B1 中級 美國腔 1272

 Many of our viewers have asked us a very serious question: Many of our viewers have asked us a very serious question: What if we made a big pile of bombs What if we made a big pile of bombs and exploded every nuclear weapon in the world all at once? and exploded every nuclear weapon in the world all at once? Strangely enough, we couldn't find a good source Strangely enough, we couldn't find a good source to answer this question to our satisfaction. to answer this question to our satisfaction. So, we gathered together a few scientists to calculate what would happen. So, we gathered together a few scientists to calculate what would happen. And find an answer to this extremely important scientific problem, And find an answer to this extremely important scientific problem, once and for all. once and for all. Currently, there are 15,000 nuclear weapons on Earth. Currently, there are 15,000 nuclear weapons on Earth. The US and Russia both have around 7,000, The US and Russia both have around 7,000, while France, China, the UK, Pakistan, India, Israel, and North Korea while France, China, the UK, Pakistan, India, Israel, and North Korea own around 1,000 between them. own around 1,000 between them. But, how much destructive power is this really? But, how much destructive power is this really? Let's try to put these numbers into perspective. Let's try to put these numbers into perspective. On Earth, there are about 4,500 cities or urban areas On Earth, there are about 4,500 cities or urban areas with at least 100,000 inhabitants. with at least 100,000 inhabitants. Some are bigger than others, so we'll assume that on average, Some are bigger than others, so we'll assume that on average, we need three nuclear bombs to completely wipe out one city. we need three nuclear bombs to completely wipe out one city. This means we could destroy every single city on planet Earth, This means we could destroy every single city on planet Earth, with our nuclear arsenal, with our nuclear arsenal, killing more than three billion people -- roughly half of humanity killing more than three billion people -- roughly half of humanity in an instant. in an instant. And, we'd still have 1,500 nuclear weapons left. And, we'd still have 1,500 nuclear weapons left. Now that's what an expert would call, "overkill." Now that's what an expert would call, "overkill." So, we can say with confidence, that we have a lot of nuclear weapons So, we can say with confidence, that we have a lot of nuclear weapons and they can do a lot of damage. and they can do a lot of damage. But, what if we make a huge pile of all 15,000 bombs and pull the trigger? But, what if we make a huge pile of all 15,000 bombs and pull the trigger? Let's drop our nuclear pile in the middle of the Amazon rainforest; Let's drop our nuclear pile in the middle of the Amazon rainforest; just a show nature who's boss. just a show nature who's boss. Our warheads, piled haphazardly, fit into a small warehouse. Our warheads, piled haphazardly, fit into a small warehouse. A typical US warhead has the power of two hundred thousand tons of TNT. A typical US warhead has the power of two hundred thousand tons of TNT. So, fifteen thousand warheads would be the equivalent of three billion tons of TNT. So, fifteen thousand warheads would be the equivalent of three billion tons of TNT. For scale, this is enough to rebuild the whole island of Manhattan For scale, this is enough to rebuild the whole island of Manhattan with every building and skyscraper using stacks of TNT. with every building and skyscraper using stacks of TNT. The closest thing we can compare to the energy gathered here, is a volcano. The closest thing we can compare to the energy gathered here, is a volcano. One of the deadliest volcanic eruptions in recorded history took place in 1883, One of the deadliest volcanic eruptions in recorded history took place in 1883, on the island of Krakatoa. on the island of Krakatoa. The eruption was so powerful, that 70% of the island, The eruption was so powerful, that 70% of the island, and the surrounding archipelago, was destroyed and the surrounding archipelago, was destroyed killing tens of thousands of people. killing tens of thousands of people. Its effects were felt around the world for days after the event. Its effects were felt around the world for days after the event. Our nuclear pile contains 15 times the energy of the Krakatoa volcanic eruption. Our nuclear pile contains 15 times the energy of the Krakatoa volcanic eruption. So, let's finally push the button. So, let's finally push the button. Three, Three, two, two, one. one. In a second, In a second, a fireball 50 kilometers across vaporizes everything in its way, a fireball 50 kilometers across vaporizes everything in its way, and creates a blast wave that flattens 3,000 square kilometers of forest. and creates a blast wave that flattens 3,000 square kilometers of forest. Every living thing within 250 kilometers will start to burn. Every living thing within 250 kilometers will start to burn. The explosion will be heard literally around the world, The explosion will