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  • For those of us in school who are trying to figure out the most effective way to study, science is here on hand to help.

    還在念書的你,想找到最有效率的學習方法嗎?讓這部影片用科學告訴你。

  • While it has been traditionally thought by many of us over the years that long hours in front of the computer or in the library, before an important exam, are required to maximize study time, this is actually not the case.

    以前我們總以為必須得在考前花上數小時,在電腦前或泡在圖書館裡,希望爭取到最大量的用功時間;可這不見得有效。

  • So forget about long nights, with eyelids drooping over pages and pages of text, scientific research has expressed quite clearly that that isn't the way to study smart.

    忘記那些掙扎著把眼皮撐開、熬過一頁頁文字的漫長夜晚吧!科學研究已清楚指出那不是聰明讀書的方法。

  • And it turns out smart studying is a lot more fun than we might have thought.

    出乎意料地,那方法可能比我們想像中更加有趣。

  • So just what cool techniques work best to maximize those precious days before the big exam?

    究竟哪些新奇方法才能最有效地應付大考呢?

  • That's what we'll find out, in this episode of The Infographics Show, Scientifically Proven Best Ways to Study.

    這就是我們今天要在影片裡介紹的:科學證實用功讀書最棒的方法。

  • First of all, an unlikely helper is exercise.

    首先運動是意料之外的好幫手。

  • Blood chemistry has been proven to change the way the brain works, as the brain, the happy recipient of vital nutrients through exercise, repays the favor by increasing brain performance in the shape of a better and longer attention span, smoother information processing, and more fluid problem solving skills.

    血液循環已被證實能改變大腦運作方式,因為大腦是運動所產生之必要養分的快樂接收端,也藉由增加大腦效能表現來產生回饋,改善並延長注意力集中情形、使資訊處理程序更順暢,並強化問題解決能力。

  • How does this work?

    這是怎麼運作的?

  • Well, exercise releases an important blend of mood altering hormones including dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine.

    運動會釋放一系列能改變心情的荷爾蒙,包含多巴胺、血清素和去甲基腎上腺素。

  • This neural cocktail greatly enhances brain performance required for study and information retention.

    這些神經元混合物會大幅提升唸書與信息保留所需要的大腦效能。

  • So in between study sessions, we should seriously consider hitting the gym, swimming some laps, kicking a ball around, or even dancing a few steps because any kind of exercise greatly improves brain power.

    因此在每個唸書階段之間,我們可以考慮拜訪一下健身房,游個幾圈、踢個球、甚至跳個舞,因為任何一種運動都能大大增加腦力。

  • These exercise sessions also help to break up the study sessions, which is crucial to avoiding cramming, a scientifically disproven method.

    這些運動也能把學習切分成小塊,這點對避免死記硬塞很重要—它可是科學上強力反對的讀書方法。

  • The problem with cramming is that overloaded information does not have a chance to enter the long-term memory.

    死記硬塞的問題在於負載過多的資訊無法輸入長期記憶區。

  • Short-term memory is the free crazy space within your brain.

    你存放短期記憶的大腦區塊是個瘋狂混亂的地方。

  • Information rattles around inside there but what we need to do is turn that information into knowledge.

    各種資訊來來去去,可我們需要的是把資訊轉化成知識。

  • And that doesn't happen by cramming.

    死記硬塞的手法是毫無助益的。

  • The transformation from short term information into long term knowledge occurs through repeated exposure to that information, retelling of that information, and reflection of that information.

    短期記憶到長期記憶的轉化只能靠重複性的資訊接觸、重述與反思。

  • So if you learn about a topic, put down the book, and then hit the gym and reflect up on it, or talk to somebody else who has knowledge on the subject, and then you are far more likely to retain that short term information and turn it into long term knowledge.

    因此當你學會了一個主題,放下書本、到健身房報到、開始反芻方才學到的內容,或者與熟悉該主題的人談話,這樣你就更可能保留住短期記憶,並將其轉化成長期的知識。

  • You must also vary your study program.

    你也必須時時變化你的用功行程。

  • Smart study isn't about just reading the material over and over and over again, ad nauseam.

    聰明唸書並不代表要一遍遍地、不厭其煩地重讀文本。

  • Although this may seem like the easiest way, it is totally counterproductive.

    即便看起來是最簡便的方法,這可無助於唸書效力。

  • A 2010 study from Washington University compared the effectiveness of repeated testing over repeated studying and found that testing is far more effective than simply rereading.

    華盛頓大學一篇 2010 年的研究比較反覆測驗與反覆學習的效果,並發現前者明顯擁有更佳的成效。

  • So in between short exercise and study sessions, why not test yourself now and again?

    所以在運動與讀書安排之間,試著時不時測驗自己一下吧!

  • Or better still, find a study partner who is tackling the same subject and test one another, compare your results, talk about them, and continue your study program, in between exercising.

    或者更好的辦法是去找一位同領域的唸書夥伴,彼此互相測驗、比較並討論測驗結果,再繼續唸書、運動交錯的行程安排。

  • There is no reason you should study completely alone, and without adequate testing, you will fail to see where the real information gaps are.

    你本來就不該獨自埋頭苦讀,而且若沒有安排適當的測驗,你根本就看不到待補強的地方在哪裡。

  • Finally, get as much sleep as you can, because sleep is crucial to brain development.

    最後一點,睡越多越好,因為睡眠對大腦發展非常重要。

  • When awake for the first few hours in the day, our alpha brain waves are most active, which is the brain state most suited to the acquisition of information and knowledge.

