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  • What I'd like to do today is talk about one

    我今天所要談的

  • of my favorite subjects,

    是我最愛的主題之一

  • and that is the neuroscience of sleep.

    睡眠的神經科學

  • Now, there is a sound --

    你們現在聽這個聲音

  • (Alarm clock) --

    (鬧鐘聲)

  • aah, it worked --

    啊哈,還可以用

  • a sound that is desperately, desperately familiar to most of us,

    我們都熟悉這令人絕望的聲音

  • and of course it's the sound of the alarm clock.

    當然,因為這是鬧鐘的聲音

  • And what that truly ghastly, awful sound does

    那悲慘又糟糕的聲音所要做的

  • is stop the single most important behavioral experience

    是中斷我們最重要的行為

  • that we have, and that's sleep.

    也就是睡眠

  • If you're an average sort of person,

    如果你和一般人一樣

  • 36 percent of your life will be spent asleep,

    一生中有 36% 的時間都花在睡覺上

  • which means that if you live to 90,

    換言之,如果你活到 90 歲

  • then 32 years will have been spent entirely asleep.

    有整整 32 年的時間是在睡覺

  • Now what that 32 years is telling us

    從這 32 年我們可以看出

  • is that sleep at some level is important.

    睡覺有某種程度上的重要性

  • And yet, for most of us, we don't give sleep a second thought.

    然而,大多數的人都認為睡覺沒什麼

  • We throw it away.

    就這樣把睡眠浪費掉

  • We really just don't think about sleep.

    我們真的沒有思考過睡眠這個行為

  • And so what I'd like to do today

    我今天想做的

  • is change your views,

    就是改變你們的觀點

  • change your ideas and your thoughts about sleep.

    改變你們對睡眠的看法、想法

  • And the journey that I want to take you on,

    我想邀請你們來參與一場旅程

  • we need to start by going back in time.

    我們得先回到過去

  • "Enjoy the honey-heavy dew of slumber."

    「享受沉重而甜蜜的睡眠甘露吧。」

  • Any ideas who said that?

    知道這是誰說的嗎?

  • Shakespeare's Julius Caesar.

    莎士比亞的凱薩大帝

  • Yes, let me give you a few more quotes.

    好,我再多給你們一些引言

  • "O sleep, O gentle sleep, nature's soft nurse,

    「噢,睡眠,噢,輕柔的睡眠,大自然的仁慈褓姆

  • how have I frighted thee?"

    我怎麼會害怕你呢?」

  • Shakespeare again, from -- I won't say it --

    這也是莎士比亞,但我不說出處

  • the Scottish play. [Correction: Henry IV, Part 2]

    出自馬克白(更正:應為亨利四世,第二卷)

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • From the same time:

    同個時間

  • "Sleep is the golden chain

    「睡眠就像條金鍊子

  • that ties health and our bodies together."

    把健康和身體綁在一起。」

  • Extremely prophetic, by Thomas Dekker,

    湯瑪斯.德克說的,非常有遠見

  • another Elizabethan dramatist.

    也是另一位伊莉莎白時代的劇作家

  • But if we jump forward 400 years,

    如果我們再往後 400 年

  • the tone about sleep changes somewhat.

    對於睡眠的論點就有些改變

  • This is from Thomas Edison, from the beginning of the 20th century.

    這是 20 世紀初,湯瑪斯.愛迪生說的

  • "Sleep is a criminal waste of time

    「睡覺簡直就是浪費時間,

  • and a heritage from our cave days." Bang.

    根本就是原始人留下的遺產。」碰

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And if we also jump into the 1980s, some of you

    如果我們前往 80 年代

  • may remember that Margaret Thatcher

    在座有些人可能記得 瑪格莉特.柴契爾

  • was reported to have said, "Sleep is for wimps."

