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  • Hey there. I am Mike Rugnetta. This is Crash Course Mythology and today

    哈囉!我是麥克‧如格內塔 歡迎收看《神話速成班》。

  • we're continuing with pantheons, and one that is likely to be a viewer favorite.

    今天我們要來繼續看《眾神》這個題目。 今天的眾神神系應該是各位觀眾最喜歡的。

  • Bring on the ouzo,

    先來點烏佐酒、

  • pour out some nectar,

    再上些瓊漿玉液。

  • It's the Greeks!

    我們要來談希臘眾神了!

  • Opa!!!

    呼乾啦!

  • War,

    戰爭、狩獵、冶金...

  • War, hunting,

    還有化小事為大事的本事、

  • War, hunting, metallurgy,

    還有假扮禽獸行禽獸之事。

  • War, hunting, metallurgy, the complete inability to deal reasonably with even the smallest bit of conflict...

    最好的是,我們對希臘很熟。

  • and also, rape while disguised as an animal.

    許多的希臘雕塑、繪畫、長篇大論、

  • And best of all we already know the Greeks from paintings and sculptures,

    《諸神恩仇錄》系列電影。 (譯按:新版片名譯為《超世紀封神榜》)

  • and those really long books...

    呼乾啦!

  • and the Clash of the Titans movies. And also--

    〈速成班主題曲〉

  • OPA!!

    《神話速成班》

  • (crash)

    你可能在想:等等!

  • *Egyptian myth-facts*

    我們在「創世神話」那段 不是就講過希臘眾神了嗎?

  • *Greek myth-facts*

    沒錯!

  • *Indian myth-facts*

    但是那是第一代的希臘眾神。

  • *Norse myth-facts*

    在兩代神王朝被推翻了之後, 才輪到奧林匹斯眾神。

  • *So much myths, guys!*

    但是在進入好玩、好吃、好幼稚的戰鬥之前, 我們先來定義幾個名詞。

  • You might be thinking: wait a minute...

    之前我們談到 Pantheons (眾神) 就是一群的神。

  • Didn't we already talk about Greek gods in the episode on creation stories?

    主要是因為我們這些書呆子喜歡掉書袋, 表示我們很懂希臘和拉丁文。

  • --And you're right, we did!

    挖丟細國際拉丁文得主。

  • -And you're right, we did! But that was the FIRST set of Greek gods.

    Pantheons 的意思是「全部的神」。

  • Two whole dynasties of divinities had to be overthrown before we get to the Olympians,

    這一點其實挺奇怪的。

  • But before we get into all the sex, ambrosia and petty conflict, let's define some terms:

    因為「神」這個詞有很多意思...

  • We've been talking about Pantheons as groups of gods,

    而且其意義通常隨著神話的版本而改變,

  • mainly because us classics nerds like to show off our knowledge of Greek and Latin.

    再加上「半神」,甚至有時候還會包含「英雄」。

  • National Latin Award Scholar right here,

    我們這裡在討論的「神」是:

  • National Latin Award Scholar right here, folks.

    「神聖、不死的存在。

  • Anyway-

    新神的誕生 通常是由其他的神交合而生。

  • PANTHEON

    不過偶爾會出現非典型的誕生方式。」

  • PANTHEON -means-

    就像我們之前看過的: 阿佛洛狄忒的誕生以及

  • PANTHEON -means- ALL THE GODS

    就像我們之前看過的: 阿佛洛狄忒的誕生以及蛋蛋的哀傷。

  • Which..

    半神:「次要之神或是 神與凡人交合的後代。

  • Which.. is already a little weird.

    通常具有不凡的能力, 有時候也能成為真正的神。」

  • There are many gods,

    英雄:「超群的凡人,也就是說他們並非不死之身, 但也有不凡的能力。

  • and they change based upon which versions of the myths you're studying.

    有些英雄是神與凡人交合的後代,

  • And then there are demigods, and maybe even some heroes.

    有些單純只是運氣好而已。」

  • Gods, as we are using the term,

    就像... 就像明星一樣。

  • are divine immortal beings,

    記不記得「地母」蓋婭和「天父」烏拉諾斯 以及他們的兒女泰坦巨神嗎?

