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  • So I'm going to talk about work,

    我要來談工作

  • specifically why people can't seem

    精確的說,為什麼上班時

  • to get work done at work,

    沒辦法完成工作

  • which is a problem we all kind of have.

    這情形大家應該都遇過

  • But let's, sort of, start at the beginning.

    我們從頭開始

  • So we have companies and non-profits and charities

    很多公司、非營利企業、慈善機構

  • and all these groups

    等等公司行號

  • that have employees

    都有員工

  • or volunteers of some sort.

    或是志工之類的

  • And they expect these people who work for them

    主管們會希望員工

  • to do great work --

    好好工作

  • I would hope, at least.

    至少努力工作

  • At least good work, hopefully, at least it's good work --

    這是基本要求,能拿出優秀的成績

  • hopefully great work.

    是最好的

  • And so what they typically do is they decide

    所以他們通常會決定

  • that all these people need to come together in one place

    員工通通要到同一地點

  • to do that work.

    上班工作

  • So a company, or a charity, or an organization of any kind,

    所以公司行號、各大機構

  • they typically -- unless you're working in Africa,

    除非你住非洲,會比較幸運

  • if you're really lucky to do that --

    否則通常都會被要求

  • most people have to go to an office every day.

    每天進辦公室

  • And so these companies,

    所以這些公司

  • they build offices.

    需要辦公室存在

  • They go out and they buy a building, or they rent a building,

    用買的或租下辦公大樓

  • or they lease some space,

    或是租個地方

  • and they fill the space with stuff.

    放滿東西,將就著用

  • They fill it with tables, or desks,

    辦公室放滿桌椅、

  • chairs, computer equipment,

    電腦設備、

  • software,

    軟體、

  • Internet access,

    網路連線

  • maybe a fridge, maybe a few other things,

    或許加個冰箱等等東西

  • and they expect their employees, or their volunteers,

    老闆們希望員工,或志工們

  • to come to that location every day to do great work.

    能每天上班,做出一番成果

  • It seems like it's perfectly reasonable to ask that.

    聽起來是個合理要求

  • However, if you actually talk to people

    但如果你親自訪問這些人

  • and even question yourself,

    甚至問問自己

  • and you ask yourself,

    問自己:

  • where do you really want to go when you really need to get something done?

    你真想把事情做好的時候,會去哪裡?

  • You'll find out that people don't say

    通常你會聽到的回答

  • what businesses think they would say.

    都不是這些公司們所想的

  • If you ask people the question: where do you really need to go

    你如果問:你真想把事情做好的時候,

  • when you need to get something done?

    會去哪裡?

  • Typically you get three different kinds of answers.

    通常有三類答案

  • One is kind of a place or a location or a room.

    第一:地點

  • Another one is a moving object

    第二:移動的物體

  • and a third is a time.

    第三:時間

  • So here's some examples.

    我舉例一下

  • When I ask people -- and I've been asking people this question for about 10 years --

    這問題我已經問十幾年了

  • I ask them, "Where do you go when you really need to get something done?"

    我問:你想把事情做好的時候,會去哪裡?

  • I'll hear things like, the porch, the deck,

    我得到的答案有:門廊、桌前、

  • the kitchen.

    廚房、

  • I'll hear things like an extra room in the house,

    房子裡額外的小房間、

  • the basement,

    地下室、

  • the coffee shop, the library.

    咖啡店、圖書館

  • And then you'll hear things like the train,

    還有像是火車、

  • a plane, a car -- so, the commute.

    飛機上、車裡,關於交通的答案

  • And then you'll hear people say,

    也有人回答

  • "Well, it doesn't really matter where I am,

    「其實跟地點沒關係,」

  • as long as it's really early in the morning or really late at night or on the weekends."

    「只要是在清晨、深夜、週末的時候就可以」

  • You almost never hear someone say the office.

    幾乎沒人講辦公室

  • But businesses are spending all this money on this place called the office,

    但公司花大錢設置辦公室

  • and they're making people go to it all the time,

    還要求大家一定要進辦公室

  • yet people don't do work in the office.

    但員工卻無法在辦公室內完成工作

  • What is that about?

    搞什麼?

  • Why is that?

    為什麼?

  • Why is that happening?

    為什麼會這樣?

  • And what you find out is that, if you dig a little bit deeper,

    如果你深究的話

  • you find out that people --

    會發現

  • this is what happens --

    通常

  • people go to work,

    大家上班時

  • and they're basically trading in their workday

    一個工作天其實

  • for a series of "work moments."