    被報導曾說過:「弱者才需要睡覺。」

  • And of course the infamous -- what was his name? --

    當然還有聲名狼藉的-名字是什麼來著-

  • the infamous Gordon Gekko from "Wall Street" said,

    來自「華爾街」,聲名狼藉的 高登.蓋科 說過

  • "Money never sleeps."

    「金錢從不睡覺。」

  • What do we do in the 20th century about sleep?

    20 世紀的我們怎麼看待睡覺?

  • Well, of course, we use Thomas Edison's light bulb

    當然,我們用愛迪生發明的燈泡

  • to invade the night, and we occupied the dark,

    來擊退黑暗,佔領了黑暗

  • and in the process of this occupation,

    在這占領的過程中

  • we've treated sleep as an illness, almost.

    我們幾乎把睡眠當作是種疾病

  • We've treated it as an enemy.

    把睡眠當作是敵人

  • At most now, I suppose, we tolerate the need for sleep,

    我現在敢假設,大多數人都忍住不睡

  • and at worst perhaps many of us think of sleep

    最糟的是,有多數人覺得睡覺是種病

  • as an illness that needs some sort of a cure.

    需要治療的一種病

  • And our ignorance about sleep is really quite profound.

    我們對睡眠的種種無知還真不是蓋的

  • Why is it? Why do we abandon sleep in our thoughts?

    為什麼會這樣?為什麼不想要睡覺?

  • Well, it's because you don't do anything much

    因為當你睡覺的時候

  • while you're asleep, it seems.

    看起來你沒有在做什麼

  • You don't eat. You don't drink.

    你沒有吃喝

  • And you don't have sex.

    沒有發生性行為

  • Well, most of us anyway.

    大多數的人沒有

  • And so therefore it's --

    所以

  • Sorry. It's a complete waste of time, right? Wrong.

    睡覺完全是浪費時間,對嗎?錯

  • Actually, sleep is an incredibly important part of our biology,

    事實上,睡覺對我們的身體非常重要

  • and neuroscientists are beginning to explain why

    神經科學家正開始研究它並解釋為什麼

  • it's so very important.

    睡眠這麼重要

  • So let's move to the brain.

    從大腦開始吧

  • Now, here we have a brain.

    這裡有個腦袋

  • This is donated by a social scientist,

    這是一個社會科學家捐贈的

  • and they said they didn't know what it was,

    他們說他們不知道這是什麼

  • or indeed how to use it, so --

    或是不知道該怎麼使用

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Sorry.

    不好意思

  • So I borrowed it. I don't think they noticed. Okay.

    我借了這個腦袋我想他們應該沒發現

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • The point I'm trying to make is that when you're asleep,

    重點是,你們在睡覺的時候

  • this thing doesn't shut down.

    大腦不會停止運作

  • In fact, some areas of the brain are actually more active

    事實上,有些區塊的活動量還增加了

  • during the sleep state than during the wake state.

    相較於清醒的狀態之下

  • The other thing that's really important about sleep

    另一件關於睡眠之所以重要的事

  • is that it doesn't arise from a single structure within the brain,

    睡眠並非起於大腦單一組織

  • but is to some extent a network property,

    而是有點像網絡

  • and if we flip the brain on its back --

    如果把大腦翻到背面

  • I love this little bit of spinal cord here --

    我喜歡這一小部分的脊髓

  • this bit here is the hypothalamus,

    這叫做下丘腦

  • and right under there is a whole raft of interesting structures,

    下丘腦下方,有一塊很有趣的組織

  • not least the biological clock.

    尤其是生理時鐘

  • The biological clock tells us when it's good to be up,

    生理時鐘告訴我們什麼時候該起床

  • when it's good to be asleep,

    什麼時候該睡覺

  • and what that structure does is interact

    下視丘下方那塊組織所要做的

  • with a whole raft of other areas within the hypothalamus,

    就是和下丘腦內的其他區塊

  • the lateral hypothalamus, the ventrolateral preoptic nuclei.

    外側下丘,腦側室前視核這些區塊來往

  • All of those combine, and they send projections

    這些區塊會發送信號

  • down to the brain stem here.