  • usually created out of the sexual union between other immortal beings,

    我們來複習一下。

  • or sometimes out of some unorthodox nativity--

    這是第一代和第二代的希臘眾神。

  • --like we saw with Aphrodite..

    因為克洛諾斯帶領著泰坦巨神推翻了烏拉諾斯,

  • --like we saw with Aphrodite.. and the

    所以克洛諾斯很害怕他的子女 也會跟他一樣推翻自己,就把他們全吃掉。

  • --like we saw with Aphrodite.. and the bloody

    結果沒用。

  • --like we saw with Aphrodite.. and the bloody testicle foam.

    槓龜了...

  • Demigods are minor deities or the offspring of gods and mortals.

    虎父無犬子,克洛諾斯和瑞亞的兒子, 宙斯也決定推翻了自己的老爸。

  • They usually have special powers and sometimes can become truly divine.

    他和兄弟姊妹合力打敗了泰坦神, 成為第一代奧林匹斯神。

  • Heroes are exalted mortals, meaning they can die but they can also perform special feats on Earth.

    開始點名了...

  • Sometimes they're the offspring of a god and a human,

    赫斯提亞:克洛諾斯和瑞亞的長女, 爐灶與家宅的守護神。

  • sometimes they're just..

    關於她的神話並不多,

  • sometimes they're just.. lucky.

    但她卻是非常重要的家宅之神, 享用很多的祭品。

  • sometimes they're just.. lucky. You know, like pop stars.

    「冥王」黑帝斯。 在第一集的珀耳塞福涅神話就有出場過,

  • Remember Gaia and Uranos and their offspring the Titans?

    科瑞的母親「農業女神」狄蜜特, 是克洛諾斯和瑞亞的另一個女兒。

  • Let's refresh.

    她掌控著小麥、無花果和橄欖的生產,

  • These are the first and second sets of Greek gods.

    在古代的農耕社會裡是不得了的大事。

  • The titans were led by Kronos who overthrew Uranos,

    波塞頓,在打敗泰坦巨神後,成為了「海王」。

  • and Kronos was so worried about his own children overthrowing him that he swallowed them.

    他也是地震與馬匹之神,

  • That did not work out for him.

    甚至還生出了一匹名馬: 「飛馬」珀伽索斯。

  • Whoops.

    珀伽索斯的媽媽是...美杜莎。

  • Then, like father, like son, Zeus, son of Kronos and Rhea decided to overthrow his father.

    因為「蛇髮魔女」

  • He and his siblings defeated the Titans and became the first Olympians.

    為「蛇髮魔女」+「海王/馬匹愛好者」

  • Roll-call:

    因為「蛇髮魔女」+「海王/馬匹愛好者」=「飛馬」

  • Hestia, the first child of Kronos and Rhea, became the goddess of the hearth and home.

    這個公式很...天馬行空。

  • She's not in many myths,

    神的基因很奇妙。

  • but was an important household deity honored with many sacrifices.

    宙斯是克洛諾斯和瑞亞最小的兒子。 卻後來居上,成為最重要的神。

  • Hades was the God of the underworld, who you'll remember from the story of Persephone from episode one.

    他是天神、風暴之神, 而且掌握著雷電。

  • Kore's mother was Demeter, another child of Kronos and Rhea, and the goddess of agriculture.

    不得不說,誰掌握了雷電,誰就能當老闆。

  • That's right. She has amazing powers over wheat, figs, and olives;

    確實也是如此,儘管他是最年幼的奧林匹斯神, 他還是成了眾神之王。

  • kind of a big deal in an agrarian society.

    不僅是因為他主導了與 泰坦巨神的戰爭,

  • Poseidon became the Lord of the Seas after the Titans' defeat.

    也因為他是許多神和凡人的老爸。

  • He was associated with earthquakes and horses and was even the father of a famous one: Pegasus,

    所以他可以憑著老爸的權柄到處指指點點吧?

  • Whose mother..

    宙斯是另一代奧林匹斯神的父親,

  • Whose mother.. was Medusa.

