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  • Welcome to CNN 10 minutes of news explained. I think that makes sense. I`m Carl Azuz at

  • the CNN Center. Great to have

  • you kicking off a new week with us. Sunday`s date September 9th marked exactly 70 years

  • from the day when North Korea was founded. Though it`s

  • formal name is The Democratic People`s Republic of Korea it is a communist state controlled

  • by one central party. It`s also a military state who`s

  • young men and women are required to serve in the armed forces for several years starting

  • at age 17.

  • North Korea has spent tremendous amounts of it`s money on defense though it`s industrial

  • and power sectors have struggled and it`s people have

  • suffered through widespread shortages of food. The nation celebrated it`s history yesterday

  • with a military parade. It was it`s first show of

  • military strength since North Korean Kim Jong-un and U.S. President Donald Trump made history

  • with a face to face meeting in June. But the

  • journalists invited to attend yesterday`s event noticed a couple major differences between

  • it and the parades that the country has held in the

  • past and those changes may be related to that summer meeting.

  • North Korea`s military parade to celebrate it`s 70th founding anniversary left no doubt

  • that this is still a military state. It

  • has a standing army of more than 1 million and there were thousands of soldiers marching

  • here along Kim Il Sung Square. The one dramatic

  • difference that I`ve seen this parade versus the previous parades that I`ve seen in this

  • very square. The nuclear program was not included. You

  • didn`t see the nuclear symbol and you certainly did not see the intercontinental ballistic

  • missiles that are believe to pose a threat to

  • the mainland United States.

  • Those were kept away. The focus was on the soldiers themselves. Kim Jong- un the North

  • Korean leader did not give a speech but his right hand man Kim Yong-nom did speak and

  • one thing that he said that I thought was

  • particularly striking. He told soldiers they need to be prepared to fight a war but they

  • also need to be prepared simultaneously to fight an economic

  • battle. To build things like roads and bridges and buildings to grow this country`s economy.

  • Something that Kim Jong-un has said is his priority

  • moving forward. Something that he hopes the United States will be able to help with as

  • he continues to work towards diplomacy with President Trump.

  • 10 Second Trivia. Which of these places is a town, a county and an island? Nantucket,

  • Massachusetts; Key West, Florida; Outer Banks,

  • North Carolina; or Catalina Island, California. It`s true they`re all islands but the only

  • one of these that`s also a town and a county is

  • Nantucket.

  • Nantucket is about 30 miles off the coast of Massachusetts. It`s home to centuries of

  • history, 12,000 people year around, 50,000 or more in the

  • summertime and an untold number of mice and ticks who play a starring role in our next

  • story. Though a controversial proposal involving both animals

  • is still years away from being possible, it is a talk of the town.

  • On the West Coast when it comes to natural disasters they have earthquakes. The Heartland

  • has tornadoes. The South has

  • hurricanes. Here in the Northeast, our natural disaster is Lyme disease.

  • And the cause of this natural disaster, disease carrying ticks but scientists think they can

  • stop this pest by genetically

  • engineering another. Nantucket Island, the sleepy and idyllic summer paradise has a tick

  • problem. Ticks are the main transmitters of Lyme

  • disease, a bacterial infection that can cause fevers, fatigue and rashes. If left untreated,

  • infection can spread to the joints, heart and even the

  • nervous system causing serious long term health problems.

  • According to the CDC, more than 300,000 Americans are diagnosed with Lyme disease each year.

  • But on Nantucket Island, up to 40 percent of residents

  • have been diagnosed according to a local health official. How serious is the Lyme disease

  • issue here in Nantucket?

  • In about another week, my office will be 50 or 60 percent tick born illnesses.

  • With no FDA approved vaccine on the market, scientists at MIT think they`ve found an alternative

  • but controversial

  • solution using the power of genetic editing, specifically in a little mouse. They call

  • the proposal "Mice Against Ticks".

  • Ecologists have known for quite some time that the white footed mouse is the primary

  • reservoir, not just of Lyme disease but

  • of pretty much every major tick born disease in the Northeast United States. Ticks aren`t

  • born infected. They get infected when they bite

  • their first prey. Typically that`s a white footed mouse.

  • The chain of transmission starts when a tick bites a white footed mouse carrying Lyme disease.