    到腦幹

  • The brain stem then projects forward

    腦幹再把信號傳送出去

  • and bathes the cortex, this wonderfully wrinkly bit over here,

    讓腦皮層收到信號就是這塊皺褶很漂亮的區塊

  • with neurotransmitters that keep us awake

    神經傳送素會讓我們醒著

  • and essentially provide us with our consciousness.

    最重要的就是讓我們有意識

  • So sleep arises from a whole raft

    所以睡覺是起因於

  • of different interactions within the brain,

    大腦內許多地方的互動

  • and essentially, sleep is turned on and off

    更重要的,我們睡覺或不睡覺

  • as a result of a range of interactions in here.

    是因為這一系列的互動

  • Okay. So where have we got to?

    好,我們現在講到哪了?

  • We've said that sleep is complicated

    我們說到了睡眠很複雜

  • and it takes 32 years of our life.

    花了人生中的 32 年

  • But what I haven't explained is what sleep is about.

    我還沒解釋是:為什需要睡眠

  • So why do we sleep?

    為什麼要睡覺?

  • And it won't surprise any of you that, of course,

    科學家對此也沒有一致的答案

  • the scientists, we don't have a consensus.

    這也不會令人驚訝

  • There are dozens of different ideas about why we sleep,

    有很多不同的想法解釋為什麼要睡覺

  • and I'm going to outline three of those.

    我摘要其中三點

  • The first is sort of the restoration idea,

    第一點說的是修復

  • and it's somewhat intuitive.

    這是有點直觀的假設

  • Essentially, all the stuff we've burned up during the day,

    一天中,我們所消耗的精力

  • we restore, we replace, we rebuild during the night.

    我們會在晚上進行修補、替換、重建

  • And indeed, as an explanation,

    這種解釋

  • it goes back to Aristotle,

    可以追朔到亞里斯多德

  • so that's, what, 2,300 years ago.

    差不多是 2300 年前

  • It's gone in and out of fashion.

    這種說法為多數人接受

  • It's fashionable at the moment because what's been shown

    因為在當時人們看到

  • is that within the brain, a whole raft of genes

    是大腦內的一大堆基因

  • have been shown to be turned on only during sleep,

    在睡覺時是有在活動

  • and those genes are associated with restoration

    這些基因都和修補作用

  • and metabolic pathways.

    以及新陳代謝有關聯

  • So there's good evidence for the whole restoration hypothesis.

    所以有證據支持修補假設

  • What about energy conservation?

    那麼關於儲存精力呢?

  • Again, perhaps intuitive.

    這也很直觀

  • You essentially sleep to save calories.

    睡覺重要的就是儲存卡路里

  • Now, when you do the sums, though,

    不過當你把把數字加一加

  • it doesn't really pan out.

    結果並不令人滿意

  • If you compare an individual who has

    如果你把一個在晚上睡覺或是熬夜的人

  • slept at night, or stayed awake and hasn't moved very much,

    這兩種人都並沒有做什麼活動

  • the energy saving of sleeping is about 110 calories a night.

    他們一個晚上差不多存了 110 卡路里

  • Now, that's the equivalent of a hot dog bun.

    等同於一個熱狗麵包

  • Now, I would say that a hot dog bun

    需要這麼多時間以及步驟的睡眠

  • is kind of a meager return for such a complicated

    經過一個晚上之後只有一個熱狗麵包的量

  • and demanding behavior as sleep.

    這確實有點少

  • So I'm less convinced by the energy conservation idea.

    所以我比較不相信儲存精力這種說法

  • But the third idea I'm quite attracted to,

    吸引我的是第三種說法

  • which is brain processing and memory consolidation.

    就是大腦運作以及記憶結合

  • What we know is that, if after you've tried to learn a task,

    就我們所知,在你嘗試學習某樣事物

  • and you sleep-deprive individuals,

    如果你剝奪自己的睡眠

  • the ability to learn that task is smashed.

