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  • Two days before Christmas Day in 1954, the first organ transplant was achieved

    在 1954 年的聖誕節前兩天,波士頓的一間醫院完成了首例的器官移植

  • when a kidney was transplanted from a man called Ronald Herrick

    一位叫 Ronald Herrick 的男人將一個腎臟

  • into his identical twin, Richard, at a hospital in Boston.

    移植給他的同卵雙胞胎 Richard

  • In 1963, the first human lung transplant was performed at the University of Mississippi.

    1963 年,首例肺臟移植手術就在密西西比大學進行

  • The liver transplant came next in 1967, also in the U.S.,

    接著就是 1967 年的肝臟移植,也是在美國執刀,

  • and that same year, a heart was transplanted at a hospital in Cape Town, South Africa.

    而同年,在南非開普敦地醫院則完成了第一例的心臟移植

  • We can now transplant other organs, such as the pancreas, intestine, and thymus,

    我們現在還可以移植其他器官,像是胰臟、腸子和胸腺

  • with the kidneys, liver and heart being the most frequently transplanted organs.

    而腎臟、肝臟及心臟則是最常移植的器官

  • Tissues can also be transplanted,

    組織其實也可以移植

  • and right now scientists are even working on ways to 3D print human tissue.

    現在科學家甚至在研究如何用 3D 列印的技術來列印人體的組織

  • But there's one things humans haven't cracked,

    但現在還有一個器官是我們無法移植的

  • and that's the organ that makes us more us than any other.

    讓我們跟別人比起來更與眾不同的就是這個器官了

  • Today we'll find out why, in this episode of the Infographics Show,

    在今天的 Infographics Show,我們就要來了解

  • Why Can't We Transplant Brains?

    為何我們至今仍無法移植大腦

  • Don't forget to subscribe and click the bell button

    別忘了訂閱並按下小鈴鐺

  • so that you can be part of our Notification Squad.

    你就可以加入我們的影片通知小隊唷

  • First of all, we should look at what the brain actually does.

    首先,我們要先來了解我們的大腦都在做什麼

  • This thing inside our skulls that weighs on average about 3.3 pounds (1.5 kilograms) is

    位在我們的頭顱內,大腦的平均重量大約是 3.3 磅 (1.5 公斤)

  • larger in humans than any other vertebrae when compared to body weight.

    以體重來看,我們的大腦比其他脊椎動物都來得大

  • That's why we are so brainy.

    這就是為什麼我們這麼聰明的原因

  • The busy brain is our command center for our nervous system,

    忙碌的大腦是我們神經系統的指揮中心

  • which takes in data from our body and gives directions to our muscles.

    它從我們的身體接收資訊,並對肌肉下達指令

  • In fact, it does so much work, it requires about 20 percent of our energy to run it.

    事實上,大腦負責非常多工作,我們必須花費 20% 的能量才能讓它運作

  • When we are brain-dead, we no longer have any neurological activity.

    一旦我們呈現腦死狀態,我們就無法再有任何神經活動

  • With the help of machines, we can be kept alive for a short time,

    雖然在機器的輔助下,我們大概可以再活一段時間

  • but within a week the body will not be able to function.

    但在一個禮拜內,你的身體就會完全失去功能

  • While we may still be alive in some sense for that week,

    雖然某種程度上我們那週還算活著

  • we are technically dead when the brain is dead.

    但其實呈現腦死狀態時,我們就已經死了

  • Some good news is that during the time we are kept alive,

    好消息是,在我們還算活著的這段期間內

  • some of our other organs can be donated.

    我們的某些器官是可以拿來捐贈的

  • But why can't we accept someone else's brain?

    但為何我們不能接受其他人的大腦呢?

  • When we transplant something such as a heart, surgeons use a mechanical pump

    當我們移植像是心臟之類的器官時,外科醫師會使用幫浦

  • to keep blood flowing through the body while the new heart is being put in.

    讓血液在替換新的心臟時,仍然可以流遍全身

  • The new heart is connected to the major blood vessels, and this might take several hours.

    新的心臟必須跟主要血管相連,而這可能會花上數小時

  • You'll stay in the hospital for one to two weeks,

    你必須待在醫院一到兩週

  • and if your body doesn't reject its new heart,

    如果你的身體沒有排斥新的心臟

  • it's said 87 out of 100 people make it through the year,

    據說在 100 人之中有 87 人可以好好撐過一年

  • and 60 out of 100 get through another decade.