    是分很多片段的

  • That's what happens at the office.

    這就是辦公室的情況

  • You don't have a workday anymore. You have work moments.

    已經不是工作「天」,而是工作「片刻」

  • It's like the front door of the office is like a Cuisinart,

    進辦公室好像走進榨汁機一樣

  • and you walk in and your day is shredded to bits,

    一天就這樣被榨成片段

  • because you have 15 minutes here and 30 minutes there,

    這邊15分鐘,那邊30分鐘的拼湊

  • and then something else happens and you're pulled off your work,

    常常有什麼事,就得分神去處理

  • and you've got to do something else, then you have 20 minutes, then it's lunch.

    跑去做別的事之後,再專心個20分鐘,就中餐時間了

  • Then you have something else to do.

    然後又有別的事要做,

  • Then you've got 15 minutes, and someone pulls you aside and asks you this question,

    再專心15分鐘,然後有人跑來問你的問題

  • and before you know it, it's 5 p.m.,

    等你回神,就五點下班時間了

  • and you look back on the day,

    然後回顧一整天

  • and you realize that you didn't get anything done.

    發現你根本什麼也沒做

  • I mean, we've all been through this.

    我們應該都遇過這種情況

  • We probably went through it yesterday,

    也許昨天就是這樣

  • or the day before, or the day before that.

    前天也是、大前天也是

  • You look back on your day, and you're like, I got nothing done today.

    每天回顧,恍然發現什麼事也沒做

  • I was at work.

    我進了辦公室

  • I sat at my desk. I used my expensive computer.

    我坐在電腦前,打著昂貴電腦

  • I used the software they told me to use.

    用著他們裝的軟體

  • I went to these meetings I was asked to go to.

    開上頭要我參加的會議

  • I did these conference calls. I did all this stuff.

    打打電話之類的事

  • But I didn't actually do anything.

    但其實什麼都沒做

  • I just did tasks.

    我做「瑣事」而已

  • I didn't actually get meaningful work done.

    其實正經事都沒做

  • And what you find is that, especially with creative people --

    尤其你會發現,有創意的人--

  • designers, programmers,

    設計師、程式設計師、

  • writers, engineers,

    作家、工程師、

  • thinkers --

    工作必須思考的人

  • that people really need

    都需要

  • long stretches of uninterrupted time to get something done.

    連續、不被打擾的時間才能將事情做好

  • You cannot ask somebody to be creative in 15 minutes

    你不能要求一個人,用15分鐘時間想創意

  • and really think about a problem.

    或想出辦法解決問題

  • You might have a quick idea,

    可能會有很快的一個想法

  • but to be in deep thought about a problem and really consider a problem carefully,

    但真想要徹底想出解決方案

  • you need long stretches of uninterrupted time.

    就一定需要長時間、不被打擾的時間

  • And even though the workday is typically eight hours,

    正常一個工作天是八小時

  • how many people here have ever had eight hours to themselves at the office?

    你們有多少人在辦公室,八小時都是自己的時間?

  • How about seven hours?

    七小時?

  • Six? Five? Four?

    六?五?四?

  • When's the last time you had three hours to yourself at the office?

    你什麼時候真的在辦公室獨處過完整3小時?

  • Two hours? One, maybe?

    兩小時?或許一小時?

  • Very, very few people actually have

    很少人在辦公室真的有

  • long stretches of uninterrupted time at an office.

    長時間、不被打擾的時間

  • And this is why people choose to do work at home,

    這就是為什麼大家選擇在家工作

  • or they might go to the office,

    他們也許可能會進辦公室

  • but they might go to the office really early in the day,

    但都是在很早的時候

  • or late at night when no one's around,

    或是很晚,大家都離開時

  • or they stick around after everyone's left, or they go in on the weekends,

    等到沒人,或是周末進辦公室

  • or they get work done on the plane,

    又或是在飛機上把工作做完

  • or they get work done in the car or in the train

    或是在車上、火車上

  • because there are no distractions.

    因為這樣才不會被打擾

  • Now, there are different kinds of distractions,

    干擾有很多種

  • but there aren't the really bad kinds of distractions

    但有些並非不好

  • that I'll talk about in just a minute.

    我們等會兒再談

  • And this sort of whole phenomenon

    這種短暫工作時刻的

  • of having short bursts of time to get things done

    整個現象

  • reminds me of another thing

    讓我想到另一件事

  • that doesn't work when you're interrupted,

    當你做這件事的時候也不能被打擾

  • and that is sleep.