be heard literally around the world, as the pressure wave circles the Earth tens of times over the next few weeks. as the pressure wave circles the Earth tens of times over the next few weeks. Millions of tons of incinerated material are catapulted into the atmosphere. Millions of tons of incinerated material are catapulted into the atmosphere. The mushroom cloud reaches the outer reaches of the stratosphere, The mushroom cloud reaches the outer reaches of the stratosphere, pushing up against space itself. pushing up against space itself. After things have calmed down, After things have calmed down, a small crater -- about ten kilometers across a small crater -- about ten kilometers across is left in the center of the worst world fires the planet has seen in millennia, is left in the center of the worst world fires the planet has seen in millennia, spreading throughout South America, burning down forests and cities alike. spreading throughout South America, burning down forests and cities alike. And, now, the unpleasant part begins. And, now, the unpleasant part begins. Extremely radioactive material will kill living things very quickly, Extremely radioactive material will kill living things very quickly, and a large area several kilometers around the crater is now uninhabitable, and a large area several kilometers around the crater is now uninhabitable, as is everywhere for hundreds of kilometers downwind. as is everywhere for hundreds of kilometers downwind. Much of the fallout is carried high into the atmosphere by the mushroom cloud Much of the fallout is carried high into the atmosphere by the mushroom cloud and carried around the planet. and carried around the planet. The amount of radioactive material in the environment doubles worldwide, The amount of radioactive material in the environment doubles worldwide, which still isn't civilization-ending, but we may see more cancer for a while. which still isn't civilization-ending, but we may see more cancer for a while. A portion of the particles will flow to the edge of space for years A portion of the particles will flow to the edge of space for years and cause a nuclear winter and cause a nuclear winter that could lower global temperatures by a few degrees for a few years. that could lower global temperatures by a few degrees for a few years. This explosion was pretty bad if you're in South America, and especially Brazil. This explosion was pretty bad if you're in South America, and especially Brazil. The Amazon rainforest is pretty much history, which is not great. The Amazon rainforest is pretty much history, which is not great. But, human life will go on. But, human life will go on. OK, but what if we explode more nuclear weapons? OK, but what if we explode more nuclear weapons? Let's suppose humanity decided to mine every bit of uranium on Earth Let's suppose humanity decided to mine every bit of uranium on Earth and build as many nuclear bombs as possible. and build as many nuclear bombs as possible. At current usage, At current usage, it's estimated that there are around 35 million tons of uranium in Earth's crust; it's estimated that there are around 35 million tons of uranium in Earth's crust; enough to power human civilization for over 2,000 years, enough to power human civilization for over 2,000 years, or to build millions of nuclear warheads. or to build millions of nuclear warheads. For the sake of argument, For the sake of argument, let's say we create a pile with the yield of 10 billion Hiroshima bombs, let's say we create a pile with the yield of 10 billion Hiroshima bombs, which makes up a cube three kilometers high that contains roughly the energy which makes up a cube three kilometers high that contains roughly the energy of the asteroid impact that ended the age of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. of the asteroid impact that ended the age of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. Except, it's also nuclear. Except, it's also nuclear. Three, Three, two, two, one. one. Our pile explodes in a fireball stretching so high into the sky Our pile explodes in a fireball stretching so high into the sky that it's visible from half of South America, that it's visible from half of South America, with so much power that the ground just splashes like water with so much power that the ground just splashes like water forming a crater 100 kilometers across. forming a crater 100 kilometers across. Bedrock on the scale of whole mountain ranges is vaporized in an instant, Bedrock on the scale of whole mountain ranges is vaporized in an instant, while thousands of tons of material is catapulted away with such speed, while thousands of tons of material is catapulted away with such speed, that it's ejected into space. that it's ejected into space. Some leaves Earth forever, Some leaves Earth forever, while most of it comes raining down as hot, burning debris while most of it comes raining down as hot, burning debris that heats up the atmosphere to oven-like temperatures, that heats up the atmosphere to oven-like temperatures, killing most big animals and causing fire storms all