    他有許多的妻妾、小三

  • (Snake-Hair Lady)

    還有很多...怎麼說... 可以說是一夜情的情人,

  • (Snake-Hair Lady) +

    也可以說是...性侵受害者

  • (Snake-Hair Lady) + (Water-King/Horse-Lover)

    宙斯的第一任妻子是墨提斯, 墨提斯算是泰坦巨神那一系的神。

  • (Snake-Hair Lady) + (Water-King/Horse-Lover) =

    在古羅馬文中, 墨提斯 (Metis) 的意思是「技巧」或「機智」

  • (Snake-Hair Lady) + (Water-King/Horse-Lover) = (Magic Stallion)

    而墨提斯也確實給了宙斯很多很好的建議。

  • (Snake-Hair Lady) + (Water-King/Horse-Lover) = (Magic Stallion) So, yeah...

    但智慧的建言通常代表「忠言逆耳」...

  • (Snake-Hair Lady) + (Water-King/Horse-Lover) = (Magic Stallion) So, yeah... it checks out.

    所以宙斯就把她吞了。

  • (Snake-Hair Lady) + (Water-King/Horse-Lover) = (Magic Stallion) So, yeah... it checks out. God

    有一種說法認為墨提斯是雅典娜的母親, 不過沒有辦法證實,因為雅典娜她...

  • (Snake-Hair Lady) + (Water-King/Horse-Lover) = (Magic Stallion) So, yeah... it checks out. God DNA is weird.

    呃...出生的方式很特別。

  • Zeus was the last of the Olympians born to Kronos and Rhea and became the most important:

    其中一個雅典娜的出生神話裡, 宙斯忽然頭痛欲裂,

  • he's the sky god, controlling storms and wielding a thunderbolt!

    所以找了她的兒子赫菲斯托斯幫忙治療。

  • Which, I think it's pretty fair to say,

    因為那時候沒有「普拿疼」所以 赫菲斯托斯就直接...

  • Which, I think it's pretty fair to say, is a boss thing to wield

    劈開了宙斯的頭。 (真的裂了)

  • --which makes sense, because he's also the patriarch of the Olympians,

    雅典娜從宙斯的頭裡蹦出來。

  • despite being the youngest.

    雅典娜:智慧女神、女戰神、手工藝之神, 尤其善於紡織。

  • He was the leader of the revolt over the titans plus

    她出生時就穿著全副鎧甲。

  • he was the baby-daddy of so many gods and mortals;

    她創造了橄欖樹, 又是雅典的守護神,

  • so he gets to wave his bolt around and tell everyone what to do, I guess.

    所以我們現在才有酸豆橄欖醬。

  • Zeus was the father of the next generation of Olympians with a variety of wives, consorts and, depending upon

    同時這也就是為什麼赫菲斯托斯

  • how you read it, numerous one-night stands..

    同時這也就是為什麼赫菲斯托斯 不是

  • ..or rape victims.

    同時這也就是為什麼赫菲斯托斯 不是「醫藥之神」。

  • His first wife was Metis, who was from the Titans' generation.

    宙斯的第二任妻子是狄蜜特, 他們生了科瑞。

  • An older woman, the word 'Metis' means 'skill,' or 'cunning.'

    對面的女孩看過來...

  • and she was said to provide wise counsel to Zeus

    記得嗎?因為「科瑞」就是「女孩」的意思。 (這是笑話好嗎?笑話!)

  • and because wise counselors often give advice that rulers don't want to hear,

    只可惜這段婚姻也維持不久, 之後宙斯又娶了她的妹妹希拉。

  • Zeus swallowed her.

    幸好這世上沒有「尷尬之神」。

  • It's possible that Metis is the mother of Athena, although it's hard to know because of how she was...

    希拉是掌管「生育」之神。不過她的神話 通常都是跟宙斯之間的爭執。

  • um...

    希拉與宙斯生了四個孩子:

  • um...born?