    就是睡覺

  • I think that sleep and work are very closely related,

    睡覺跟工作習習相關

  • and it's not just that you can work while you're sleeping

    不是因為睡覺時無法工作

  • and you can sleep while you're working.

    工作時不能睡覺

  • That's not really what I mean.

    我不是要講這個

  • I'm talking specifically about the fact

    我要講的是

  • that sleep and work

    睡覺和工作

  • are phased-based,

    都是階段性的

  • or stage-based, events.

    或稱做時期性的

  • So sleep is about sleep phases, or stages --

    所以睡覺也是很多階段、時期 --

  • some people call them different things.

    說法有很多種

  • There's five of them,

    總共有五個階段

  • and in order to get to the really deep ones, the really meaningful ones,

    為了進到最深沉的階段

  • you have to go through the early ones.

    就必須從最初那一階開始

  • And if you're interrupted while you're going through the early ones --

    如果你第一階段就被打擾

  • if someone bumps you in bed,

    可能有人翻身碰到你

  • or if there's a sound, or whatever happens --

    或許是有什麼聲音之類的

  • you don't just pick up where you left off.

    你沒辦法回到原本階段繼續睡

  • If you're interrupted and woken up,

    如果被打擾後醒來

  • you have to start again.

    就必須重頭開始

  • So you have to go back a few phases and start again.

    就得回到前幾個階段重來

  • And what ends up happening -- sometimes you might have days like this

    很常發生的情況是 -- 有時候你會發現

  • where you wake up at eight in the morning, or seven in the morning,

    當你八點起床,或七點起床

  • or whenever you get up,

    隨便幾點

  • and you're like, man, I didn't really sleep very well.

    起床後就想,天哪,我沒睡好

  • I did the sleep thing -- I went to bed, I laid down --

    我有睡阿 -- 我爬上床、躺下

  • but I didn't really sleep.

    但沒有真的睡著

  • People say you go to sleep,

    我們說去睡覺

  • but you really don't go to sleep, you go towards sleep.

    其實不是一倒下就睡著,而是進入夢鄉

  • It just takes a while. You've got to go through these phases and stuff,

    是需要時間的,一階一階慢慢來

  • and if you're interrupted, you don't sleep well.

    如果被干擾,當然就睡不好

  • So how do we expect -- does anyone here expect someone to sleep well

    整夜一直被打擾

  • if they're interrupted all night?

    能睡的好嗎?

  • I don't think anyone would say yes.

    應該不行吧

  • Why do we expect people to work well

    在辦公室裡不斷被打擾

  • if they're being interrupted all day at the office?

    是要怎麼把工作做好啊?

  • How can we possibly expect people to do their job

    在辦公室裡一直被打擾

  • if they're going to the office to be interrupted?

    要員工怎麼把事情做好?

  • That doesn't really seem like it makes a lot of sense to me.

    對我來說,一點也不合理

  • So what are these interruptions that happen at the office

    那這些干擾只發生在辦公室

  • that don't happen at other places?

    其他地方不會發生嗎?

  • Because in other places, you can have interruptions,

    其他地方也是會有干擾

  • like, you can have the TV,

    或許會跑去看電視

  • or you could go for a walk,

    或是散個步

  • or there's a fridge downstairs,

    到樓下冰箱拿個飲料

  • or you've got your own couch, or whatever you want to do.

    躺一下沙發等等

  • And if you talk to certain managers,

    如果你和一些主管談過

  • they'll tell you that they don't want their employees to work at home

    他們會說,他們不喜歡員工在家工作的原因

  • because of these distractions.

    是因為容易受干擾

  • They'll also say --

    他們也說

  • sometimes they'll also say,

    偶爾會這樣說

  • "Well, if I can't see the person, how do I know they're working?"

    "如果我看不到人影,怎麼知道他在工作?"

  • which is ridiculous, of course, but that's one of the excuses that managers give.

    這理由很荒繆,但他們都用這藉口

  • And I'm one of these managers.

    我也是經理

  • I understand. I know how this goes.

    所以我懂

  • We all have to improve on this sort of thing.

    但我們要改善這情形

  • But oftentimes they'll cite distractions.

    可是他們常會舉例

  • "I can't let someone work at home.

    "我不能讓員工在家工作"

  • They'll watch TV. They'll do this other thing."

