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  • Little do they know it, but these 6 creatures are each about to experience a very unusual death.

    這 6 隻昆蟲都還不知道,自己所面臨的是極不尋常的死法。

  • One-by-one, they will fall prey to the remarkable, predatory antics of a carnivorous plant.

    一隻接著一隻,牠們將會變成食肉植物的獵物。

  • Around the world there are more than 600 plant species that supplement a regular diet of sunlight, water, and soil with insects, microbes, or even frogs and rats.

    在全世界有 600 多種植物除了攝取平常所需的陽光、水分、土壤之外,還會額外補充昆蟲、微生物,甚至是青蛙和老鼠。

  • Scientists believe that carnivory in plants evolved separately at least 6 times on our planet, suggesting that this flesh-munching adaptation holds a major benefit for plants.

    科學家相信,地球上的食肉植物至少分別演化過 6 次,這代表對植物來說,適應大口吃肉有很大的益處。

  • Carnivorous plants tend to grow in places with highly acidic soil, which is poor in crucial nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

    食肉植物通常生長在土壤極酸的地方,因此會缺少氮、磷、鉀等重要的養分。

  • In these hostile conditions, plants that are able to lure, trap, and digest prey have an advantage over those that rely on soil for their nutrients.

    在這種不友善的環境下,能夠引誘、捕食、消化獵物的植物就會比只仰賴土壤養分的植物更具優勢。

  • Take this inhospitable bog, where pitcher plants reign supreme.

    以這個不懷好意的沼澤為例,這裡是豬籠草的地盤。

  • Drawn to the pitcher's vivid colors and alluring scent, the fly closes in and slurps its nectar.

    蒼蠅會受到捕蠅草鮮豔的色彩和誘人的香氣吸引,向它靠近並啜食著它的花蜜。

  • But this pitcher species has an ingredient called coniine in its nectar, a powerful narcotic to insects.

    但豬籠草屬的花蜜中含有一種叫「毒芹鹼」的成分,對昆蟲來說是很強效的麻醉劑。

  • As the coniine takes effect, the fly grows sluggish, stumbles, and falls down the funnel into a pool of liquid at the base, where he drowns.

    當毒芹鹼生效後,蒼蠅就會變得遲緩、踉蹌,從漏斗掉入充滿液體的底部,就這樣淹死。

  • Enzymes and bacteria in the liquid slowly break his body down into microscopic particles the pitcher plant can consume through its leaves.

    液體中的酶和細菌會慢慢將牠的身體分解成可以透過葉子吸收的微小粒子。

  • Occasionally, larger prey also tumbles into the fatal funnel of the pitcher plant.

    有時候,大型獵物也會失足掉入豬籠草致命的漏斗之中。

  • The second victim faces off with the sticky sundew plant.

    第二個受害者要面對的是黏黏的毛氈苔。

  • The sundew's tiny leaves are equipped with a viscous secretion called mucilage.

    毛氈苔細小的葉子上有著具黏性的分泌物,叫「黏質」。

  • The ant is swiftly trapped in this goo.

    這隻螞蟻很快就被這種黏性物質纏住了。

  • As she struggles, enzymes begin to digest her body.

    她一掙扎,酶就會開始消化她的身體。

  • Special tentacles sense her movement and curl around her, clenching her in their suffocating grip.

    特殊的觸毛感知到她的動作,就會捲起來將她包住,緊緊抓住她,讓她無法呼吸。

  • Once she asphyxiates, which can happen in under an hour, the tentacles unfurl again to snare their next victim.

    一旦她窒息,這通常會在一小時內發生,毛氈苔的觸毛就會再次展開,等待誘捕下一個受害者。

  • 2 down, 4 to go.

    解決兩隻了,還有四隻。

  • The next target meets his end underground, in the coils of the corkscrew plant.

    下一個目標會在地底下送命,他遇到的是螺旋狸藻屬的盤繞細毛。

  • He enters the roots through a tiny slit in search of food.

    為了要尋找食物,他從小小的裂口進入了螺旋狸藻屬的莖。

  • But inside, he quickly loses his way through the tangled labyrinth.