    第一個孩子是「青春女神」希比, 同時也有為諸神的斟酒的職務。最後嫁給了海格力士。

  • According to one version of Athena's birth, Zeus had a terrible headache,

    第二個是「分娩女神」艾利西雅。

  • and asked his son Hephaestus to help cure it.

    最後兩個孩子:赫菲斯托斯和阿瑞斯 則常常在神話裡見到他們的身影。

  • Since this is pre-Motrin, Hephaestus literally

    「火與工匠之神」赫菲斯托斯, 是個跛腳鐵匠。

  • Cracked open Zeus' skull..

    阿瑞斯是「戰神」, 不過比較偏向暴力而不是謀略。

  • Cracked open Zeus' skull.. and out popped Athena,

    他們兩個都對阿佛洛狄忒有意思...

  • a goddess of wisdom, war and the arts,

    因為所有的人都對阿佛洛狄忒有意思。

  • a goddess of wisdom, war and the arts, especially spinning and weaving.

    宙斯也有好幾個私生子成了奧林匹斯神。 例如:

  • She was wearing a full suit of armor, and Athena created the olive tree,

    他與泰坦巨神的女兒勒托 生了雙胞胎阿波羅和阿提蜜絲。

  • so she's the patroness of Athens and why we now have tapenade.

    阿波羅成了太陽神,以及音樂之神,

  • Incidentally, this is also why

    又是斡旋之神, 因為希臘人非常需要斡旋。

  • Incidentally, this is also why Hephaestus

    阿提蜜絲則是「月亮與狩獵女神」。

  • Incidentally, this is also why Hephaestus is not

    阿提蜜絲和雅典娜一樣都是「處女神」。 有時候她甚至會把見到她裸體的男人分屍。

  • Incidentally, this is also why Hephaestus is not the god

    宙斯的最後一個在眾神行列裡的孩子是與邁亞生的。

  • Incidentally, this is also why Hephaestus is not the god of doctors.

    (邁亞是支撐天地的半神:阿特拉斯的女兒。)

  • Zeus' second wife was Demeter with whom he fathered Kore.

    「道路與旅人之神」赫耳墨斯。 他是宙斯的信使,也引領人到冥界。

  • Hey, gurl!

    他有一頂長翅膀的帽子, 還有雙比愛迪達早很多的羽翼鞋。

  • Hey, gurl! Remember? Because Kore means..

    他也是機巧之神,常常做沒本錢的生意。 同時也是文字與魔法之神。

  • Hey gurl! Remember? Because Kore means.. girl?

    換句話說,他就是希臘版的圖特。 來個 High Five 吧!

  • Hey gurl! Remember? Because Kore means.. girl? (these are the jokes, people.)

    羽毛鞋穿的還習慣嗎?

  • Anyway, that relationship didn't last, and Zeus married her sister, Hera.

    我們要討論的奧林匹斯神系中 的最後一位神,被大衛‧李明描述為:

  • Good thing that there's no god of awkwaaard...

    「希臘神祇中最含糊不清、最不道地的神祇。」

  • Hera was sometimes associated with childbirth, but mostly her thing was being miffed at Zeus.

    他說的是 「酒神」戴歐尼修斯。

  • Hera and Zeus had four children:

    戴歐尼修斯出生的方式很特別。

  • Hebe, a goddess of youth and the cupbearer to the Olympians, who married Hercules;

    他的凡人母親塞墨勒在與宙斯做完愛做的事之後, 她要求要看宙斯的原形。

  • Eileithyia, who was a goddess of childbirth;

    很遺憾的,宙斯現出原形後, 他的神火直接將塞墨勒燒成了黑炭。

  • the other two children, Hephaestus and Ares, showed up in a number of myths.

    宙斯搶救出還是胚胎的戴歐尼修斯, 將他縫在自己的大腿裡,等他足月才取出。

  • Hephaestus, a smith who walks with a limp, is the god of fire and crafts.

    從發掘出來的證據裡,顯示早在公元前1200年, 在希臘的邁錫尼城裡就有人崇拜戴歐尼修斯。

  • Ares is a god of war, more about, like, carnage than strategy, and they both have a thing for Aphrodite.