    那麼,你學習那樣事物的能力就毀了

  • It's really hugely attenuated.

    學習能力大大降低

  • So sleep and memory consolidation is also very important.

    所以睡眠和記憶有重要關連

  • However, it's not just the laying down of memory

    然而,我們並不只是躺下來

  • and recalling it.

    回想記得的事

  • What's turned out to be really exciting

    讓科學家感到驚奇的是

  • is that our ability to come up with novel solutions

    我們發現新方法和解決複雜問題的能力

  • to complex problems is hugely enhanced by a night of sleep.

    會因為睡一覺而大大增強

  • In fact, it's been estimated to give us a threefold advantage.

    事實上,這帶給我們 3 倍的優勢

  • Sleeping at night enhances our creativity.

    睡眠讓我們更具創造力

  • And what seems to be going on is that, in the brain,

    看起來我們腦中

  • those neural connections that are important,

    神經連結會有所改變

  • those synaptic connections that are important,

    重要的突觸連結(譯注:突觸負責將訊號傳往下個神經細胞)

  • are linked and strengthened,

    會被連接和強化

  • while those that are less important

    而比較不重要的連結

  • tend to fade away and be less important.

    會被弱化而顯得更不重要

  • Okay. So we've had three explanations for why we might sleep,

    有三個說法解釋為什麼我們需要睡眠

  • and I think the important thing to realize is that

    我認為瞭解它們的細節很重要

  • the details will vary, and it's probable we sleep for multiple different reasons.

    因為我們睡眠可能有很多原因

  • But sleep is not an indulgence.

    但是睡眠不是浪費

  • It's not some sort of thing that we can take on board rather casually.

    也不是我們可以輕忽看待的事

  • I think that sleep was once likened to an upgrade

    我想睡眠可以比喻為

  • from economy to business class, you know, the equiavlent of.

    從經濟艙升級到商務艙

  • It's not even an upgrade from economy to first class.

    但是還不到頭等艙的等級

  • The critical thing to realize is that

    關鍵在於

  • if you don't sleep, you don't fly.

    缺乏睡眠,就沒有飛馳的思緒

  • Essentially, you never get there,

    你也創造不出任何東西

  • and what's extraordinary about much of our society these days

    但我們現在社會

  • is that we are desperately sleep-deprived.

    卻希望剝奪睡眠

  • So let's now look at sleep deprivation.

    讓我們來看看被剝奪的睡眠

  • Huge sectors of society are sleep-deprived,

    社會中很多人缺乏睡眠

  • and let's look at our sleep-o-meter.

    看看我們的睡眠計量表

  • So in the 1950s, good data suggests that most of us

    在 50 年代,充分的證據顯示

  • were getting around about eight hours of sleep a night.

    大部份人每晚睡 8 小時

  • Nowadays, we sleep one and a half to two hours less every night,

    現在我們相較從前少睡 1.5 到 2 小時

  • so we're in the six-and-a-half-hours-every-night league.

    我們的睡眠落在每晚 6.5 小時的區間

  • For teenagers, it's worse, much worse.

    對青少年而言這尤其嚴重

  • They need nine hours for full brain performance,

    他們需要睡 9 個小時以利大腦運作

  • and many of them, on a school night,

    而大多數人在學期間

  • are only getting five hours of sleep.

    每晚僅睡 5 小時

  • It's simply not enough.

    這跟本不夠!

  • If we think about other sectors of society, the aged,

    讓我們在看看另一群人

  • if you are aged, then your ability to sleep in a single block

    老人晚上的睡眠

  • is somewhat disrupted, and many sleep, again,

    常會被打斷成好幾部份

  • less than five hours a night.

    他們的睡眠同樣低於每晚 5 小時

  • Shift work. Shift work is extraordinary,

    輪班的人

  • perhaps 20 percent of the working population,

    大概佔工作人口的 20 %

  • and the body clock does not shift to the demands

    而生理時鐘不會

  • of working at night.