    但他很快就在這錯縱複雜的迷宮裡迷了路。

  • A forest of curved hairs prevents his escape, guiding him into a central chamber with flesh-digesting enzymes and deadly low levels of oxygen.

    一大片捲曲的細毛讓他無法逃脫,只能讓他繼續往中央的小室前進,那裡面充滿著能夠分解肉的酵素和極少量的氧氣。

  • In the murky depths of a nearby pond, a tadpole unwittingly swims into the path of the bladderwort, the speediest of all carnivorous plants.

    在附近池塘的黑暗深處,一隻蝌蚪不知不覺地游向狸藻屬植物,它是速度最快的食肉植物。

  • She treads on the bladderwort's trigger, and in milliseconds, a trapdoor swings open and sucks her in.

    她觸發了狸藻屬,在千分之一秒內,暗門就突然打開將她吸入。

  • Trapped half in and half out, she struggles to free herself while the part of her body inside the plant gets digested.

    身體一半在內、一半在外,蝌蚪努力地要掙脫掌控,但在植物內部的身體已經開始被消化了。

  • Over the next few hours, her writhing sets the trap off repeatedly.

    接下來的幾小時,她在扭動掙扎的過程中會不斷觸發陷阱。

  • Each time bringing her deeper into the plant to be digested alive bit by bit.

    每掙扎一次,就會被植物吸進去,再被一點一點地消化。

  • Meanwhile, this beetle is bewitched by sweet-smelling nectar.

    於此同時,這隻甲蟲正被香甜的花蜜所蠱惑。

  • The scent draws him closer and closer until he lands on the leaves of the world's most infamous carnivorous plant.

    香氣吸引他越來越靠近,最後停在世界上最聲名狼藉的食肉植物葉子上。

  • His landing triggers tiny hairs on the surface of the leaves, and the jaws of the Venus flytrap snap shut around him.

    他一降落就觸動了葉片表面的小絨毛,捕蠅草的顎就會馬上閉合。

  • The spikes interlock to seal his fate.

    互相交錯的尖刺鎖住了他的命運。

  • Once closed, the leaves act like an external stomach that digests the beetle's soft tissues.

    一旦捕蠅草合起來,葉片就像是外部的胃,消化著甲蟲的軟組織。

  • When they open again a few days later, only the dry husk of his exoskeleton remains.

    幾天後,當葉子再次打開,裡面也只剩下他乾枯的外骨骼。

  • The mayfly is the last creature standing.

    蜉蝣是最後一隻還活著的昆蟲。

  • As she approaches the butterwort plant, she heads for the flowers that wave high above the plant's globs of adhesive goo.

    當她靠近捕蟲堇屬植物,她往團團黏液上方搖曳的花朵而去。

  • She alights on the petals, drinks the nectar, and takes off unscathed.

    她降落在花瓣上,吸著花蜜,接著毫髮無傷地離開。

  • These long flower stalks keep certain insects away from the carnivore's traps—a way of separating pollinators from food.

    這種花的莖很長,可以讓特定的昆蟲免於落入食肉植物的陷阱,這是一種區分授粉者跟獵物的方法。

  • Off the mayfly buzzes to live a long and fruitful life.

    蜉蝣飛走了,繼續過著她長壽、豐碩的生活。

  • Oh!

    噢!

  • While these carnivorous characters might seem villainous, remember that plants are always under attack.

    雖然這些食肉植物看似邪惡,但可別忘了它們隨時都有可能遭受攻擊。

  • Check out this video to learn how plants defend themselves from fungi, elephants, and everything in between.

    看看這部影片,了解植物如何自我防禦,讓自己免於真菌、大象,和其他大大小小的動植物的攻擊。

Little do they know it, but these 6 creatures are each about to experience a very unusual death.

這 6 隻昆蟲都還不知道,自己所面臨的是極不尋常的死法。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 植物 昆蟲 消化 獵物 葉子

【戶外教育】食肉一族是你?看不會動的植物如何大口吃肉! (The wild world of flesh-eating plants - Kenny Coogan)

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    Amy.Lin 發佈於 2019 年 07 月 29 日
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