Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • I have to say that I'm very glad to be here.

    我必須說我很高興站在這裡。

  • I understand we have over 80 countries here,

    我知道這裡有來自多於80個國家的朋友,

  • so that's a whole new paradigm for me to speak

    這對我而言是個新體驗,

  • to all of these countries.

    我是說跟這麼多國家對話。

  • In each country, I'm sure you have this thing called

    在你們的國家,你們也一定聽過

  • the parent-teacher conference.

    家長教師會議這東西。

  • Do you know about the parent-teacher conference?

    你知道家長會嗎?

  • Not the ones for your kids, but the one you had as a child,

    不是你為了你子女出席的家長會,而是你小時候那種,

  • where your parents come to school and your teacher

    你爸媽到學校和你的老師見面的家長會。

  • talks to your parents, and it's a little bit awkward.

    老師會和你的父母說話,氣氛通常有點奇怪的。

  • Well, I remember in third grade, I had this moment

    我記得在我三年級的時候,

  • where my father, who never takes off from work,

    我永遠無法放下工作的爸爸﹣﹣

  • he's a classical blue collar, a working-class immigrant person,

    他是個典型的藍領工人、移民,

  • going to school to see his son, how he's doing,

    特地到學校去看看他的兒子(我)在學校的表現怎麼樣。

  • and the teacher said to him, he said, "You know,

    然後我的老師跟他說:「你知道的,

  • John is good at math and art."

    John的數學和美術科成績很好。」

  • And he kind of nodded, you know?

    他還點頭了呢。

  • The next day I saw him talking to a customer at our

    但是第二天當我看到他在我們的豆腐店和一位客人說話時,

  • tofu store, and he said, "You know, John's good at math."

    他說:「嗯,John的數學不錯。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And that always stuck with me all my life.

    我一直沒有忘記這件事。

  • Why didn't Dad say art? Why wasn't it okay?

    為什麼爸不提美術呢?美術不好嗎?

  • Why? It became a question my entire life, and

    這個「為什麼」一直留在我腦海裡。

  • that's all right, because being good at math meant

    不過這也沒關係,因為「我數學很好」

  • he bought me a computer, and some of you remember

    他買了一台電腦給我。你們其中部分人也許還記得

  • this computer, this was my first computer.

    那種很久以前的電腦,那是我的第一台電腦。

  • Who had an Apple II? Apple II users, very cool. (Applause)

    有人曾經擁有過一台蘋果2號電腦嗎?蘋果2號用家很酷喔。(掌聲)

  • As you remember, the Apple II did nothing at all. (Laughter)

    你也許還記得,蘋果2號其實沒多少功能。

  • You'd plug it in, you'd type in it and green text would come out.

    你可以插上電源,打字,然後一堆綠色的字會在屏幕上出現。

  • It would say you're wrong most of the time.

    它通常會說「你錯了」。

  • That was the computer we knew.

    那就是我們以前認識的電腦。

  • That computer is a computer that I learned about

    那是我上學時研究的電腦

  • going to MIT, my father's dream. And at MIT, however,

    我上的是麻省理工學院,那是我爸的夢想。但是在學校,

  • I learned about the computer at all levels,

    我學到了各式各樣的電腦相關知識,

  • and after, I went to art school to get away from computers,

    之後卻為了逃離電腦跑去讀美術學校。

  • and I began to think about the computer as more of

    然後我開始想,其實電腦這玩意兒

  • a spiritual space of thinking.

    為我們提供了一個思考的空間。

  • And I was influenced by performance art --

    而且因為我受到表演藝術的影響﹣﹣

  • so this is 20 years ago. I made a computer out of people.

    請記得這是二十年前的事了﹣﹣我用「人」造了一部「電腦」。

  • It was called the Human Powered Computer Experiment.

    這個作品就叫做「人力電腦實驗」。

  • I have a power manager, mouse driver, memory, etc.,

    這包括了一個電源管理、滑鼠驅動程式、記憶體等等。

  • and I built this in Kyoto, the old capital of Japan.

