Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Imagine that one day, you're summoned before a government panel.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • Even though you haven't committed any crime,

    想像有一天,你被一個 政府專門小組傳喚。

  • or been formally charged with one,

    雖然你沒有犯下任何罪,

  • you are repeatedly questioned about your political views,

    也未被正式起訴某項罪名,

  • accused of disloyalty,

    你卻被反覆詢問你的政治觀點,

  • and asked to incriminate your friends and associates.

    被指控不忠誠,

  • If you don't cooperate, you risk jail or losing your job.

    還被要求要歸罪於你的朋友跟同事。

  • This is exactly what happened in the United States in the 1950s

    若不合作,你要冒入獄或 失去工作的風險。

  • as part of a campaign to expose suspected communists.

    五○年代的美國就是這個樣子,

  • Named after its most notorious practitioner,

    這是讓疑似共產黨員 曝光的政治活動。

  • the phenomenon known as McCarthyism destroyed thousands of lives and careers.

    這個現象叫做麥卡錫主義, 名稱來自它最惡名昭彰的實踐者,

  • For over a decade, American political leaders trampled democratic freedoms

    它摧毀了數以千計的人和職涯。

  • in the name of protecting them.

    美國政治領袖以捍衛民主自由之名

  • During the 1930s and 1940s,

    蹂躪民主自由至少十年。

  • there had been an active but small communist party in the United States.

    在三○和四○年代,

  • Its record was mixed.

    美國有一個活躍的小型共產黨。

  • While it played crucial roles in wider progressive struggles

    其相關記錄很雜。

  • for labor and civil rights,

    雖然它扮演了一個 重要角色,影響為了爭取

  • it also supported the Soviet Union.

    勞工及公民權而 更廣泛去做的革新努力,

  • From the start, the American Communist Party faced attacks

    但它也支持蘇聯。

  • from conservatives and business leaders,

    一開始,美國共產黨面對

  • as well as from liberals who criticized its ties to the oppressive Soviet regime.

    來自保守派及企業領導人的攻擊,

  • During World War II, when the USA and USSR were allied against Hitler,

    還要面對自由派批評它 和壓迫人民的蘇聯政權有聯繫。

  • some American communists actually spied for the Russians.

    第二次世界大戰時, 美國與蘇聯結盟對抗希特勒,

  • When the Cold War escalated and this espionage became known,

    有些美國共產黨員 其實是俄國的間諜。

  • domestic communism came to be seen as a threat to national security.

    當冷戰逐漸加劇, 這間諜活動開始被揭露出來,

  • But the attempt to eliminate that threat

    國內的共產主義開始被視為是 對國家安全的威脅。

  • soon turned into the longest lasting and most widespread episode

    但想要消滅那威脅的嘗試

  • of political repression in American history.

    很快就變成了美國史上最長

  • Spurred on by a network of bureaucrats,

    且範圍最廣的政治迫害。

  • politicians,

    由官僚、政治人物、記者,

  • journalists,

    和生意人所形成的網路,

  • and businessmen,

    鞭策這個活動繼續下去,

  • the campaign wildly exaggerated the danger of communist subversion.

    而這活動嚴重誇大了

  • The people behind it harassed anyone

    共產主義顛覆的危險性。

  • suspected of holding left-of-center political views

    這活動背後的人會去騷擾

  • or associating with those who did.

    被懷疑抱持中間偏左 政治觀點的任何人,

  • If you hung modern art on your walls,

    或是和他們有關的人。

  • had a multiracial social circle,

    若你把現代藝術掛在你的牆上、

  • or signed petitions against nuclear weapons,

    你有一個社交圈是多民族的,

  • you might just have been a communist.

    或是你簽訂了反核武的請願,

  • Starting in the late 1940s,

    你就有可能是共產黨。

  • FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover

    從四○年代後期開始,

  • used the resources of his agency to hunt down such supposed communists

    聯邦調查局局長胡佛

  • and eliminate them from any position of influence

    就利用他局內的資源, 追捕這些可能是共產黨的人,

  • within American society.

    不讓他們在美國社會中

  • And the narrow criteria that Hoover and his allies used

    發揮任何影響。

  • to screen federal employees

    胡佛及他的盟友使用狹隘的標準,

  • spread to the rest of the country.

    來篩選聯邦員工,

  • Soon, Hollywood studios,

    這標準散播到美國其他地方。

  • universities,

    很快,好萊塢的電影公司、

  • car manufacturers,

    大學、汽車製造商,

  • and thousands of other public and private employers

    和數以千計的國營、民營企業主

  • were imposing the same political tests on the men and women who worked for them.

