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  • On the outside, it may seem like we haven't changed much from our early ancestors.

    從外表上來看,我們也許看似和以前的祖先相去無幾。

  • But take a closer look and you'll discover that humans are still evolving in some fascinating new ways.

    但更進一步來看,你會發現人類仍以驚人的新方式在進化。

  • Holding your breath.

    憋氣。

  • The average person can hold their breath for 30 seconds.

    每人的平均憋氣時間是 30 秒。

  • But Bajau people in Southeast Asia can hold it up to 12 minutes, which comes in handy when they free dive over 230 feet for food.

    但在東南亞的巴喬人最久可以憋到 12 分鐘,在他們自由潛水到 230 英尺的海中尋找食物時,可以派上用場。

  • Part of the reason is simply training and experience since they spend over half their workday underwater.

    一部分原因只是透過訓練和經驗,因為他們平常有一半的時間都在水中。

  • But it turns out, the Bajau also have a genetic mutation that makes their spleens 50% larger than average.

    但結果發現,巴喬人也有基因突變,讓他們的脾臟比平均大上一半。

  • Our spleens are what filter and store oxygen-rich red blood cells.

    我們脾臟的功能是過濾和儲存含氧的紅血球 。

  • So, when the Bajau dive underwater, their larger spleens contract, which boosts oxygen levels in the blood by up to 10%, allowing them more time to collect food.

    所以當巴喬人潛入水中時,他們較大的脾臟會開始收縮,提升血氧量最高到 10 %,讓他們有更多時間收集食物。

  • It's a handy adaptation that probably came from living on houseboats for the last 1,000 years.

    這個方便的適應方式,可能自 1,000 年前開始就居住在船屋有關。

  • Drinking milk.

    喝牛奶

  • About 35% of the world's population has the equivalent of a genetic superpower.

    全世界約有 35 % 的人,擁有相同的強力基因。

  • They can digest milk as adults.

    他們可以像成人一樣消化牛奶。

  • Not impressed?

    不夠看嗎?

  • Then consider this.

    那看看這個。

  • Humans are among the only mammals on the planet with this ability.

    人類是地球上唯一可以消化牛奶的哺乳動物。

  • Thanks to a genetic mutation that popped up in Europe around 5,000 - 10,000 years ago.

    由於基因突變出現在約 5,000 到 10,000 年前的歐洲。

  • Those with the mutation produce lactase throughout their lives.

    基因突變的那些人,在生活中可以製造出乳糖酶。

  • That's the enzyme that breaks down milk sugars for easy digestion.

    這種酶可以分解乳糖,才能夠輕鬆消化。

  • And for most of history, humans stopped producing lactase after childhood.

    在大多數歷史中,人類自童年期後,就不會製造乳糖酶。

  • But once those lucky few Europeans could drink milk as adults, that suddenly meant extra nutrition and ultimately healthier, longer lives so that they could pass their superpower on to future generations.

    但這些少數幸運的歐洲人,成年後仍然可以喝牛奶,這代表他們能夠攝取額外的營養,活得更健康、更長壽,並將這種超能力傳給下一代。

  • Today, roughly 95% of northern Europeans have the mutation.

    現在,95 % 的北歐人都有這種基因突變。

  • Fending off disease.

    抵抗疾病。

  • The human body has an estimated 20,000 - 30,000 genes.

    人體的基因數估計有 20,000 到 30,000 個。

  • And while some mutations can change our spleens and diet, others can protect us against deadly conditions, like AIDS.

    然而有些基因突變會改變我們的脾臟和飲食,有的會保護我們免於致命情況,像是:愛滋病。

  • Nearly 50% of women in parts of South Africa have HIV.

    南非有將近 50 % 的女性都有愛滋病毒。

  • But researchers found that some show stronger resistance to the virus, taking longer to develop AIDS or sometimes never getting it at all.

    但研究人員發現,有些人對病毒有更強的抗性,要更長時間才發展成愛滋病,或者有時根本不會發展成愛滋病。

  • Turns out, these women also share a mutation in the gene called HLA-B27 that the others lack.

    結果發現,這些女性在基因上都有突變,叫做 HLA-B27,而其他人則沒有。

  • Are we going to evolve our way to HIV immunity?

    我們可以進化成對愛滋病毒免疫嗎?

  • It's too early to say.

    現在下定論還太早。

  • But one thing's clear.

    但有件事是肯定的。

  • Evolution's not done with us yet.

    我們人類的進化還沒有結束。

On the outside, it may seem like we haven't changed much from our early ancestors.

從外表上來看,我們也許看似和以前的祖先相去無幾。

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 突變 基因 進化 愛滋病 牛奶 人類

令人驚訝!人類仍在進化的三件事 (3 Surprising Ways Humans Are Still Evolving)

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    Evangeline 發佈於 2019 年 02 月 24 日
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