Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • Like many of you, I'm one of the lucky people.

    就像許多人一樣,我是很幸運的

  • I was born to a family where education was pervasive.

    我生長在一個很重教育的家庭

  • I'm a third-generation PhD, a daughter of two academics.

    我家三代出博士,父母都是高知識份子

  • In my childhood, I played around in my father's university lab.

    我的童年都是在父親的大學實驗室玩大的

  • So it was taken for granted that I attend some of the best universities,

    也順理成章的進了頂尖的大學

  • which in turn opened the door to a world of opportunity.

    為我開啓了機會的大門

  • Unfortunately, most of the people in the world are not so lucky.

    不幸的是,世界上大部分的人並非如此幸運

  • In some parts of the world, for example, South Africa,

    在這世界的某個角落,比如南非

  • education is just not readily accessible.

    教育並非人人可及

  • In South Africa, the educational system was constructed

    南非的教育系統

  • in the days of apartheid for the white minority.

    是在種族隔離制度的時代 為少數白人建立的。

  • And as a consequence, today there is just not enough spots

    其結果是,現今很多想要和得到高品質教育的人

  • for the many more people who want and deserve a high quality education.

    場所卻是不夠用的

  • That scarcity led to a crisis in January of this year

    今年一月在約翰尼斯堡大學

  • at the University of Johannesburg.

    情況更趨惡化

  • There were a handful of positions left open

    有一些名額

  • from the standard admissions process, and the night before

    從標準招生釋放出來

  • they were supposed to open that for registration,

    在他們要開放註冊的前一晚

  • thousands of people lined up outside the gate in a line a mile long,

    上千人在大門外大排長龍

  • hoping to be first in line to get one of those positions.

    希望拔得頭籌得到這些名額

  • When the gates opened, there was a stampede,

    大門打開,相互踩踏之下

  • and 20 people were injured and one woman died.

    20個人受傷,一名婦女死亡

  • She was a mother who gave her life

    她是一位為子犧牲的母親

  • trying to get her son a chance at a better life.

    只為下一代有更好的將來

  • But even in parts of the world like the United States

    即使在美國

  • where education is available, it might not be within reach.

    教育是存在的 但不一定能得到

  • There has been much discussed in the last few years

    在近幾年一個很熱門的議題

  • about the rising cost of health care.

    便是不斷飆高的醫療支出

  • What might not be quite as obvious to people

    但民眾卻不易查覺的是

  • is that during that same period the cost of higher education tuition

    同一時間高等教育的費用

  • has been increasing at almost twice the rate,

    以將近兩倍的速度飆漲

  • for a total of 559 percent since 1985.

    比1985年漲了5.59倍

  • This makes education unaffordable for many people.

    對許多人來說高等教育變的遙不可及

  • Finally, even for those who do manage to get the higher education,

    即便設法取得高等教育的人

  • the doors of opportunity might not open.

    機會之門也沒有為他打開

  • Only a little over half of recent college graduates

    近期在美國獲得高等教育的大學畢業生

  • in the United States who get a higher education

    只有略為超過一半

  • actually are working in jobs that require that education.

    從事需要高等教育的工作

  • This, of course, is not true for the students

    對於那些畢業於頂尖機構的學生

  • who graduate from the top institutions,

    這不是問題

  • but for many others, they do not get the value

    但對許多其他人,他們沒有在付出時間和努力中

  • for their time and their effort.

    獲得回報

  • Tom Friedman, in his recent New York Times article,

    湯姆 • 弗裡德曼,他最近在紐約時報的文章,

  • captured, in the way that no one else could, the spirit behind our effort.

    沒有人可以捕獲我們努力的精神。

  • He said the big breakthroughs are what happen

    他說的大的突破是發生什麼事

  • when what is suddenly possible meets what is desperately necessary.

    當什麼是突然可能遇上什麼是迫切需要。

  • I've talked about what's desperately necessary.

    我已經說過什麼是迫切需要。

  • Let's talk about what's suddenly possible.