    依據夜班而調整

  • It's locked onto the same light-dark cycle as the rest of us.

    它依據相同的光暗循環

  • So when the poor old shift worker is going home

    所以當可憐的夜班工作者

  • to try and sleep during the day, desperately tired,

    疲憊的回家休息時

  • the body clock is saying, "Wake up. This is the time to be awake."

    生理時鐘會說:「醒醒啊!現在是白天!」

  • So the quality of sleep that you get as a night shift worker

    夜班工作者的睡眠品質通常很差

  • is usually very poor, again in that sort of five-hour region.

    他們一樣被分在睡 5 小時的這群

  • And then, of course, tens of millions of people

    接著是,當然,有上百萬人

  • suffer from jet lag.

    受時差影響

  • So who here has jet lag?

    在座有誰是呢?

  • Well, my goodness gracious.

    我的天啊!

  • Well, thank you very much indeed for not falling asleep,

    因為你們大腦正渴望睡眠

  • because that's what your brain is craving.

    我得感謝你們沒有睡著

  • One of the things that the brain does

    另一種大腦會進行

  • is indulge in micro-sleeps,

    或沈迷的是微睡眠

  • this involuntary falling asleep,

    這是非自願性的入睡

  • and you have essentially no control over it.

    你根本無法控制這種睡眠

  • Now, micro-sleeps can be sort of somewhat embarrassing,

    微睡眠令人尷尬

  • but they can also be deadly.

    但它們也可能致命

  • It's been estimated that 31 percent of drivers

    大約有 31% 的駕駛

  • will fall asleep at the wheel at least once in their life,

    至少有一次在駕駛中打瞌睡

  • and in the U.S., the statistics are pretty good:

    在美國,統計數據很完整

  • 100,000 accidents on the freeway

    10 萬件高速公路意外

  • have been associated with tiredness,

    和疲勞、鬆懈

  • loss of vigilance, and falling asleep.

    及打瞌睡有關

  • A hundred thousand a year. It's extraordinary.

    每年平均 1 萬件!不可思議!

  • At another level of terror,

    在另一個層級的恐怖

  • we dip into the tragic accidents at Chernobyl

    我們看到在車諾比事件

  • and indeed the space shuttle Challenger,

    和挑戰者號太空梭的意外

  • which was so tragically lost.

    都造成悲劇性的損失

  • And in the investigations that followed those disasters,

    在事件調查中發現

  • poor judgment as a result of extended shift work

    延長工作時數造成

  • and loss of vigilance and tiredness

    鬆懈與疲倦降低判斷力

  • was attributed to a big chunk of those disasters.

    是導致悲劇的主因

  • So when you're tired, and you lack sleep,

    所以當你疲倦、缺乏睡眠時

  • you have poor memory, you have poor creativity,

    你的記憶力和創造力都很差

  • you have increased impulsiveness,

    你會變得更衝動

  • and you have overall poor judgment.

    而且判斷能力也會下降

  • But my friends, it's so much worse than that.

    但是還有比這些更糟的事

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • If you are a tired brain,

    如果大腦疲憊

  • the brain is craving things to wake it up.

    就會需要刺激保持清醒

  • So drugs, stimulants. Caffeine represents

    西方社會的選擇以

  • the stimulant of choice across much of the Western world.

    藥物、興奮劑和咖啡因為代表

  • Much of the day is fueled by caffeine,

    大部份時間可以咖啡提神

  • and if you're a really naughty tired brain, nicotine.

    如果大腦過勞則會選擇尼古丁

  • And of course, you're fueling the waking state

    如果在工作時

  • with these stimulants,

    使用興奮劑提神

  • and then of course it gets to 11 o'clock at night,

    當然在晚上 11 點時

  • and the brain says to itself, "Ah, well actually,

    大腦會認為

  • I need to be asleep fairly shortly.

    自己不需要睡太多