B2 中高級 美國腔 545 分類 收藏
開始影片後,點擊或框選字幕可以立即查詢單字
字庫載入中…
回報字幕錯誤
From Shakespeare's plays to modern TV dramas,
the unscrupulous schemer for whom the ends always justify the means
has become a familiar character type we love to hate.
So familiar, in fact, that for centuries
we've had a single word to describe such characters: Machiavellian.
But is it possible that we've been using that word wrong this whole time?
The early 16th century statesman Niccoló Machiavelli
wrote many works of history, philosophy, and drama.
But his lasting notoriety comes from a brief political essay known as The Prince,
framed as advice to current and future monarchs.
Machiavelli wasn't the first to do this–
in fact there was an entire tradition of works known as “mirrors for princes”
going back to antiquity.
But unlike his predecessors,
Machiavelli didn't try to describe an ideal government
or exhort his audience to rule justly and virtuously.
Instead, he focused on the question of power–
how to acquire it, and how to keep it.
And in the decades after it was published,
The Prince gained a diabolical reputation.
During the European Wars of Religion,
both Catholics and Protestants blamed Machiavelli
for inspiring acts of violence and tyranny committed by their opponents.
By the end of the century,
Shakespeare was using “Machiavel” to denote an amoral opportunist,
leading directly to our popular use of “Machiavellian”
as a synonym for manipulative villainy.
At first glance,
The Prince's reputation as a manual for tyranny seems well-deserved.
Throughout, Machiavelli appears entirely unconcerned with morality,
except insofar as it's helpful or harmful to maintaining power.
For instance, princes are told to consider all the atrocities necessary
to seize power,
and to commit them in a single stroke
to ensure future stability.
Attacking neighboring territories and oppressing religious minorities
are mentioned as effective ways of occupying the public.
Regarding a prince's personal behavior,
Machiavelli advises keeping up the appearance of virtues
such as honesty or generosity,
but being ready to abandon them as soon as one's interests are threatened.
Most famously, he notes that for a ruler,
“it is much safer to be feared than loved.”
The tract even ends with an appeal to Lorenzo de' Medici,
the recently installed ruler of Florence,
urging him to unite the fragmented city-states of Italy under his rule.
Many have justified Machiavelli as motivated by unsentimental realism
and a desire for peace in an Italy torn by internal and external conflict.
According to this view,
Machiavelli was the first to understand a difficult truth:
the greater good of political stability
is worth whatever unsavory tactics are needed to attain it.
The philosopher Isaiah Berlin suggested that rather than being amoral,
The Prince hearkens back to ancient Greek morality,
placing the glory of the state above the Christian ideal of individual salvation.
But what we know about Machiavelli might not fit this picture.
The author had served in his native Florence for 14 years as a diplomat,
staunchly defending its elected republican government
against would-be monarchs.
When the Medici family seized power,
he not only lost his position,
but was even tortured and banished.
With this in mind,
it's possible to read the pamphlet he wrote from exile
not as a defense of princely rule,
but a scathing description of how it operates.
Indeed, Enlightenment figures like Spinoza
saw it as warning free citizens
of the various ways in which they can be subjugated by aspiring rulers.
In fact, both readings might be true.
Machiavelli may have written a manual for tyrannical rulers,
but by sharing it, he also revealed the cards to those who would be ruled.
In doing so,
he revolutionized political philosophy,
laying the foundations for Hobbes and future thinkers
to study human affairs based on their concrete realities
rather than preconceived ideals.
Through his brutal and shocking honesty,
Machiavelli sought to shatter popular delusions about what power really entails.
And as he wrote to a friend shortly before his death,
he hoped that people would “learn the way to Hell in order to flee from it."
提示:點選文章或是影片下面的字幕單字,可以直接快速翻譯喔!

載入中…

馬基維利主義(Machiavellian) 究竟意思是什麼? (What "Machiavellian" really means?)

545 分類 收藏
Raven Lin 發佈於 2019 年 5 月 29 日
看更多推薦影片
  1. 1. 單字查詢

    在字幕上選取單字即可即時查詢單字喔!

  2. 2. 單句重複播放

    可重複聽取一句單句,加強聽力!

  3. 3. 使用快速鍵

    使用影片快速鍵,讓學習更有效率!

  4. 4. 關閉語言字幕

    進階版練習可關閉字幕純聽英文哦!

  5. 5. 內嵌播放器

    可以將英文字幕學習播放器內嵌到部落格等地方喔

  6. 6. 展開播放器

    可隱藏右方全文及字典欄位,觀看影片更舒適!

  1. 英文聽力測驗

    挑戰字幕英文聽力測驗!

  1. 點擊展開筆記本讓你看的更舒服

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