    讓我們談談什麼是突然的可能。

  • What's suddenly possible was demonstrated by

    在史丹佛大學的三堂大型課程

  • three big Stanford classes,

    展示了什麼是突然的可能

  • each of which had an enrollment of 100,000 people or more.

    每堂課招生了10 萬或更多人

  • So to understand this, let's look at one of those classes,

    要理解這個,讓我們看看其中一堂課

  • the Machine Learning class offered by my colleague

    我的同事所提供的機器學習課

  • and cofounder Andrew Ng.

    與合夥 Andrew Ng。

  • Andrew teaches one of the bigger Stanford classes.

    Andrew在史丹佛大學講授更大的一門課。

  • It's a Machine Learning class,

    它是一門機器學習課,

  • and it has 400 people enrolled every time it's offered.

    每次有 400 人報名。

  • When Andrew taught the Machine Learning class to the general public,

    當Andrew對一般大眾講授機器學習

  • it had 100,000 people registered.

    有 10 萬人登記

  • So to put that number in perspective,

    從這個數字來看

  • for Andrew to reach that same size audience

    以目前Andrew在史丹佛大學的課堂

  • by teaching a Stanford class,

    要達到相同的聽眾數量

  • he would have to do that for 250 years.

    他得花 250 年來完成

  • Of course, he'd get really bored.

    當然,他會覺得單調乏味

  • So, having seen the impact of this,

    了解了這樣的影響

  • Andrew and I decided that we needed to really try and scale this up,

    Andrew與我認為需要嘗試將規模擴大

  • to bring the best quality education to as many people as we could.

    給盡可能多的人帶來最好品質的教育。

  • So we formed Coursera,

    所以我們打造了 Coursera

  • whose goal is to take the best courses

    其目標是把最好的課程

  • from the best instructors at the best universities

    最好的大學的最佳講師

  • and provide it to everyone around the world for free.

    免費提供給在世界各地的每個人

  • We currently have 43 courses on the platform

    我們的平臺上目前有 43 堂課程

  • from four universities across a range of disciplines,

    從跨各種學科,四所大學

  • and let me show you a little bit of an overview

    讓我給你看看

  • of what that looks like.

    它會是像什麼樣子

  • (Video) Robert Ghrist: Welcome to Calculus.

    (影片)Robert Ghrist:歡迎來到微積分

  • Ezekiel Emanuel: Fifty million people are uninsured.

    Ezekiel Emanuel:5000 萬人沒有醫療保險。

  • Scott Page: Models help us design more effective institutions and policies.

    Scott Page:模型幫助我們設計更有效的體制和政策

  • We get unbelievable segregation.

    我們獲得令人難以置信的分隔

  • Scott Klemmer: So Bush imagined that in the future,

    Scott Klemmer:所以布希想像,在未來

  • you'd wear a camera right in the center of your head.

    你會在頭上戴上相機

  • Mitchell Duneier: Mills wants the student of sociology to develop the quality of mind ...

    Mitchell Duneier:米爾斯希望社會學的學生的培養心理素質 ... ...

  • RG: Hanging cable takes on the form of a hyperbolic cosine.

    RG: 懸掛電纜表現出雙曲餘弦函數

  • Nick Parlante: For each pixel in the image, set the red to zero.

    Nick Parlante:對圖像中的每個像素,將紅色設置為零。

  • Paul Offit: ... Vaccine allowed us to eliminate polio virus.

    Paul Offit: ... ...疫苗允許我們消除脊髓灰質炎病毒

  • Dan Jurafsky: Does Lufthansa serve breakfast and San Jose? Well, that sounds funny.

    Dan Jurafsky: 漢莎航空提供早餐和聖荷西嗎?嗯,這聽上去很滑稽。

  • Daphne Koller: So this is which coin you pick, and this is the two tosses.

    Daphne Koller: 所以這就是你挑選的那個硬幣,這是兩個拋擲

  • Andrew Ng: So in large-scale machine learning, we'd like to come up with computational ...

    Andrew Ng:所以在大規模機器學習,我們想計算...