    白天剛起床的幾個小時裡,是橋樑意識最為活躍的時候,也因此最適合用來輸入新資訊、學習新知。

  • A good study program should not only include exercise, short intense study sessions, and social learning, it should also include a good night's sleep and perhaps, if your day allows it, a cheeky power nap in the afternoon.

    一個優良的讀書計畫除了運動、短而緊湊的學習時間、夥伴相互砥礪,也要包含良好的夜晚睡眠,此外,如果白天有空閒的話,別忘了趴著小憩片刻。

  • A nap in the day time will give you two bursts of alpha brain waves for one day's study.

    因為午睡能夠在一整天的學習日程裡,帶給你兩回橋樑意識高峰。

  • And the benefit of sleep doesn't end there.

    睡眠的好處還不只如此。

  • When you acquire information, brain cells grow new connections that reach out and connect with one another.

    每當你輸入新資訊,腦細胞會長出新連結,並與其他細胞連接。

  • Sleep helps these cells grow and connect, so if we think of our brain as a tree, sleep is like the miracle grow, and while we sleep, all the tiny branches will grow and flourish.

    睡眠能幫助細胞的生長與連結,也就是說,如果我們把大腦想成一棵樹,睡眠就是神奇的生長劑,我們睡覺時樹枝就能更加成長茁壯。

  • Conversely, all night study sessions do not work, as our ability to process information is hindered by our restlessness, and the information overload is simply overbearing.

    另一方面,熬夜唸書則沒什麼幫助,因為缺乏休息將會扼殺我們處理資訊的能力,根本無法處理過度負載的資訊。

  • Scientific research has shown that it can take up to 4 days for our brains to return back to normal after we've been awake for an entire night.

    如果我們一整晚都沒睡,科學研究已指出我們的大腦可能得花上四天的時間,才能回復到正常狀態。

  • We should take breaks every hour and not work straight through.

    我們應該每小時都休息片刻,而不是撐到天亮。

  • Study for an hour, do some exercise, speak to a study friend, and return to the source material.

    唸一小時的書、運動一下、和學習夥伴聊聊,再回到書本。

  • While some experts might argue, researchers at Stanford School of Medicine agree that playing certain types of music such as classical may help students engage in the source material.

    有些專家,例如史丹佛醫學院的研究學者認為播放特定種類的音樂,例如古典樂能幫助學生更專注於學習文本。

  • While some of us prefer complete silence, an uplifting piece of non-distracting music (without lyrics) may improve mood and increase the chances of information retention.

    雖然有些人喜歡安靜念書,正向積極卻不打擾的音樂 (沒有歌詞那種) 也許能改善心情,並增進資訊儲存。

  • In active learning studies, some scholars have suggested that dopamine is the brain's save button.

    在關於主動學習的研究裡,有些學者發現多巴胺是大腦的儲存按鈕。

  • So some light, uplifting music, a favorite warm drink, and a box of cookies, could also help us retain knowledge, as the brain, while in its reward mode, is more receptive to whatever stimuli is present, including that study material.

    因此一點燈光、開朗的配樂、你最喜愛的熱飲、一盒餅乾,也許都能幫助我們記憶,因為當大腦處在回饋模式,接收能力便會增加,無論外在刺激物為何,就連教科書也是。

  • Also science has shown us that, as ridiculous as it may seem, striking a power pose before entering the exam room may be to our benefit.

    另外科學也證實了,雖然聽起來有點蠢,擺出高權力姿勢後再進入考場,可能會表現得更好。

  • So think Superman or Wonder Womanput your hands on your hips, move your legs apart, chest expanded, deep breath, and say something awe-inspiring.

    想想超人或神力女超人,把手放在腰間、雙腳打開、抬頭挺胸、深呼吸,最後再來句正能量話語。

  • You may want to do this in private, like in the bathroom before a test, but this is completely your own choice.

    你八成會想在沒有人的地方做這件事情,像是考前去一趟廁所,無論如何這完全是你的選擇。

  • Although you may feel stupid, and will probably look a bit odd, this posturing will reduce the stress hormone cortisol and increase testosterone, making you scientifically stronger and better prepared for that test.

    即使你會覺得自己很可笑、看起來很奇怪,但這樣的姿勢能降低壓力荷爾蒙皮質醇、提升睪酮,科學上來說你會變得更堅強,更能應付接下來的考試。

  • So remember take breaks, sleep, exercise, talk about your material with study pals, strike a pose, and you'll be as good as ready for that test.

    因此請記得穿插休息、好好睡、做運動、與同儕討論課本內容、擺出姿勢,你將能為考試做出更完善的準備。

  • Are there other tried and true methods that we failed to mention?

    有什麼你試過而且真正有效的方法,是我們漏掉沒提的嗎?

  • Let us know in the comments!

    請在留言中告訴我們!

  • Also, be sure to check out our other video called Private Schools vs Public Schools.

    也別忘了去看看另一部影片:私立與公立學校大比拼。

  • Thanks for watching, and, as always, don't forget to like, share, and subscribe.

    謝謝觀賞,一樣請記得幫我們按讚、分享、訂閱。

  • See you next time!

    下回見!

For those of us in school who are trying to figure out the most effective way to study, science is here on hand to help.

還在念書的你,想找到最有效率的學習方法嗎?讓這部影片用科學告訴你。

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【閱讀素養】科學證實 用功讀書最棒的方法 (Scientifically Proven Best Ways to Study)

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    Jessieeee 發佈於 2019 年 01 月 09 日
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