    我是在日本的古都﹣﹣京都做這個實驗的。

  • It's a room broken in two halves.

    我把一個房間切割為兩部分。

  • I've turned the computer on,

    我會啟動這台「電腦」,

  • and these assistants are placing a giant floppy disk

    而這些助手們正在把一個巨大的磁碟(floppy disk)

  • built out of cardboard, and it's put into the computer.

    這個用紙板造的磁碟會被放返「電腦」裡面。

  • And the floppy disk drive person wears it. (Laughter)

    而扮演磁碟的人會把它掛在身上。(笑聲)

  • She finds the first sector on the disk, and

    她會拿出磁碟的其中一部分,

  • takes data off the disk and passes it off to, of course, the bus.

    然後交給,嗯,當然是交給傳送資訊的巴士(bus,電路板上的一條線)。

  • So the bus diligently carries the data into the computer

    而巴士會把資料送到電腦

  • to the memory, to the CPU, the VRAM, etc.,

    的記憶體,到中央處理器(CPU),再到視頻記憶體(VRAM)等部分。

  • and it's an actual working computer. That's a bus, really. (Laughter)

    這真的是一部可以運作的電腦。喔,那也是一部真正的巴士。(笑聲)

  • And it looks kind of fast. That's a mouse driver,

    而且這看起來還挺快的。這是滑鼠驅動程式,

  • where it's XY. (Laughter)

    就是有X和Y。(笑聲)

  • It looks like it's happening kind of quickly, but it's actually

    這看起來運行得很快,但其實

  • a very slow computer, and when I realized how slow

    這是一部很慢的電腦,而當我發現以前的電腦

  • this computer was compared to how fast a computer is,

    和現在的電腦比到底有多慢的時候,

  • it made me wonder about computers and technology in general.

    我開始思考關於電腦和科技的問題。

  • And so I'm going to talk today about four things, really.

    而我今天的演講是關於四件事的,只是四件事。

  • The first three things are about how I've been curious

    頭三件事物是我一直很有興趣的,

  • about technology, design and art, and how they intersect,

    包括科技、設計、藝術,和這三者之間的關係,

  • how they overlap, and also a topic that I've taken on

    它們如何重叠,還有最後一個主題:

  • since four years ago I became the President

    自從四年前我成為羅德島設計學院院長之後

  • of Rhode Island School of Design: leadership.

    一直在想的﹣﹣領導力。

  • And I'll talk about how I've looked to combine

    我也會談到我怎樣嘗試把這四個東西結合起來

  • these four areas into a kind of a synthesis, a kind of experiment.

    變成一個組織、一個實驗。

  • So starting from technology,

    先從科技開始說起,

  • technology is a wonderful thing.

    科技真是個美妙的東西。

  • When that Apple II came out, it really could do nothing.

    蘋果2號剛面世時,它的功能真的不多。

  • It could show text and

    它只能顯示一些文字

  • after we waited a bit, we had these things called images.

    改良以後才能顯示圖像。

  • Remember when images were first possible with a computer,

    還記不記得當圖像第一次出面在電腦屏幕上﹣﹣

  • those gorgeous, full-color images?

    那些彩色的、美麗的圖像?

  • And then after a few years, we got CD-quality sound.

    幾年後,我們便有了具CD質素的音效。

  • It was incredible. You could listen to sound on the computer.

    這真是奇妙,在電腦上播放聲音呢!

  • And then movies, via CD-ROM. It was amazing.

    然後有了燒錄在CD上的電影。真的太神奇了。

  • Remember that excitement?

    還記得那種興奮感嗎?

  • And then the browser appeared. The browser was great,

    然後我們有了瀏覽器,它真的很棒,

  • but the browser was very primitive, very narrow bandwidth.

    但是當時的瀏覽器還是很粗糙的,網速也很慢。

  • Text first, then images, we waited,

    文字,再來是圖像,我們等了很久

  • CD-quality sound over the Net,

    才等到CD質素的聲音在網上出現,

  • then movies over the Internet. Kind of incredible.

