their pensions were protected.

    國際貨幣基金組織研究指出,隨著歐洲經濟漸漸復甦,65 歲以上人們的收入增加了 10%,部分原因是退休金有被保障。

  • Meanwhile, the incomes of young people recovered but didn't ever grow.

    同時,年輕世代的收入恢復了,但沒有成長。

  • The research said that because young people didn't have as much professional experience, they were the first to be let go or they were less likely to find work.

    研究指出,因為年輕人較沒有專業經驗,所以通常會第一個被資遣,或者他們較難找到工作。

  • Those who did find jobs often accepted lower wages than before.

    有找到工作的人也傾向於接受較以往低的薪資。

  • Others took part-time work, which doesn't offer the same benefits or safety nets.

    許多人做兼職,導致他們沒有得到如正職的保障。

  • That helps explain why the youth unemployment rate across the 28 countries in the EU is so high at 14%.

    這解釋了為何歐洲 28 國年輕人的失業率高達 14%。

  • That's more than double the EU's overall unemployment rate across all ages.

    這比歐洲全部人口失業率的兩倍還要多。

  • This younger generation also has more debt relative to their income than any other age group.

    這年輕世代相較於其他年齡層也有較多收入相關債務。

  • This leaves them much more exposed if the economy unexpectedly gets worse again and could get them into deeper trouble with their finances.

    這使得他們更加暴露於經濟的起伏,若經濟又變差,可能會使得他們的財務更加艱辛。

  • One glaring example is student debt.

    其中一個明顯的例子為學貸。

  • As demand for higher education in the U.S. has increased over the years, so has the cost of college and student debt.

    美國高等教育的需求逐年升高,而大學學費與學貸也是。

  • National student loan debt sits at $1.5 trillion, making it the second largest type of consumer debt after mortgages.

    全國的學生貸款有 150 萬兆美元 (約 4,587 萬兆台幣),為除抵押貸款外,第二大的消費債務。

  • Student debt is increasingly becoming a concern in other countries too, like Canada, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, South Korea, and Japan.

    越來越多國家的學貸成為一種隱憂,如加拿大、英國、紐西蘭、南韓與日本。

  • You can see how inequality is playing out by looking at poverty rates.

    由此可知,不平等是如何影響貧窮率。

  • Before the financial crisis, the risk of slipping into poverty was more evenly spread among age groups.

    在金融危機前,成為窮人的危機是平均分散於每個年齡層的。

  • Now, one out of every four young people in Europe is at risk of poverty.

    而現在,歐洲每四個就有一個年輕人瀕臨貧窮。

  • The problem is that many young people have gotten stuck in these low-wage, low-skill or part-time jobs.

    問題是,許多年輕人卡在低薪、低技術與兼職工作的泥沼。

  • They miss out on the opportunities to learn new skills required in jobs that make more money.

    他們錯過了可以學習較高薪工作技術的機會。

  • At the same time, the cost of living is going up.

    在此同時,生活支出正在上漲。

  • Just look at this graph, which shows house prices increasing far faster than income over the past two decades.

    看看這圖表,顯示了二十年來,房價的成長比收入來得快許多。

  • This is one reason fewer millennials are part of the middle class than the generations before them.

    這也是千禧年代的中產階級,比上個世代的人還要少的原因。

  • Plus, as the global population ages, public debt is going up as governments finance social assistance programs for the elderly.

    再者,全球人口老化,因政府對年長者的社會扶助計畫,導致全體國債上升。

  • The burden of paying off that debt, well, it'll likely fall on young people.

    這些債務的負擔,嗯,會落在年輕人身上。

  • All these costs and more have made young people skeptical of the government and institutions and helped fuel populist movements around the world.

    全部這些支出與其他原因,年輕世代開始不信任政府與機構,導致全球民粹運動崛起。

  • So what can be done?

    那該怎麼辦?

  • One popular idea is better education and more training.

    一項熱門的點子,就是更好的教育與更多職訓。

  • In fact, half of young people surveyed here across Europe say the main priority of schools should be to prepare them for employment.

    事實上,一個調查顯示,歐洲半數的年輕人,都希望學校應該把準備學生步入職場作為優先。

  • Take Germany's apprenticeship model.

    拿德國學徒制來說。

  • Students split their time between training at companies and taking classes at public vocational schools.

    學生分散他們的時間,一半在企業訓練,一半在職業學校上課。

  • So they get the work experience and the skills they need at the same time.

    於是他們同時得到工作經驗與技巧。

  • Data shows this type of training model works to reduce unemployment and inequality.

    數據顯示,這種制度能減少失業率與不平等。

  • Another idea is taxation.

    另一個點子是從稅務出發。

  • Some policymakers and politicians have floated wealth taxes that would target companies with a big income gap between their workers.

    一些立法委員與政客提出財富稅,來針對公司內部職員薪資差距大的企業。

  • Others want unions to fight for higher wages.

    有些人想要工會爭取提高薪資。

  • More affordable housing could also help ensure young people aren't priced out of good jobs in cities.

    更負擔得起的房屋,也能確保年輕人不會因高房價而捨去都市的好工作。

  • While many of these proposals are wildly popular, they've proven to be a tough sell in the political arena.

    雖然這幾個點子都很熱門,但卻很難在政治圈推動。

  • But the economic reality is that addressing inequality among young people benefits all ages.

    但經濟的現實來說,處理年輕人得到的不平等對所有人都好。

  • This is particularly the case in low-income and emerging market countries, where the IMF found more young people working means more equality for everyone.

    國家貨幣基金組織指出,尤其是對於低收入與新興市場國家,更多年輕人有工作,全體就更有平等的保障。

  • Hey everyone, it's Elizabeth here. Thanks so much for watching.

    嗨,我是 Elizabeth,謝謝你的收看。

  • What do you think the best fix is for income inequality?

    你覺得解決收入不平等最好的方法是什麼?

  • Let us know in the comments section.

    在留言區留言讓我們知道。

  • And leave us any other ideas there too. See you later!

    有其他點子也可以提出,下次見!

They've been called a generation of dreams deferred.

他們被稱為夢想遲來的世代。

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 多益 年輕人 收入 平等 歐洲 世代

年輕不再是優勢?薪資差距讓年輕人更難過活! (Why is inequality worse for young people? | CNBC Explains)

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    Mackenzie 發佈於 2019 年 12 月 31 日
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