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • DK: It turns out, maybe not surprisingly,

    Daphne Koller:事實證明,或許不令人驚訝

  • that students like getting the best content

    學生們喜歡從最好的大學

  • from the best universities for free.

    免費得到最好的內容

  • Since we opened the website in February,

    自今年 2 月,我們開放網站

  • we now have 640,000 students from 190 countries.

    現在我們從 190 個國家有 64 萬名學生。

  • We have 1.5 million enrollments,

    我們有 150 萬的登記註冊。

  • 6 million quizzes in the 15 classes that have launched

    在已推出的 15 堂課,共完成了 600 萬次小測驗

  • so far have been submitted, and 14 million videos have been viewed.

    影片已有 1400 萬的觀看

  • But it's not just about the numbers,

    但不只是數字方面

  • it's also about the people.

    還有人的方面

  • Whether it's Akash, who comes from a small town in India

    無論是來自於印度的一個小鎮阿喀許

  • and would never have access in this case

    永遠沒辦法在這種情況下進入

  • to a Stanford-quality course

    史丹佛這樣品質的課程

  • and would never be able to afford it.

    也無法負擔得起

  • Or Jenny, who is a single mother of two

    或是像詹妮,兩個小孩的單身母親

  • and wants to hone her skills

    想要磨練自己的技能

  • so that she can go back and complete her master's degree.

    這樣她才可以回去,完成她碩士學位

  • Or Ryan, who can't go to school,

    或瑞恩,不能去學校

  • because his immune deficient daughter

    因為他免疫缺陷的女兒

  • can't be risked to have germs come into the house,

    不能冒險讓細菌進到房子裡

  • so he couldn't leave the house.

    所以他不能離開家

  • I'm really glad to say --

    我很高興地說 — —

  • recently, we've been in correspondence with Ryan --

    最近,我們一直在與瑞恩通信

  • that this story had a happy ending.

    這個故事有一個快樂的結局

  • Baby Shannon -- you can see her on the left --

    嬰兒Shannon — — 你可以看到她在左邊 — —

  • is doing much better now,

    現在過得更好

  • and Ryan got a job by taking some of our courses.

    瑞恩藉由修習一些我們的課程,找到一份工作

  • So what made these courses so different?

    是什麼讓這些課程如此不同?

  • After all, online course content has been available for a while.

    畢竟,線上課程已經開始了好一陣子

  • What made it different was that this was real course experience.

    使它不同的是這是真正的課程體驗

  • It started on a given day,

    它在某一天開始

  • and then the students would watch videos on a weekly basis

    學生們觀看每週的影片

  • and do homework assignments.

    並且做家庭作業

  • And these would be real homework assignments

    這些將是真正的作業

  • for a real grade, with a real deadline.

    真正的評分,真正的繳交期限。

  • You can see the deadlines and the usage graph.

    你可以看到繳交期限和使用率圖表

  • These are the spikes showing

    這些峰值顯示了

  • that procrastination is global phenomenon.

    拖延是全球性的現象

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • At the end of the course,

    在課程的尾聲

  • the students got a certificate.

    學生們獲得了證書

  • They could present that certificate

    他們可以提出該證書

  • to a prospective employer and get a better job,

    給潛在的雇主並得到更好的工作

  • and we know many students who did.

    而我們知道很多學生做到了

  • Some students took their certificate

    一些學生拿著他們的證書

  • and presented this to an educational institution at which they were enrolled

    展示給他們申請入學的教育機構

  • for actual college credit.

    做為實際大學學分

  • So these students were really getting something meaningful

    所以這些學生從投資的時間和精力

  • for their investment of time and effort.

    拿到了真正有意義的東西

  • Let's talk a little bit about some of the components

    讓我們再談一點

  • that go into these courses.

    在這些課程中的成份

  • The first component is that when you move away

    第一個成份是

  • from the constraints of a physical classroom

    當你移走實體課堂的約束

  • and design content explicitly for an online format,

    和線上的格式,明確設計內容

  • you can break away from, for example,

    例如,您可以中斷

  • the monolithic one-hour lecture.