    然後才有網上電影。不得不說這還挺厲害的。

  • And then the mobile phone occurred,

    之後我們發明了手提電話,

  • text, images, audio, video. And now we have iPhone,

    文字、圖像、聲音、影片。現在我們有了iPhone,

  • iPad, Android, with text, video, audio, etc.

    iPad, Android,文字短訊、影片甚麼的都有了。

  • You see this little pattern here?

    你看到這其中的模式了嗎?

  • We're kind of stuck in a loop, perhaps, and this sense

    我們好像被困在一個特定模式裡面了,

  • of possibility from computing is something I've been

    也許這就是我為什麼

  • questioning for the last 10 or so years,

    在過去十年來一直在疑惑電腦帶來的可能性到底是甚麼,

  • and have looked to design, as we understand most things,

    而我轉向從設計中尋找答案,

  • and to understand design with our technology has been a passion of mine.

    而從科技的角度了解設計一向是我的興趣之一。

  • And I have a small experiment to give you a quick design lesson.

    我有個小實驗可以讓你體驗一下設計是怎樣的。

  • Designers talk about the relationship between form

    設計師說的「形式和內容」、「內容和形式」

  • and content, content and form. Now what does that mean?

    之間的關係。這到底代表什麼?

  • Well, content is the word up there: fear.

    是這樣的,內容是這個字:恐懼。

  • It's a four-letter word. It's a kind of a bad feeling word, fear.

    這個字只有4個字母,它是個不怎麼好的詞,恐懼嘛。

  • Fear is set in Light Helvetica, so it's not too stressful,

    當這個詞用上Light Helvetica字型,看起來不會那麼有壓迫感。

  • and if you set it in Ultra Light Helvetica,

    如果你用Ultra Light Helvetica,

  • it's like, "Oh, fear, who cares?" Right? (Laughter)

    看了之後可能會覺得,「喔,只是惡懼而已啦!」對不對?(笑聲)

  • You take the same Ultra Light Helvetica and make it big,

    用同樣的字型但把它放大,

  • and like, whoa, that hurts. Fear.

    然後它就變成「哇,恐懼喔,會痛吧」

  • So you can see how you change the scale, you change

    這樣你可以看到只要改變字的大小,

  • the form. Content is the same, but you feel differently.

    你就可以改變它的形態。內容是一樣的,但感覺完全不一樣了。

  • You change the typeface to, like, this typeface,

    你改變字型,譬如把它變成這種字型,

  • and it's kind of funny. It's like pirate typeface,

    它看起來就會變得有點好笑。看起來像海盜的字型,

  • like Captain Jack Sparrow typeface. Arr! Fear!

    像傑克船長寫的字。「喔喔!恐懼!」

  • Like, aww, that's not fearful. That's actually funny.

    好吧,這聽起來一點也不恐怖,反而還有點搞笑。

  • Or fear like this, kind of a nightclub typeface. (Laughter)

    也可以用這種像夜店招牌的字型。(笑聲)

  • Like, we gotta go to Fear. (Laughter)

    好像在說「來,我們一定要去『恐懼』!」(笑聲)

  • It's, like, amazing, right? (Laughter) (Applause)

    也好像說這很酷,對不對?(笑聲)(掌聲)

  • It just changes the same content.

    改變字型就改變了相同內容帶出的感覺。

  • Or you make it -- The letters are separated apart,

    你也可以改變字之間的距離,

  • they're huddled together like on the deck of the Titanic,

    把它們弄成像在泰坦尼克號甲板上抱成一團,

  • and you feel sorry for the letters, like, I feel the fear.

    你真的會感覺到那種恐懼。

  • You feel for them.

    你真的會被觸動。

  • Or you change the typeface to something like this.

    你也可以把字型變成這種。

  • It's very classy. It's like that expensive restaurant, Fear.

    這字型很經典。就好像一間高級餐廳「恐懼」。

  • I can never get in there. (Laughter)

    我永遠也不會踏足那裡。(笑聲)

  • It's just amazing, Fear. But that's form, content.

