字幕列表 影片播放 已審核 字幕已審核 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 Like many of you, I'm one of the lucky people. 就像許多人一樣，我是很幸運的 I was born to a family where education was pervasive. 我生長在一個很重教育的家庭 I'm a third-generation PhD, a daughter of two academics. 我家三代出博士，父母都是高知識份子 In my childhood, I played around in my father's university lab. 我的童年都是在父親的大學實驗室玩大的 So it was taken for granted that I attend some of the best universities, 也順理成章的進了頂尖的大學 which in turn opened the door to a world of opportunity. 為我開啓了機會的大門 Unfortunately, most of the people in the world are not so lucky. 不幸的是，世界上大部分的人並非如此幸運 In some parts of the world, for example, South Africa, 在這世界的某個角落，比如南非 education is just not readily accessible. 教育並非人人可及 In South Africa, the educational system was constructed 南非的教育系統 in the days of apartheid for the white minority. 是在種族隔離制度的時代 為少數白人建立的。 And as a consequence, today there is just not enough spots 其結果是，現今很多想要和得到高品質教育的人 for the many more people who want and deserve a high quality education. 場所卻是不夠用的 That scarcity led to a crisis in January of this year 今年一月在約翰尼斯堡大學 at the University of Johannesburg. 情況更趨惡化 There were a handful of positions left open 有一些名額 from the standard admissions process, and the night before 從標準招生釋放出來 they were supposed to open that for registration, 在他們要開放註冊的前一晚 thousands of people lined up outside the gate in a line a mile long, 上千人在大門外大排長龍 hoping to be first in line to get one of those positions. 希望拔得頭籌得到這些名額 When the gates opened, there was a stampede, 大門打開，相互踩踏之下 and 20 people were injured and one woman died. 20個人受傷，一名婦女死亡 She was a mother who gave her life 她是一位為子犧牲的母親 trying to get her son a chance at a better life. 只為下一代有更好的將來 But even in parts of the world like the United States 即使在美國 where education is available, it might not be within reach. 教育是存在的 但不一定能得到 There has been much discussed in the last few years 在近幾年一個很熱門的議題 about the rising cost of health care. 便是不斷飆高的醫療支出 What might not be quite as obvious to people 但民眾卻不易查覺的是 is that during that same period the cost of higher education tuition 同一時間高等教育的費用 has been increasing at almost twice the rate, 以將近兩倍的速度飆漲 for a total of 559 percent since 1985. 比1985年漲了5.59倍 This makes education unaffordable for many people. 對許多人來說高等教育變的遙不可及 Finally, even for those who do manage to get the higher education, 即便設法取得高等教育的人 the doors of opportunity might not open. 機會之門也沒有為他打開 Only a little over half of recent college graduates 近期在美國獲得高等教育的大學畢業生 in the United States who get a higher education 只有略為超過一半 actually are working in jobs that require that education. 從事需要高等教育的工作 This, of course, is not true for the students 對於那些畢業於頂尖機構的學生 who graduate from the top institutions, 這不是問題 but for many others, they do not get the value 但對許多其他人，他們沒有在付出時間和努力中 for their time and their effort. 獲得回報 Tom Friedman, in his recent New York Times article, 湯姆 • 弗裡德曼，他最近在紐約時報的文章， captured, in the way that no one else could, the spirit behind our effort. 沒有人可以捕獲我們努力的精神。 He said the big breakthroughs are what happen 他說的大的突破是發生什麼事 when what is suddenly possible meets what is desperately necessary. 當什麼是突然可能遇上什麼是迫切需要。 I've talked about what's desperately necessary. 我已經說過什麼是迫切需要。 Let's talk about what's suddenly possible. 讓我們談談什麼是突然的可能。 What's suddenly possible was demonstrated by 在史丹佛大學的三堂大型課程 three big Stanford classes, 展示了什麼是突然的可能 each of which had an enrollment of 100,000 people or more. 每堂課招生了10 萬或更多人 So to understand this, let's look at one of those classes, 要理解這個，讓我們看看其中一堂課 the Machine Learning class offered by my colleague 我的同事所提供的機器學習課 and cofounder Andrew Ng. 與合夥 Andrew Ng。 Andrew teaches one of the bigger Stanford classes. Andrew在史丹佛大學講授更大的一門課。 It's a Machine Learning class, 它是一門機器學習課， and it has 400 people enrolled every time it's offered. 