    獨立一小時的講座

  • You can break up the material, for example,

    例如,你可以分解題材

  • into these short, modular units of eight to 12 minutes,

    到 8 至 12 分鐘,短的模組化單元

  • each of which represents a coherent concept.

    其中每個都代表一個連貫的概念

  • Students can traverse this material in different ways,

    學生可以以不同的方式,閱歷這些題材

  • depending on their background, their skills or their interests.

    取決於他們的背景、 技能或他們的興趣

  • So, for example, some students might benefit

    例如,其他的學生可能已經學會的

  • from a little bit of preparatory material

    先備題材

  • that other students might already have.

    有些學生可以從中得到益處

  • Other students might be interested in a particular

    其他的學生可能會特別感興趣於

  • enrichment topic that they want to pursue individually.

    他們個別想要的豐富主題

  • So this format allows us to break away

    所以這種格式使我們能夠

  • from the one-size-fits-all model of education,

    突破統一給予的教育模型

  • and allows students to follow a much more personalized curriculum.

    並允許學生有更多個人化的課程

  • Of course, we all know as educators

    當然,我們都知道作為教育工作者

  • that students don't learn by sitting and passively watching videos.

    學生無法光坐著,被動的觀看影片就能學習

  • Perhaps one of the biggest components of this effort

    也許下的工夫中,最大的成份

  • is that we need to have students

    是我們必須讓學生

  • who practice with the material

    練習這些題材

  • in order to really understand it.

    而真正學會它

  • There's been a range of studies that demonstrate the importance of this.

    已有各種研究證明了這方面的重要性

  • This one that appeared in Science last year, for example,

    例如,去年"科學"期刊中

  • demonstrates that even simple retrieval practice,

    出現的這一展示 即使簡單的檢索的做法,

  • where students are just supposed to repeat

    凡學生只被應該要重複

  • what they already learned

    他們已經學到什麼

  • gives considerably improved results

    給出很大的改善

  • on various achievement tests down the line

    沿著這條線的各項成就測試

  • than many other educational interventions.

    比許多其他教育干預行動。

  • We've tried to build in retrieval practice into the platform,

    我們嘗試建立到平臺中

  • as well as other forms of practice in many ways.

    以及其他形式的很多方面的實踐。

  • For example, even our videos are not just videos.

    例如,即使我們的視頻不只是視頻。

  • Every few minutes, the video pauses

    每隔幾分鐘,視頻暫停

  • and the students get asked a question.

    與學生獲得問了一個問題。

  • (Video) SP: ... These four things. Prospect theory, hyperbolic discounting,

    (視頻)SP: ... ...這四件事。前景理論、 雙曲線貼現,

  • status quo bias, base rate bias. They're all well documented.

    現狀的偏見,基準利率的偏見。他們都很有文檔記錄。

  • So they're all well documented deviations from rational behavior.

    所以它們都好有案可稽的偏差的理性行為。

  • DK: So here the video pauses,

    DK: 這裡在暫停視頻,

  • and the student types in the answer into the box

    和進框中的答案中的學生類型

  • and submits. Obviously they weren't paying attention.

    並提交。很明顯他們沒注意。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So they get to try again,

    所以他們得到再試一次,

  • and this time they got it right.

    而這一次他們把它做對。

  • There's an optional explanation if they want.

    如果他們想要,有一種可選的解釋。

  • And now the video moves on to the next part of the lecture.

    現在視頻移動到下一部分的講座。

  • This is a kind of simple question

    這是問題的一種簡單

  • that I as an instructor might ask in class,

    我作為一名教師可能會問在類中,

  • but when I ask that kind of a question in class,

    但是當我問這種問題在類中,

  • 80 percent of the students

    80%的學生

  • are still scribbling the last thing I said,

    仍圖畫最後的一件事,我說,

  • 15 percent are zoned out on Facebook,

    在 Facebook 上的出劃為 15 %

  • and then there's the smarty pants in the front row

    還有就是在前排的智者褲子

  • who blurts out the answer

    誰忍不住出正確的答案

  • before anyone else has had a chance to think about it,

    任何人都有機會去想它,之前

  • and I as the instructor am terribly gratified

    作為教練我很欣慰

  • that somebody actually knew the answer.