    對他們僱用的男男女女 實施同樣的政治測試。

  • Meanwhile, Congress conducted its own witchhunt

    同時,國會也開始進行 它自己的政治迫害。

  • subpoenaing hundreds of people to testify before investigative bodies

    傳喚了數百個人 在調查單位面前作證,

  • like the House Un-American Activities Committee.

    如眾議院非美活動 調查委員會這類調查單位。

  • If they refused to cooperate, they could be jailed for contempt,

    如果他們拒絕合作, 就可能會因藐視的罪名而坐牢,

  • or more commonly, fired and blacklisted.

    或,更常見的情況 是被解僱並列入黑名單。

  • Ambitious politicians, like Richard Nixon

    有野心的政客,如理查尼克森

  • and Joseph McCarthy,

    和喬瑟夫麥卡錫,

  • used such hearings as a partisan weapon

    會把這種聽證會 當作擁護黨派的武器,

  • accusing democrats of being soft on communism

    指控民主黨對共產主義不夠強硬,

  • and deliberately losing China to the Communist Bloc.

    並蓄意讓中國落入共產集團.

  • McCarthy, a Republican senator from Wisconsin

    麥卡錫是來自威斯康辛的 共和黨參議員 ,

  • became notorious by flaunting ever-changing lists of alleged communists

    因誇耀國務院內 結盟之共產黨員的名單

  • within the State Department.

    不斷更新而惡名昭彰。

  • Egged on by other politicians,

    在其他政客慫恿之下,

  • he continued to make outrageous accusations

    他持續扭曲或捏造證據,

  • while distorting or fabricating evidence.

    做出無法無天的指控。

  • Many citizens reviled McCarthy while others praised him.

    許多公民斥責麥卡錫, 但其他人則稱讚他。

  • And when the Korean War broke out, McCarthy seemed vindicated.

    韓戰爆發使麥卡錫看似正確。

  • Once he became chair

    1953 年,他成為

  • of the Senate's permanent subcommittee on investigations in 1953,

    參議院常設調查委員會主席,

  • McCarthy recklessness increased.

    此後他更肆無忌憚。

  • It was his investigation of the army that finally turned public opinion against him

    他對軍隊做的調查,

  • and diminished his power.

    終於使得公眾輿論的矛頭轉向他,

  • McCarthy's colleagues in the Senate censured him

    削減了他的權力。

  • and he died less than three years later, probably from alcoholism.

    麥卡錫在參議院的同事譴責他,

  • McCarthyism ended as well.

    此後不到三年他便過世了, 死因可能是酗酒。

  • It had ruined hundreds, if not thousands, of lives

    麥卡錫主義也到此為止。

  • and drastically narrowed the American political spectrum.

    被它毀掉的人, 若沒有數千個也有數百個,

  • Its damage to democratic institutions would be long lasting.

    並大大地縮減了美國的政治光譜。

  • In all likelihood, there were both Democrats and Republicans

    它對於民主制度的傷害 是很長久的。

  • who knew that the anti-communist purges were deeply unjust

    很可能,在民主黨 和共和黨內都有人

  • but feared that directly opposing them would hurt their careers.

    知道反共產主義的肅清 有很深的不公平性,

  • Even the Supreme Court failed to stop the witchhunt,

    但害怕直接反對肅清 會影響到自己的職涯。

  • condoning serious violations of constitutional rights

    即便是最高法院 也沒能阻止政治迫害,

  • in the name of national security.

    以國家安全之名,

  • Was domestic communism an actual threat to the American government?

    赦免了嚴重違反憲法權利的行為。

  • Perhaps, though a small one.

    美國國內的共產主義 真的會威脅到美國政府嗎?

  • But the reaction to it was so extreme that it caused far more damage

    也許吧,但這威脅實在不大。

  • than the threat itself.

    但,對共產主義的反應 卻如此極端,

  • And if new demagogues appeared in uncertain times

    其所造成的損害遠超過威脅本身。

  • to attack unpopular minorities in the name of patriotism,

    如果在不確定的時代, 又有新的煽動者出現,

  • could it all happen again?

    以愛國主義之名去攻擊 不受歡迎的少數族群,

Imagine that one day, you're summoned before a government panel.

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 麥卡錫 政治 共產主義 美國 共產黨

什麼是麥卡錫主義?它又是如何發生的?- 艾倫-施雷克 (What is McCarthyism? And how did it happen? - Ellen Schrecker)

  • 405 33
    Raven Lin 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字