  • The tick gets infected and then

  • usually moves on to bite a deer where it continues to feed and reproduce. And with few natural

  • predators, deer populations have exploded increasing

  • the spread of ticks and the odds that you`re bitten by one. So what`s the solution.

  • We want to heritably immunize the local white footed mice that are responsible for infecting

  • most ticks. So the idea is if we

  • can immunize all of the mice, then we can disrupt the chain of transmission.

  • In other words, if mice can`t carry Lyme disease then they can`t pass it on to the ticks who

  • bite them. To immunize Nantucket`s

  • mice population, Esfelt (ph) and his team at MIT propose hacking into the white footed

  • mouse`s genetic code. How are you genetically altering the

  • mice to make them immune to Lyme disease?

  • Some mice in nature are immune. They acquire immunity naturally just like our bodies acquire

  • immunity when we get a cold.

  • So this one has it`s door closed which means that there`s a mouse in it.

  • Oh yes. Hey little guy.

  • Let`s take the immunity gene that have evolved natural resistance. Let`s encode them in the

  • mouse genum such that they`re

  • descendents will be protected from birth.

  • To do that, scientists isolate the genetic code for Lyme disease immunity from the few

  • wild mice that naturally have it. Then

  • they can edit that special code into many more mice. Any offspring of these modified

  • mice would inherit Lyme disease immunity. And if thousands

  • of modified mice were released in Nantucket, they could pass on Lyme disease immunity to

  • the island`s entire mouse population.

  • These mice would be expected to be resistant to Lyme for decades. That will lead to less

  • ticks infected which will lead to less

  • human`s infected.

  • But nobody has ever released genetically modified mammals into the wild. So, scientists are

  • planning a two year trial run.

  • They want to release thousands of modified mice onto a private, uninhabited island. But

  • even if the scientists are happy with the tryout run, this

  • bold idea has to get past the residents of Nantucket.

  • Part of our goal is to draw on your knowledge of the local environment.

  • They`ll vote on whether or not to approve the project. Here on the island, science is

  • coming right up against small town

  • democracy.

  • Our only economic driver here is tourism. Everything is connected to that. The ticks

  • and the diseases that come with it, right

  • now, are an acceptable risk to live here and visit here. If it was to get worse, I`d say

  • we`re kind of done for.

  • My worst fear is that we`re going to make a modification that effects a whole chain

  • of reaction in this environment and

  • this island is small. When you make a reaction in a negative way, it`s going to effect us

  • very quickly. No matter how much they test this, we do

  • not know how this is going to effect the environment five years from now, 10 years from now, 20

  • years from now.

  • To address concerns like these, Esfelts (ph) team is working on adding an expiration date

  • to any genetic modifications the team

  • makes. It would mean that after a set number of generations, the genetic changes will no

  • longer be passed on to offspring but the technique is still

  • in development. How critical is community acceptance of this?

  • It`s vital. Without it, the project cannot and should not move forward. In fact, I think

  • the world could use a salutary,

  • positive example of a community saying no and scientists walking away.

  • Even if the people of Nantucket approve the project, a full scale release of modified

  • mice is at least eight years away and would

  • need approval from the EPA and possible the FDA. But if the experiment works, scientists

  • see the possibility of using it on broader scale as a

  • tool to stop the spread of other harmful viruses and diseases around the world.

  • Headline, dog does double dutch wins record. 10 Out of 10. This is Geronimo, the dog. He`s

  • a border collie. He`s a rescue. His

  • original name was Cricket which totally makes sense here and he`s a champion at double dutch.

  • Geronimo holds the record for most double dutch

  • jump rope skips by a dog. He did 128 of them in a minute. His owner hopes Geronimo will

  • be an example of how rescue dogs can be great success

  • stories. Does this mean the next record`s 12"K-9"? Does it mean it`s only a hop, skip

  • and a jump away? I suppose that with Geronimo anything is

  • "pawsible". Now that he`s been "roped" into the sport a string of successes may be just

  • the "wag inning". I`m Carl Azuz for CNN 10. Please

  • join us again Tuesday. We`ll have special coverage of the September 11th, 2001 terrorist

  • attacks that changed America. We`ll see you then.

Welcome to CNN 10 minutes of news explained. I think that makes sense. I`m Carl Azuz at

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