over the world. killing most big animals and causing fire storms all over the world. The Earth's crust rings like a bell The Earth's crust rings like a bell struck by global earthquakes stronger than anything in recorded history, struck by global earthquakes stronger than anything in recorded history, decimating cities around the world, decimating cities around the world, while hurricane-force winds flatten every single tree in South America, while hurricane-force winds flatten every single tree in South America, and wildfires consume the continent. and wildfires consume the continent. The abundance of hydrocarbons in the Amazon burn to form ash, The abundance of hydrocarbons in the Amazon burn to form ash, are cast into the atmosphere, darting the sky are cast into the atmosphere, darting the sky and keeping sunlight from reaching the surface, and keeping sunlight from reaching the surface, dropping temperatures to near freezing worldwide. dropping temperatures to near freezing worldwide. The ensuing global winter may last for decades, The ensuing global winter may last for decades, and results in the extinction of every large animal species, humans included. and results in the extinction of every large animal species, humans included. We could also mention that every corner of the planet is covered with radioactive fallout, We could also mention that every corner of the planet is covered with radioactive fallout, but at this point, it doesn't matter that much anymore. but at this point, it doesn't matter that much anymore. This is humanity's extinction event. This is humanity's extinction event. The astronauts aboard the International Space Station get to enjoy a great view for a while, The astronauts aboard the International Space Station get to enjoy a great view for a while, but it's not unlikely that the spray of rocks blast into orbit will destroy the Station. but it's not unlikely that the spray of rocks blast into orbit will destroy the Station. Those lucky enough to be in bunkers, or in submarines deep below the ocean surface, Those lucky enough to be in bunkers, or in submarines deep below the ocean surface, may survive the longest before they exhaust their food supplies, may survive the longest before they exhaust their food supplies, and have to venture out for more. and have to venture out for more. They'll find the world a charred, freezing, radioactive wasteland. They'll find the world a charred, freezing, radioactive wasteland. The planet, itself, doesn't care at all. The planet, itself, doesn't care at all. After just a few million years, the wounds of the explosions have healed After just a few million years, the wounds of the explosions have healed and life is thriving, and life is thriving, arguably even more so than when humans were around. arguably even more so than when humans were around. If intelligent life emerges again, it might be able to work out what happened. If intelligent life emerges again, it might be able to work out what happened. When they study geology, they'll find a bizarre and very thin layer of rock When they study geology, they'll find a bizarre and very thin layer of rock covering the entire world, enriched in radioactive elements like uranium, covering the entire world, enriched in radioactive elements like uranium, and the other nasty things it decays to, and the other nasty things it decays to, mixed with rare earth metals and plastics that humans used. mixed with rare earth metals and plastics that humans used. They would probably be very, very confused. They would probably be very, very confused. Videos like this one take well over 1200 hours to finish. Videos like this one take well over 1200 hours to finish. Over the years, we put more and more effort into research, Over the years, we put more and more effort into research, conversations with experts, illustration and animation, conversations with experts, illustration and animation, sound design and fact-checking. sound design and fact-checking. For this video, we put a lot of extra work into our sources document. For this video, we put a lot of extra work into our sources document. You can read how we got to the information in the video, You can read how we got to the information in the video, what our experts thought about it, what our experts thought about it, where they disagreed with each other. where they disagreed with each other. We can take the time to do this, We can take the time to do this, because of you: our viewers. because of you: our viewers. Because you watch and share our videos, buy our posters, Because you watch and share our videos, buy our posters, and support us on patreon.com. and support us on patreon.com. If you like what we're doing, please consider becoming a patron, If you like what we're doing, please consider becoming a patron, or get one of the nice things we made with love. or get one of the nice things we made with love. Thank you for watching! Thank you for watching!

# 如果我們一次引爆所有核彈怎麼辦？ (What If We Detonated All Nuclear Bombs at Once?)

1272
Judy Chen 發佈於 2019 年 4 月 11 日

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