每次有 400 人報名。 When Andrew taught the Machine Learning class to the general public, 當Andrew對一般大眾講授機器學習 it had 100,000 people registered. 有 10 萬人登記 So to put that number in perspective, 從這個數字來看 for Andrew to reach that same size audience 以目前Andrew在史丹佛大學的課堂 by teaching a Stanford class, 要達到相同的聽眾數量 he would have to do that for 250 years. 他得花 250 年來完成 Of course, he'd get really bored. 當然，他會覺得單調乏味 So, having seen the impact of this, 了解了這樣的影響 Andrew and I decided that we needed to really try and scale this up, Andrew與我認為需要嘗試將規模擴大 to bring the best quality education to as many people as we could. 給盡可能多的人帶來最好品質的教育。 So we formed Coursera, 所以我們打造了 Coursera whose goal is to take the best courses 其目標是把最好的課程 from the best instructors at the best universities 最好的大學的最佳講師 and provide it to everyone around the world for free. 免費提供給在世界各地的每個人 We currently have 43 courses on the platform 我們的平臺上目前有 43 堂課程 from four universities across a range of disciplines, 從跨各種學科，四所大學 and let me show you a little bit of an overview 讓我給你看看 of what that looks like. 它會是像什麼樣子 (Video) Robert Ghrist: Welcome to Calculus. （影片）Robert Ghrist：歡迎來到微積分 Ezekiel Emanuel: Fifty million people are uninsured. Ezekiel Emanuel：5000 萬人沒有醫療保險。 Scott Page: Models help us design more effective institutions and policies. Scott Page：模型幫助我們設計更有效的體制和政策 We get unbelievable segregation. 我們獲得令人難以置信的分隔 Scott Klemmer: So Bush imagined that in the future, Scott Klemmer：所以布希想像，在未來 you'd wear a camera right in the center of your head. 你會在頭上戴上相機 Mitchell Duneier: Mills wants the student of sociology to develop the quality of mind ... Mitchell Duneier：米爾斯希望社會學的學生的培養心理素質 ... ... RG: Hanging cable takes on the form of a hyperbolic cosine. RG： 懸掛電纜表現出雙曲餘弦函數 Nick Parlante: For each pixel in the image, set the red to zero. Nick Parlante：對圖像中的每個像素，將紅色設置為零。 Paul Offit: ... Vaccine allowed us to eliminate polio virus. Paul Offit： ... ...疫苗允許我們消除脊髓灰質炎病毒 Dan Jurafsky: Does Lufthansa serve breakfast and San Jose? Well, that sounds funny. Dan Jurafsky： 漢莎航空提供早餐和聖荷西嗎？嗯，這聽上去很滑稽。 Daphne Koller: So this is which coin you pick, and this is the two tosses. Daphne Koller： 所以這就是你挑選的那個硬幣，這是兩個拋擲 Andrew Ng: So in large-scale machine learning, we'd like to come up with computational ... Andrew Ng：所以在大規模機器學習，我們想計算... (Applause) （掌聲） DK: It turns out, maybe not surprisingly, Daphne Koller：事實證明，或許不令人驚訝 that students like getting the best content 學生們喜歡從最好的大學 from the best universities for free. 免費得到最好的內容 Since we opened the website in February, 自今年 2 月，我們開放網站 we now have 640,000 students from 190 countries. 現在我們從 190 個國家有 64 萬名學生。 We have 1.5 million enrollments, 我們有 150 萬的登記註冊。 6 million quizzes in the 15 classes that have launched 在已推出的 15 堂課，共完成了 600 萬次小測驗 so far have been submitted, and 14 million videos have been viewed. 影片已有 1400 萬的觀看 But it's not just about the numbers, 但不只是數字方面 it's also about the people. 還有人的方面 Whether it's Akash, who comes from a small town in India 無論是來自於印度的一個小鎮阿喀許 and would never have access in this case 永遠沒辦法在這種情況下進入 to a Stanford-quality course 史丹佛這樣品質的課程 and would never be able to afford it. 也無法負擔得起 Or Jenny, who is a single mother of two 或是像詹妮，兩個小孩的單身母親 and wants to hone her skills 想要磨練自己的技能 so that she can go back and complete her master's degree. 這樣她才可以回去，完成她碩士學位 Or Ryan, who can't go to school, 或瑞恩，不能去學校 because his immune deficient daughter 因為他免疫缺陷的女兒 can't be risked to have germs come into the house, 不能冒險讓細菌進到房子裡 so he couldn't leave the house. 所以他不能離開家 I'm really glad to say -- 我很高興地說 — — recently, we've been in correspondence with Ryan -- 最近，我們一直在與瑞恩通信 that this story had a happy ending. 這個故事有一個快樂的結局 Baby Shannon -- you can see her on the left -- 嬰兒Shannon — — 你可以看到她在左邊 — — is doing much better now, 現在過得更好 and Ryan got a job by taking some of our courses. 