    但也有許多說法認為戴歐尼修斯是外邦之神。

  • Because everyone has a thing for Aphrodite.

    有許多希臘神祇都是脫胎自 各城市裡原有的信仰。

  • Zeus' liaisons resulted in other Olympians as well, for instance:

    例如,阿提蜜絲原本很有可能是 安那托利亞(小亞細亞)地區崇拜的母神。

  • with Leto, whose parents were Titans, zeus fathered the twins Apollo and Artemis.

    戴歐尼修斯是土生土長的神祇, 為什麼會被視為外邦之神呢?

  • Apollo became the god of the sun and music.

    或許是因為戴歐尼修斯與理想中自制能力很好的 阿波羅不同,他代表的是人性的另一面。

  • Also, moderation, because that was something that Greeks needed a god for.

    戴歐尼修斯不僅僅是酒神, 也是放縱或不羈之神。

  • Artemis was associated with the moon and with the hunt.

    根據學者德里和狄維尼: 「在希臘人眼中,戴歐尼修斯代表的不是酩酊大醉,

  • Like Athena, Artemis was a virgin goddess and she'd sometimes tear apart the bodies of men who saw her naked.

    而是泉湧的靈感。

  • The final child of Zeus to become a member of the Olympian pantheon is his son with Maia,

    是一種令信徒從世俗的框架中解放, 從心所欲的宗教體驗。」

  • the daughter of the demigod Atlas, who holds up the world.

    羅馬人將這種狂歡稱為 bacchanal。 字根源自羅馬版的酒神:巴克斯 (Bacchus)。

  • This is Hermes, the god of the road and of travellers. He's Zeus' messenger, who also leads people to Hades.

    戴歐尼修斯的崇拜活動通常由邁那得斯(酒神狂女) 執行。她們遠離家中,進到森林裡,

  • Hermes had a winged hat and winged sandals way before Adidas JS wings

    整日飲酒作樂,獵捕動物。 將獵物撕裂作為祭品。

  • He's a trickster who often makes sharp deals, and he's a god of writing and magic,

    就是開始划酒拳、罰酒, 直到這些宵查某開始活活咬死這些野獸。

  • which basically makes him the Hellenised version of Thoth. High five, Thoth!

    也難怪希臘人很難接受這樣瘋狂的神祇。

  • Get you some feathered kicks, my dude.

    在收尾之前,必須先講講羅馬人。

  • The final member of the Olympian pantheon we need to discuss is the one David Leeming calls:

    他們從所征服之地借來很多文化。

  • at once the most ambiguous and the most foreign of the Greek gods:

    很直接的把希臘眾神進口成為羅馬眾神。

  • Dionysus, the god of wine.

    還有一部份是將羅馬本有的神跟希臘神合一。

  • Dionysus had an unusual birth. After consorting with Zeus,

    例如說,伊特魯里亞的女神、 手工藝匠的守護神米奈娃,就成了雅典娜。

  • his human mother Semele made a wish to see Zeus in his true form.

    義大利的森林女神黛安娜則變身成為 狩獵女神阿提蜜絲...等等。

  • Regrettable. When Zeus revealed himself, his godly presence burned Semele to a crisp.

    這是一個簡單的希臘/羅馬眾神對照表。

  • Zeus saved the embryonic Dionysus and sewed him up in his thigh,

    羅馬也有原創的神,例如「門戶之神」雅努斯。

  • from which he was later born. Now, there's archaeological evidence that Dionysus was worshipped

    一月的英文 January 就是源自他的名字。

  • in the ancient Greek city of Mycenae as early as 1200 BCE, but many stories portray Dionysus as a foreigner.

    (所以你可以怪他帶來了冷冰冰的天氣...

  • A bunch of greek gods originated as deities associated with cults from different cities:

    ...你也可以怪珀耳塞福涅、或黑帝斯或石榴。)

  • Artemis was probably a great mother goddess in Anatolia for instance, but Dionysus?

    到了羅馬帝國時代,他們開始將把皇帝神格化。

  • homegrown! Or home-sown, I guess. So why is he considered foreign?

    但是羅馬神話並不是圍繞著這些借來的神。