    這真的很奇妙。恐懼。但這就是形式,內容。

  • If you just change one letter in that content,

    如果你只改變其中一個字母,

  • you get a much better word, much better content: free.

    你會得到一個很好的詞,比恐懼好很多的內容:自由。

  • "Free" is a great word. You can serve it almost any way.

    自由是個很好的詞。你幾乎可以把它用任何方式呈現。

  • Free bold feels like Mandela free.

    粗體的「自由」看起來像曼德拉的自由。

  • It's like, yes, I can be free.

    好像在說,是的,我可以得到自由。

  • Free even light feels kind of like, ah, I can breathe in free.

    而幼體的「自由」就好像在說,喔,我可以自由地呼吸呢。

  • It feels great. Or even free spread out,

    這樣感覺很好。如果把字距拉開,

  • it's like, ah, I can breathe in free, so easily.

    就變成,啊,我可以這麼輕易地自由呼吸呢。

  • And I can add in a blue gradient and a dove,

    如果加上漸變藍和白鴿,

  • and I have, like, Don Draper free. (Laughter)

    就會變成Don Draper(廣告狂人)的「自由」。(笑聲)

  • So you see that -- form, content, design, it works that way.

    所以你看到了﹣﹣形式、設計,它是這麼運作的。

  • It's a powerful thing. It's like magic, almost,

    它是很有力的。幾乎就像魔術一樣,

  • like the magicians we've seen at TED. It's magic.

    像我們在TED看到的魔術師一樣神奇。這是魔術。

  • Design does that.

    設計可以做到這些事。

  • And I've been curious about how design and technology intersect,

    而我很好奇設計和科技是怎樣互相影響的,

  • and I'm going to show you some old work I never really

    我會把一些我幾乎不再公開展示的舊作品

  • show anymore, to give you a sense of what I used to do.

    給你們看看,讓你了解一下我以前是做甚麼的。

  • So -- yeah.

    所以

  • So I made a lot of work in the '90s.

    嗯,我在九零年代做了很多作品。

  • This was a square that responds to sound.

    這是一個會對聲音作反應的正方形。

  • People ask me why I made that. It's not clear. (Laughter)

    其他人會問我為什麼要做這個。我也不是很確定。(笑聲)

  • But I thought it'd be neat for the square

    但我覺得正方形這樣給我反應

  • to respond to me, and my kids were small then,

    是一件很酷的事,而當時我的孩子還小,

  • and my kids would play with these things, like, "Aaah,"

    他們會玩這些東西,「啊呀」

  • you know, they would say, "Daddy, aaah, aaah." You know, like that.

    你知道的,他們會說「啊呀,爸爸,啊啊」就像這樣。

  • We'd go to a computer store, and they'd do the same thing.

    我們會去電腦用品店,他們會做同樣的事。

  • And they'd say, "Daddy, why doesn't the computer respond to sound?"

    他們會問「爸爸,為什麼這個電腦對聲音沒有反應?」

  • And it was really at the time I was wondering why doesn't the computer respond to sound?

    那是我第一次認真去想為甚麼電腦不會對聲音作出反應?

  • So I made this as a kind of an experiment at the time.

    所以我做了這樣一個實驗。

  • And then I spent a lot of time in the space of

    然後我花了很多時間

  • interactive graphics and things like this, and I stopped doing it because

    研究圖像和類似的東西,然後我停止了這麼做

  • my students at MIT got so much better than myself,

    因為我在麻省理工學院的學生比我做得好太多了,

  • so I had to hang up my mouse.

    所以我要放下我的滑鼠了。

  • But in '96, I made my last piece. It was in black and white,

    但在1996年我做了最後一個作品。它是黑白的,

  • monochrome, fully monochrome, all in integer mathematics.

    單色的,完全是單色的,只有整數數字。

  • It's called "Tap, Type, Write."

    它叫做「按鈕、打字、書寫」(Tap, Type, Write)。

  • It's paying a tribute to the wonderful typewriter

    這是向我母親的打字機致敬的作品,

  • that my mother used to type on all the time as a legal secretary.