瑞恩藉由修習一些我們的課程，找到一份工作 So what made these courses so different? 是什麼讓這些課程如此不同？ After all, online course content has been available for a while. 畢竟，線上課程已經開始了好一陣子 What made it different was that this was real course experience. 使它不同的是這是真正的課程體驗 It started on a given day, 它在某一天開始 and then the students would watch videos on a weekly basis 學生們觀看每週的影片 and do homework assignments. 並且做家庭作業 And these would be real homework assignments 這些將是真正的作業 for a real grade, with a real deadline. 真正的評分，真正的繳交期限。 You can see the deadlines and the usage graph. 你可以看到繳交期限和使用率圖表 These are the spikes showing 這些峰值顯示了 that procrastination is global phenomenon. 拖延是全球性的現象 (Laughter) （笑聲） At the end of the course, 在課程的尾聲 the students got a certificate. 學生們獲得了證書 They could present that certificate 他們可以提出該證書 to a prospective employer and get a better job, 給潛在的雇主並得到更好的工作 and we know many students who did. 而我們知道很多學生做到了 Some students took their certificate 一些學生拿著他們的證書 and presented this to an educational institution at which they were enrolled 展示給他們申請入學的教育機構 for actual college credit. 做為實際大學學分 So these students were really getting something meaningful 所以這些學生從投資的時間和精力 for their investment of time and effort. 拿到了真正有意義的東西 Let's talk a little bit about some of the components 讓我們再談一點 that go into these courses. 在這些課程中的成份 The first component is that when you move away 第一個成份是 from the constraints of a physical classroom 當你移走實體課堂的約束 and design content explicitly for an online format, 和線上的格式，明確設計內容 you can break away from, for example, 例如，您可以中斷 the monolithic one-hour lecture. 獨立一小時的講座 You can break up the material, for example, 例如，你可以分解題材 into these short, modular units of eight to 12 minutes, 到 8 至 12 分鐘，短的模組化單元 each of which represents a coherent concept. 其中每個都代表一個連貫的概念 Students can traverse this material in different ways, 學生可以以不同的方式，閱歷這些題材 depending on their background, their skills or their interests. 取決於他們的背景、 技能或他們的興趣 So, for example, some students might benefit 例如，其他的學生可能已經學會的 from a little bit of preparatory material 先備題材 that other students might already have. 有些學生可以從中得到益處 Other students might be interested in a particular 其他的學生可能會特別感興趣於 enrichment topic that they want to pursue individually. 他們個別想要的豐富主題 So this format allows us to break away 所以這種格式使我們能夠 from the one-size-fits-all model of education, 突破統一給予的教育模型 and allows students to follow a much more personalized curriculum. 並允許學生有更多個人化的課程 Of course, we all know as educators 當然，我們都知道作為教育工作者 that students don't learn by sitting and passively watching videos. 學生無法光坐著，被動的觀看影片就能學習 Perhaps one of the biggest components of this effort 也許下的工夫中，最大的成份 is that we need to have students 是我們必須讓學生 who practice with the material 練習這些題材 in order to really understand it. 而真正學會它 There's been a range of studies that demonstrate the importance of this. 已有各種研究證明了這方面的重要性 This one that appeared in Science last year, for example, 例如，去年"科學"期刊中 demonstrates that even simple retrieval practice, 出現的這一展示 即使簡單的檢索的做法， where students are just supposed to repeat 凡學生只被應該要重複 what they already learned 他們已經學到什麼 gives considerably improved results 給出很大的改善 on various achievement tests down the line 沿著這條線的各項成就測試 than many other educational interventions. 比許多其他教育干預行動。 We've tried to build in retrieval practice into the platform, 我們嘗試建立到平臺中 as well as other forms of practice in many ways. 以及其他形式的很多方面的實踐。 For example, even our videos are not just videos. 例如，即使我們的視頻不只是視頻。 Every few minutes, the video pauses 每隔幾分鐘，視頻暫停 and the students get asked a question. 與學生獲得問了一個問題。 (Video) SP: ... These four things. Prospect theory, hyperbolic discounting, （視頻）SP： ... ...這四件事。前景理論、 雙曲線貼現， status quo bias, base rate bias. They're all well documented. 現狀的偏見，基準利率的偏見。他們都很有文檔記錄。 So they're all well documented deviations from rational behavior. 