    "因為他們會看電視、做別的事"

  • It turns out that those aren't the things that are really distracting.

    但其實這些讓你分心的事,並不是真的干擾

  • Because those are voluntary distractions.

    因為這些干擾是自願性的

  • You decide when you want to be distracted by the TV.

    你自己決定什麼時候看電視

  • You decide when you want to turn something on.

    開什麼、關什麼、用什麼

  • You decide when you want to go downstairs or go for a walk.

    決定什麼時候下樓、散步

  • At the office, most of the interruptions and distractions

    而辦公室裡的大多數干擾

  • that really cause people not to get work done

    讓人們無法好好工作的

  • are involuntary.

    都是非自願的

  • So let's go through a couple of those.

    我來解釋一下

  • Now, managers and bosses

    所以,上司、老闆們

  • will often have you think that the real distractions at work

    常會告訴你,工作時真正會讓你分心的是

  • are things like Facebook and Twitter

    Facebook和Twitter

  • and YouTube and other websites,

    還有Youtube等其他網站

  • and in fact, they'll go so far

    他們甚至會完全禁止

  • as to actually ban these sites at work.

    上班瀏覽這些網站

  • Some of you may work at places where you can't get to these certain sites.

    你們有些人的公司可能會擋某些網站

  • I mean, is this China? What the hell is going on here?

    這是中國嗎? 搞什麼?

  • You can't go to a website at work,

    上班時候不能逛某些網站

  • and that's the problem, that's why people aren't getting work done,

    因為逛了之後員工會不想工作?

  • because they're going to Facebook and they're going to Twitter?

    是因為他們玩Facebook或Twitter?

  • That's kind of ridiculous. It's a total decoy.

    大瞎了吧,根本是胡扯

  • And today's Facebook and Twitter and YouTube,

    今日的Facebook、Twitter、YouTube

  • these things are just modern-day smoke breaks.

    等於是以前的抽菸時間而已

  • No one cared about letting people take a smoke break for 15 minutes

    十年前,上班時間溜出去15分鐘抽個菸

  • 10 years ago,

    根本沒人管

  • so why does everyone care about someone going to Facebook here and there,

    現在為什麼偶爾上個Facebook、Twitter、YouTube

  • or Twitter here and there, or YouTube here and there?

    就意見一大堆?

  • Those aren't the real problems in the office.

    這些根本不是真正的問題

  • The real problems are what I like to call

    真正的問題我稱做是

  • the M&Ms,

    M&M's

  • the Managers and the Meetings.

    經理(managers)和會議(meetings)

  • Those are the real problems in the modern office today.

    這才是現今辦公室裡最大的問題

  • And this is why things don't get done at work --

    員工沒辦法順利完成工作

  • it's because of the M&Ms.

    就是因為M&M's

  • Now what's interesting is,

    有趣的事來了

  • if you listen to all the places that people talk about doing work --

    很多人說他們工作的地方--

  • like at home, or in a car, or on a plane,

    在家、車上、飛機上、

  • or late at night, or early in the morning --

    深夜、清晨

  • you don't find managers and meetings.

    通常都沒有經理和會議

  • You find a lot of other distractions, but you don't find managers and meetings.

    也許有很多其他干擾,但沒有經理和會議

  • So these are the things that you don't find elsewhere,

    這兩樣其他地方沒有

  • but you do find at the office.

    唯有辦公室裡會出現

  • And managers are basically people

    經理的工作基本上

  • whose job it is to interrupt people.

    就是去打擾別人

  • That's pretty much what managers are for. They're for interrupting people.

    他們的工作大概就這樣,打擾別人

  • They don't really do the work,

    沒有真正要做的事

  • so they have to make sure everyone else is doing the work, which is an interruption.

    所以只好確保大家都在做事,變成干擾

  • And we have a lot of managers in the world now,

    現在世上很多經理

  • and there's a lot of people in the world now,

    世界上也很多人

  • and there's a lot of interruptions in the world now because of these managers.

    因為這些經理,所以很多干擾

  • They have to check in: "Hey, how's it going?

    他們很愛跑來「嘿,還好嗎?」

  • Show me what's up," and this sort of thing

    「報告你的進度」等等

  • and they keep interrupting you at the wrong time,

    而且都會在錯誤時機來打擾

  • while you're actually trying to do something they're paying you to do,

    正當你要好好做正事時

  • they tend to interrupt you.

    他們就會跑來煩你