    又有 60 人可以再活過下一個十年

  • So, wouldn't it just be possible to open the skull

    那有沒有可能打開我們的頭顱

  • and connect a new brain where the removed brain was connected?

    並用新的大腦取代原本的那個腦呢?

  • This question was asked to a Professor of Neurosurgery at Yale in 2013.

    在 2013 年,有人向耶魯大學的神經外科教授問了這個問題

  • He actually did say that one day this operation might be successful,

    他說,在未來的某一天,這的確可能會發生

  • but right now we are not even close.

    但現在還差得遠了

  • The reason is because

    原因是因為

  • it's just too darn difficult to connect nerve fibers from the new brain to the native spinal cord.

    要將新腦的神經纖維跟接受移植者的脊髓連結實在是太困難了

  • This, he said, is why spinal cord injuries can be so devastating.

    他說,這也是為什麼脊髓傷害可能會如此嚴重的原因

  • If we could transplant brains,

    如果我們有辦法移植大腦

  • we would likely not have so many people that are disabled due to spinal injuries.

    可能就不會有這麼多人因脊髓傷害而導致殘疾了

  • Another Professor of Neurosurgery, speaking in the same article, said that

    另一位神經外科的教授在同一篇報導中說道

  • what might be more feasible is a whole body transplant,

    跟移植大腦比起來,全身體移植可能會是較可行的方案

  • which means a healthy brain being given a new body,

    全身體移植是指將整個健全的頭移植到另一個身體上,

  • which could be natural or artificial.

    可以是另一個人的身體或人造的身體

  • We dug a little deeper, and found that

    在我們更深入探查後發現

  • indeed some fairly amazing transplants have been done with brains or heads.

    在過去,的確有人做了一些驚人的大腦或頭部移植

  • In the 1950s, Russian scientist Vladimir Demikhov

    在 1950 年代,俄羅斯科學家弗拉基米爾.德米科夫

  • created what has been called Frankenstein's dog,

    就創造出了所謂的「科學怪犬」

  • when he transplanted the head of one dog onto another, giving it two heads.

    他將一隻狗的頭移植到另一隻狗身上,讓牠同時有兩個頭

  • Later, American scientist Robert White

    後來,美國科學家羅伯特.懷特

  • controversially transplanted the head of monkeys, from one to another,

    進行了具爭議性的實驗 —— 將一隻猴子的頭移植到另一隻猴子身上

  • but the monkey was paralyzed as its spinal cord had been severed

    但最後因猴子的脊髓無法與大腦連結而造成猴子癱瘓

  • and it died in a few days.

    並在幾天後死亡

  • Basically, you can transplant a brain or a head,

    基本上來說,你是可以移植大腦或頭

  • but doing it successfully is going to be a problem.

    但成不成功又是另一回事

  • She believes that we won't even go there

    她相信人類並不會朝那方面發展

  • because it is just too gruesome and the public won't like it.

    因為這太過毛骨悚然,而且大眾也難以接受

  • Everyone seems to come to the same conclusion,

    每個人似乎也都有志一同地認為

  • in that if you sever the nerves in the central nervous system,

    就算將中樞神經系統的神經連結起來

  • the transplanted brain could not be reconnected.

    新的大腦也無法成功跟身體連接

  • All the neurosurgeons out there seem to agree,

    所有的神經外科醫師也都同意

  • that we just do not have anything near the technology to reattach

    我們目前尚無類似的技術重新連接

  • the brain's veins and cranial nerves, the spinal cord, and the four major arteries.

    大腦的血管、腦神經、脊髓核四條主動脈

  • One particular scientist paints a very bleak picture,

    一位科學家非常不看好大腦移植手術

  • wherein we successfully attached a brain to the arteries and veins.

    即便我們能夠成功將新腦與主動脈與血管接合

  • You'd be thinking, but according to him,

    你可能會有點納悶,但據他所說

  • You'd have a person in utter sensory isolation and paralysis

    這樣只會讓接受移植者完全喪失感知能力並癱瘓

  • Locked-in syndrome only worse.

    這種閉鎖症候群只會讓情況更糟

  • He believed a full head transplant would be easier.