    實際上,有人知道答案。

  • And so the lecture moves on before, really,

    因此,將講座上移動之前,真的,

  • most of the students have even noticed that a question had been asked.

    大多數學生甚至已經注意到有人問。

  • Here, every single student

    在這裡,每個單一的學生

  • has to engage with the material.

    有接觸,這種材料。

  • And of course these simple retrieval questions

    當然這些簡單檢索問題

  • are not the end of the story.

    不是故事的結尾。

  • One needs to build in much more meaningful practice questions,

    一個需要建立更多有意義的實踐問題,

  • and one also needs to provide the students with feedback

    和一個還需要向學生提供的回饋

  • on those questions.

    關於這些問題。

  • Now, how do you grade the work of 100,000 students

    現在,您如何級 100,000 學生工作

  • if you do not have 10,000 TAs?

    如果你不做有 10000 次左右 TAs 嗎?

  • The answer is, you need to use technology

    答案是,您需要使用技術

  • to do it for you.

    若要為你做。

  • Now, fortunately, technology has come a long way,

    現在,幸運的是,技術已走過漫長的道路,

  • and we can now grade a range of interesting types of homework.

    而我們現在可以品位一系列有趣的作業類型。

  • In addition to multiple choice

    除了多項選擇

  • and the kinds of short answer questions that you saw in the video,

    和你在視頻中,看到的簡短的回答問題的種類

  • we can also grade math, mathematical expressions

    我們還可以級數學、 數學運算式

  • as well as mathematical derivations.

    以及為數學進行派生。

  • We can grade models, whether it's

    我們可以高檔機型,無論它是

  • financial models in a business class

    在業務類中的財務模型

  • or physical models in a science or engineering class

    或在科學或工程類中的物理模型

  • and we can grade some pretty sophisticated programming assignments.

    並且我們可以品位一些相當複雜的程式設計任務。

  • Let me show you one that's actually pretty simple

    讓我告訴你,其實很簡單

  • but fairly visual.

    但相當視覺。

  • This is from Stanford's Computer Science 101 class,

    這是來自斯坦福大學的電腦科學 101 類,

  • and the students are supposed to color-correct

    和學生應該到正確的顏色

  • that blurry red image.

    那模糊的紅色圖像。

  • They're typing their program into the browser,

    他們正在瀏覽器中,鍵入他們的程式

  • and you can see they didn't get it quite right, Lady Liberty is still seasick.

    你可以看到他們並沒有得到它很正確,自由女神是仍然暈船。

  • And so, the student tries again, and now they got it right, and they're told that,

    所以,學生試和現在他們搞對了,他們就說,

  • and they can move on to the next assignment.

    它們可以移動到下一個指派。

  • This ability to interact actively with the material

    這與材料積極互動的能力

  • and be told when you're right or wrong

    有人告訴你正確或錯誤時

  • is really essential to student learning.

    對於真正至關重要的學生學習。

  • Now, of course we cannot yet grade

    現在,當然我們不能沒有品位

  • the range of work that one needs for all courses.

    其中一個需要所有課程的工作範圍。

  • Specifically, what's lacking is the kind of critical thinking work

    具體而言,所缺少的是批判性思維工作的種類

  • that is so essential in such disciplines

    這是很重要,因為這類紀律

  • as the humanities, the social sciences, business and others.

    作為人文科學、 社會科學、 商業和其他人。

  • So we tried to convince, for example,

    所以我們嘗試說服,例如,

  • some of our humanities faculty

    一些我們人文學院

  • that multiple choice was not such a bad strategy.

    多項選擇不是這種糟糕的策略。

  • That didn't go over really well.

    這沒去過非常好。

  • So we had to come up with a different solution.

    所以我們不得不拿出另一種解決方案。