所以它們都好有案可稽的偏差的理性行為。 DK: So here the video pauses, DK： 這裡在暫停視頻， and the student types in the answer into the box 和進框中的答案中的學生類型 and submits. Obviously they weren't paying attention. 並提交。很明顯他們沒注意。 (Laughter) （笑聲） So they get to try again, 所以他們得到再試一次， and this time they got it right. 而這一次他們把它做對。 There's an optional explanation if they want. 如果他們想要，有一種可選的解釋。 And now the video moves on to the next part of the lecture. 現在視頻移動到下一部分的講座。 This is a kind of simple question 這是問題的一種簡單 that I as an instructor might ask in class, 我作為一名教師可能會問在類中， but when I ask that kind of a question in class, 但是當我問這種問題在類中， 80 percent of the students 80%的學生 are still scribbling the last thing I said, 仍圖畫最後的一件事，我說， 15 percent are zoned out on Facebook, 在 Facebook 上的出劃為 15 % and then there's the smarty pants in the front row 還有就是在前排的智者褲子 who blurts out the answer 誰忍不住出正確的答案 before anyone else has had a chance to think about it, 任何人都有機會去想它，之前 and I as the instructor am terribly gratified 作為教練我很欣慰 that somebody actually knew the answer. 實際上，有人知道答案。 And so the lecture moves on before, really, 因此，將講座上移動之前，真的， most of the students have even noticed that a question had been asked. 大多數學生甚至已經注意到有人問。 Here, every single student 在這裡，每個單一的學生 has to engage with the material. 有接觸，這種材料。 And of course these simple retrieval questions 當然這些簡單檢索問題 are not the end of the story. 不是故事的結尾。 One needs to build in much more meaningful practice questions, 一個需要建立更多有意義的實踐問題， and one also needs to provide the students with feedback 和一個還需要向學生提供的回饋 on those questions. 關於這些問題。 Now, how do you grade the work of 100,000 students 現在，您如何級 100,000 學生工作 if you do not have 10,000 TAs? 如果你不做有 10000 次左右 TAs 嗎？ The answer is, you need to use technology 答案是，您需要使用技術 to do it for you. 若要為你做。 Now, fortunately, technology has come a long way, 現在，幸運的是，技術已走過漫長的道路， and we can now grade a range of interesting types of homework. 而我們現在可以品位一系列有趣的作業類型。 In addition to multiple choice 除了多項選擇 and the kinds of short answer questions that you saw in the video, 和你在視頻中，看到的簡短的回答問題的種類 we can also grade math, mathematical expressions 我們還可以級數學、 數學運算式 as well as mathematical derivations. 以及為數學進行派生。 We can grade models, whether it's 我們可以高檔機型，無論它是 financial models in a business class 在業務類中的財務模型 or physical models in a science or engineering class 或在科學或工程類中的物理模型 and we can grade some pretty sophisticated programming assignments. 並且我們可以品位一些相當複雜的程式設計任務。 Let me show you one that's actually pretty simple 讓我告訴你，其實很簡單 but fairly visual. 但相當視覺。 This is from Stanford's Computer Science 101 class, 這是來自斯坦福大學的電腦科學 101 類， and the students are supposed to color-correct 和學生應該到正確的顏色 that blurry red image. 那模糊的紅色圖像。 They're typing their program into the browser, 他們正在瀏覽器中，鍵入他們的程式 and you can see they didn't get it quite right, Lady Liberty is still seasick. 你可以看到他們並沒有得到它很正確，自由女神是仍然暈船。 And so, the student tries again, and now they got it right, and they're told that, 所以，學生試和現在他們搞對了，他們就說， and they can move on to the next assignment. 它們可以移動到下一個指派。 This ability to interact actively with the material 這與材料積極互動的能力 and be told when you're right or wrong 有人告訴你正確或錯誤時 is really essential to student learning. 對於真正至關重要的學生學習。 Now, of course we cannot yet grade 現在，當然我們不能沒有品位 the range of work that one needs for all courses. 其中一個需要所有課程的工作範圍。 Specifically, what's lacking is the kind of critical thinking work 具體而言，所缺少的是批判性思維工作的種類 that is so essential in such disciplines 這是很重要，因為這類紀律 as the humanities, the social sciences, business and others. 作為人文科學、 社會科學、 商業和其他人。 So we tried to convince, for example, 所以我們嘗試說服，例如， some of our humanities faculty 一些我們人文學院 that multiple choice was not such a bad strategy. 多項選擇不是這種糟糕的策略。 That didn't go over really well. 這沒去過非常好。 So we had to come up with a different solution. 所以我們不得不拿出另一種解決方案。 And the