    我母親是位法律文員,她以前總是用它來打法律文件。

  • It has 10 variations. (Typing noise)

    它有10種不同形態。(打字聲)

  • (Typing noise)

    (打字聲)

  • There's a shift.

    這是空白鍵。

  • Ten variations. This is, like, spin the letter around.

    10種變化。看,這是把字母翻轉。

  • (Typing noises)

    (打字聲)

  • This is, like, a ring of letters. (Typing noises)

    這是個字母圈。(打字聲)

  • This is 20 years old, so it's kind of a --

    這已經20歲大了,它有點像﹣﹣

  • Let's see, this is

    嗯,看看這個﹣﹣

  • I love the French film "The Red Balloon."

    我很喜歡一部法國電影,《紅氣球》

  • Great movie, right? I love that movie. So,

    很棒的電影,對嗎?我很愛那部電影。所以

  • this is sort of like a play on that. (Typing noises) (Typewriter bell)

    這就像是那裡面的一幕。(打字聲)

  • It's peaceful, like that. (Laughter)

    聽起來很平和。像這樣。(笑聲)

  • I'll show this last one. This is about balance, you know.

    這會是最後一個。這是關於平衡的。

  • It's kind of stressful typing out, so if you

    這樣打出來很有壓力,所以如果你

  • type on this keyboard, you can, like, balance it out.

    在這個鍵盤上打字,你可以平衡一下。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • If you hit G, life's okay, so I always say,

    如果你打G,這還過得去,我常常這麼說的,

  • "Hit G, and it's going to be all right.

    「打G吧,一切都會沒問題的。」

  • Thank you. (Applause)

    謝謝。(掌聲)

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • So that was 20 years ago, and

    所以這是20年前的事了,

  • I was always on the periphery of art.

    而我一直在藝術的邊緣徘徊。

  • By being President of RISD I've gone deep into art,

    但在羅德島設計學院當院長讓我對藝術有更深入的認識,

  • and art is a wonderful thing, fine art, pure art.

    藝術真是一件美好的東西。純藝術。

  • You know, when people say, "I don't get art.

    你知道,當人們說「我不明白藝術,

  • I don't get it at all." That means art is working, you know?

    我完全不明白。」你知道嗎?這表示藝術成功了。

  • It's like, art is supposed to be enigmatic, so when you say,

    這就好像在說藝術應該是深奧難懂的,所以當你說

  • like, "I don't get it," like, oh, that's great. (Laughter)

    「我不明白」的時候,喔,那很好。(笑聲)

  • Art does that, because art is about asking questions,

    藝術就是有這樣的功能,因為藝術是應該提出一些問題的,

  • questions that may not be answerable.

    有些問題甚至無人能夠回答。

  • At RISD, we have this amazing facility called

    在羅德島設計學院,我們有個很棒的地方

  • the Edna Lawrence Nature Lab. It has 80,000 samples

    叫做Edna Lawrenece自然實驗室。裡面有80,000個

  • of animal, bone, mineral, plants.

    動物、骨頭、礦物、植物的樣本。

  • You know, in Rhode Island, if an animal gets hit on the road,

    你知道的,在羅德島上,如果有動物不小心被車撞到,

  • they call us up and we pick it up and stuff it.

    開車的人會打電話給我們,我們就會去把牠拿回來製成標本。

  • And why do we have this facility?

    我們為甚麼要這樣做呢?

  • Because at RISD, you have to look at the actual animal,

    因為在我們學院,你要看到實物(真正的動物),

  • the object, to understand its volume, to perceive it.

    去了解牠的大小,去觀察牠。

  • At RISD, you're not allowed to draw from an image.

    在我們學院你不能只看著照片畫畫。

  • And many people ask me, John, couldn't you just

    很多人問我,John,

  • digitize all this? Make it all digital? Wouldn't it be better?

    為什麼你不把這些都數碼化呢?那樣不會比較好嗎?

  • And I often say, well, there's something good to how things

    而我常常說,嗯,傳統的方法總是有它的好處。

  • used to be done. There's something very different about it,

    這是很不一樣的,

  • something we should figure out what is good about

    是我們應該去思考該怎麼做的事,

  • how we did it, even in this new era.