    他認為頭顱移植可能會比較容易

  • By the way, you might have read that an Italian neurosurgeon called

    另外,或許你有看到一位義大利神經外科醫師

  • Sergio Canavero performed a head transplant recently,

    賽吉爾.卡納維羅最近的換頭實驗

  • but that transplant wasn't on living people, it was on corpses.

    但該實驗並不是在活人身上進行,而是用屍體

  • We are not Lego; just sticking things together doesn't mean they work with us humans.

    我們又不是樂高,不是把兩個部位接在一起就沒事了

  • For the most part, the great head transplant story is now being received as fake news.

    大多情況下,很多驚人的換頭實驗都被視為是假消息

  • So, with billions of neurons each with trillions of synapses in the cerebral cortex,

    在大腦皮質中,有數十億的神經元及好幾萬億的突觸

  • we can't really just expect to hook a new brain up to another body.

    我們不可能指望將整顆頭直接接到另一具身體上

  • But never say never; while brain transplants might sound like science fiction,

    但我們還是不要太鐵齒,雖然大腦移植聽起來像是科幻小說中才會看到的情節

  • what might happen if we did successfully manage to rewire a brain in another body?

    如果我們真的成功地達成這個目標又會發生什麼事?

  • No one really knows, but there is a lot of speculation out there.

    雖然沒有人知道,但也出現了許多臆測

  • It seems some people agree you'd just be you, in another body.

    有人認為你還是你,只是在另一個軀體裡

  • By that, you'd be the brain in another body, and the person whose brain was removed,

    你只是用另一副身體活著,而那個大腦被移除的人

  • while looking like the survivor, would in fact be the person who had gone.

    也就是看似生還者的人,其實已經消失了

  • The brain rules.

    大腦才決定了你是誰

  • Another thing people talk about is the fact that brains grow with bodies, in tune,

    人們在討論的另一件事情是,大腦會被新的身體影響、調節

  • so if one brain was put in another body, things might not just run like clockwork.

    所以如果你的大腦被植入另一副軀體,你可能就不是你了

  • It could produce a kind of trauma, even if all the right bits were connected.

    就算所有神經都順利地連結,也可能會對接受移植的人造成創傷

  • And that could only happen if the huge doses of immunosuppressants

    但條件是,高劑量的免疫抑制劑

  • could ensure the immune system doesn't attack the new brain, or head.

    能夠確保免疫系統不會攻擊新的大腦或頭

  • Even if you did do that,

    即使你這麼做了

  • one scientist said this year that

    一位科學家在今年指出

  • by putting a new chemical environment with new neurological input

    在化學環境下將新的神經對接

  • would just lead to a very mentally messed up Frankenstein.

    只會讓人變得跟失去理智的科學怪人一樣

  • We'd have no continuity,

    我們會精神錯亂

  • and might end up feeling like Mary Shelley's creation who once asked,

    最後可能會像瑪麗.雪萊筆下的人物,自問道

  • "Was I, then, a monster,

    「我是怪物嗎?

  • a blot upon the earth, from which all men fled and whom all men disowned?”

    像地球上的汙點,所有人看見我就逃跑,我是不被承認的存在?」

  • In conclusion, we are not even close to brain transplants, or head transplants.

    總結而言,我們甚至不太想去碰大腦移植或頭部移植這件事

  • We are not sure how they could be done successfully, and we are very afraid of trying.

    我們不確定「成功移植大腦」這件事會如何達成,而且我們也會對嘗試此事感到恐懼

  • What do you think about the idea?

    你怎麼想呢?

  • Let us know in the comments!

    在留言區告訴我們吧!

  • Also, be sure to check out our other video called

    別忘了也去看看我們的另一部影片

  • Worst Prison Experiments Conducted on Humans!

    人類史上最可怕的監獄實驗

  • Thanks for watching, and as always, don't forget to like, share, and subscribe.

    感謝你這次的收看,記得按讚、分享並訂閱我們的頻道

  • See you next time!

    下次見囉!

Two days before Christmas Day in 1954, the first organ transplant was achieved

在 1954 年的聖誕節前兩天,波士頓的一間醫院完成了首例的器官移植

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我們可以移植心臟,但為何不能移植大腦? (Why Can't We Transplant Brains?)

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    Vivian Chen 發佈於 2018 年 10 月 20 日
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