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  • Chocolate.

    巧克力。

  • As if we needed any more excuses to indulge in the sweet stuff, there are constantly claims floating around that, hey, chocolate might actually be good for you.

    如果我們需要任何更多的藉口來沉迷於甜的東西,有不斷的索賠漂浮在周圍,嘿,巧克力可能實際上是對你有好處。

  • There is some science to back that up but, you guessed it, the devil's in the details.

    有一些科學的支持,但是,你猜對了,魔鬼在細節中。

  • Most of these claims involve flavonoids, a class of compounds found in lots of plants including cacao, the plant whose seeds are used to make cocoa and chocolate.

    這些索賠大多涉及黃酮類化合物,這是一類存在於許多植物中的化合物,包括可可,這種植物的種子被用來製作可可和巧克力。

  • And some studies have linked flavonoids to a decreased risk of heart disease.

    而一些研究將黃酮類化合物與降低心臟病的風險聯繫起來。

  • Some experimental studies, which are considered the best type of study for establishing cause and effect, have shown decreases in blood pressure when healthy adults were given specially developed, high-flavonoid cocoa drinks or chocolate.

    一些實驗研究,被認為是建立因果關係的最好的研究類型,當健康的成年人被給予特別開發的高黃酮可可飲料或巧克力時,血壓會下降。

  • For example, one 2015 study found that 100 adults who drank a high cocoa chocolate drink twice a day for one month had a drop in blood pressure of around 4 millimeters of mercury, which is a measure of pressure.

    例如,2015年的一項研究發現,100名成年人每天喝兩次高可可巧克力飲料,持續一個月,血壓下降了約4毫米汞,這是一種壓力的衡量標準。

  • And a drop in blood pressure of just two millimeters has been associated with a decreased risk of stroke or heart problems, at least on average within a population.

    而血壓只下降兩毫米,就會降低中風或心臟問題的風險,至少在一個人群中平均如此。

  • There are also a few experiments that hint that flavonoids could improve blood flow to the brain, which in turn might mean better brain function.

    也有一些實驗暗示,黃酮類化合物可以改善大腦的血流,而這又可能意味著更好的大腦功能。

  • For example, a 2014 study in Nature Neuroscience found that older adults did better on a memory task, and had increased blood flow to particular memory centers in the brain, if they'd had a high-flavonoid cocoa drink for three months.

    例如,2014年《自然神經科學》雜誌上的一項研究發現,如果老年人喝了三個月的高黃酮可可飲料,那麼他們在記憶任務上的表現會更好,大腦中特定記憶中心的血流量也會增加。

  • But there are a bunch of other studies that only show changes in brain blood flow and not improvements in cognition.

    但還有一堆其他的研究,只顯示了腦部血流的變化,而沒有顯示認知的改善。

  • And, there are a few key points in these experiments that mean that a candy bar now and then isn't going to give you any benefit.

    而且,在這些實驗中,有幾個關鍵點,也就是說,偶爾吃塊糖,並不會給你帶來任何好處。

  • For one, in most of these trials, it took weeks or months to see any health benefits.

    首先,在大多數這些試驗中,需要數週或數月才能看到任何健康益處。

  • And most of the cocoa drinks in the experiments were specially made to have high levels of flavonoids, between 400 and 1000 milligrams, using cocoa that's processed differently than regular supermarket chocolate.

    而實驗中的可可飲料大多是特製的,使用與普通超市巧克力加工不同的可可,黃酮類化合物含量很高,在400到1000毫克之間。

  • Even 400 mg is more flavonoids than chocolate normally has, and you'd need to eat at least two large bars of regular dark chocolate every day to get that much.

    即使是400毫克,也比巧克力一般的黃酮類物質要多,你每天至少要吃兩大塊普通黑巧克力才能得到這麼多。

  • Even if you did, the way cocoa is processed to make it less bitter as well as adding milk or sugar has been shown to reduce the levels of flavonoids or the body's ability to absorb them.

    即使你這樣做了,可可的加工方式使其不那麼苦,以及添加牛奶或糖的方式已被證明會降低黃酮類化合物的水準或身體吸收它們的能力。

  • Plus, the flavonoid-enriched chocolate used in these types of experiments isn't particularly tasty.

    另外,這類實驗中使用的富含黃酮的巧克力並不是特別好吃。

  • Some participants were even put off from eating it.

    有的學員甚至被打消了吃的念頭。

  • Yeah, these studies managed to make chocolate taste bad.

    是啊,這些研究讓巧克力的味道變差了。

  • So you won't be finding these flavonoid-rich drinks and bars at the supermarket.

    所以你在超市裡是找不到這些富含黃酮類的飲料和酒吧的。

  • So, overall, there is evidence that flavonoids in chocolate and other foods have a small, beneficial effect on heart and maybe brain health.

    所以,總的來說,有證據表明,巧克力和其他食物中的黃酮類化合物對心臟或許大腦健康有少量的、有益的影響。

  • But how that works isn't fully understood yet, and more importantly, these compounds occur in small enough quantities in your average bon-bon or candy bar that to get an effective dose, you'd have to eat quite a bit more chocolate than you should.

    但這是如何工作的還沒有完全瞭解,更重要的是,這些化合物在你的普通邦邦或糖果棒中出現的數量很少,為了獲得有效的劑量,你必須吃相當多的巧克力比你應該。

  • I mean, all the sugar and fat that comes with that chocolate is going to outweigh any benefits.

    我的意思是,所有的糖和脂肪 與巧克力是要超過任何好處。

  • So, enjoy chocolate as a treat, but don't expect to be living longer because of it.

    所以,把巧克力當做一種美食來享受,但不要指望是以而長壽。

  • Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow, which we couldn't have made without the help of our community of supporters.

    感謝觀看本期科普節目,如果沒有支持者的幫助,我們是不可能做到的。

  • Check out patreon.com/scishow to learn more.

    查看patreon.com/scishow瞭解更多。

Chocolate.

巧克力。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 巧克力 可可 化合物 飲料 實驗 研究

The Truth About Chocolate and Your Health

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    ayami 發佈於 2019 年 07 月 05 日
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