    即使在這個新世紀也是一樣。

  • And I have a good friend, he's a new media artist named

    我有個好朋友,他是一位新媒體藝術家,

  • Tota Hasegawa. He's based in London, no, actually it's in Tokyo,

    他叫做長谷川踏太。他一般在倫敦,喔不,在東京工作。

  • but when he was based in London, he had a game

    但當他在倫敦的時候,他會和他的妻子玩一個遊戲。

  • with his wife. He would go to antique shops,

    他會去古董店,

  • and the game was as such:

    這個遊戲是這樣玩的:

  • When we look at an antique we want,

    當我們看到一件想要的古董,

  • we'll ask the shopkeeper for the story behind the antique,

    我們會問店主它背後的故事,

  • and if it's a good story, we'll buy it.

    如果故事是好的,我們會買。

  • So they'd go to an antique shop, and they'd look at this cup,

    所以有一次他們去古董店時看到一只杯,

  • and they'd say, "Tell us about this cup."

    問店主「可以跟我們說說這只杯嗎?」

  • And the shopkeeper would say, "It's old." (Laughter)

    然後店主只回答,「喔,它很老了。」(笑聲)

  • "Tell us more.""Oh, it's really old." (Laughter)

    「說多一點吧。」「喔,它真的很老。」(笑聲)

  • And he saw, over and over, the antique's value

    然後一次又一次,他看到古董的價值

  • was all about it being old.

    似乎就是在於它在多老。

  • And as a new media artist, he reflected, and said,

    但是作為一個新媒體藝術家,他反思後說,

  • you know, I've spent my whole career making new media art.

    我花了一輩子做新媒體藝術。

  • People say, "Wow, your art, what is it?"It's new media.

    人們都說「哇,你的藝術喔,在哪兒?」新媒體就是這樣。

  • And he realized, it isn't about old or new.

    然後他了解其實重點不是東西有多老或多新。

  • It's about something in between.

    重要是的中間的東西。

  • It isn't about "old," the dirt, "new," the cloud. It's about what is good.

    這不是「老」或「泥土」或「新」或「雲端」的問題。重點是東西好不好。

  • A combination of the cloud and the dirt is where the action is at.

    結合雲端和泥土才是行動所在。

  • You see it in all interesting art today, in all

    你可以在現代所有有趣的藝術中看到,

  • interesting businesses today. How we combine

    在所有有趣的生意中看到。我們如何結合

  • those two together to make good is very interesting.

    這兩者來造一些好東西是很有趣的。

  • So art makes questions, and

    所以藝術是會問問題的,

  • leadership is something that is asking a lot of questions.

    領導力是一種問問題的能力。

  • We aren't functioning so easily anymore.

    我們的思考不再像以往一樣簡單了。

  • We aren't a simple authoritarian regime anymore.

    我們不再是個簡單的組織。

  • As an example of authoritarianism, I was in Russia one time

    說到權威主義這東西,我曾經去過俄羅斯

  • traveling in St. Petersburg, at a national monument,

    聖彼德堡,在一個國家紀念碑前

  • and I saw this sign that says, "Do Not Walk On The Grass,"

    我看到一個告示牌說「請勿在草地上行走。」

  • and I thought, oh, I mean, I speak English,

    我想,嗯,我看得懂英語,

  • and you're trying to single me out. That's not fair.

    所以你是在把我劃分開來嗎?這不公平。

  • But I found a sign for Russian-speaking people,

    但是我找到一個給俄語人士看的告示,

  • and it was the best sign ever to say no.

    這是最適合向之說不的告示。

  • It was like, "No swimming, no hiking, no anything."

    它是這麼寫的:「不準游泳,不準登高,不準做任何事。」

  • My favorite ones are "no plants." Why would you bring a plant to a national monument? I'm not sure.

    我最喜歡的是「不準攜帶植物」,誰要帶植物去看紀念碑呢?我真的不清楚。

  • And also "no love." (Laughter)

    還有「不準