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Hadrian's Wall in the North of England One of [the] unsung wonders of the ancient world
it's unique [a]
spectacular and complex Stone barrier measuring 74 miles long
15 feet [5] and 10 feet wide
For 300 years it stood as the Roman Empire's most imposing Frontier
Hadrian's war is not only an amazing feat of [engineering], but so important
It's been given the status of a [world] [heritage] [site]
But it's also an incredible time capsule a window into the human parts
This is the immediate fingering. It's a lovely thing and I often wonder about the rao and [tree] lost it
Even something this small can tell us about a single person finished of Hadrian's wall
every single
piece of leather in this style is stamped with the names laid
You see if I purchase [Farley's] son of time
basically the sort of douchey of the day
almost
[2,000] years [later] the wall still stands
The men women and children who lived along it [to] vanished
But they've left [behind] many thousands of clues of what their lives were like
including an incredible collection of Handwritten letters
right Determines
[tell] you in great detail what they're doing? Who they are?
There's no comparison
Tonight time watch Journeys back through time to unlock the secrets of a lost world
Revealing a unique insight into a dreams war and the romans
Whose Empire dominated Europe for half a Millennia?
I want to travel along Hadrian's wall
It's a journey of 74 miles and almost 2,000 years that will take it some wonderful places
But even before the war was felt there was a line of force and the most amazing [of] them is in the land
These archaeologists are the latest in a long line
helping to piece together a picture of life in [Romans], written a
little object obviously
afternoon last thing
Do [you] [prefer] the Bronze belt?
Which goes on one of the other little objects with a from this area?
they've discovered the remains of nine Roman Forts built on top of each other and
dating from the 1st to the 4th Centuries ad
Well, this is one of the enormous outside wall posts from the stores builder which looks like it's symptom today was there the troops building
Hadrian's wall
reign without any
Faults on the wall itself at the time while it was being built it would have been a big mean [forest] [or] base somewhere
I mean if the build is actually stretching for over 35 [metres], so it's a substantial stores blue
Vindolanda Sport was part of the infrastructure for the building of Hadrian's were the most northerly frontier of the Roman Empire
But fools Hadrian, and why was he in britain?
Publius Alias Adrianna's was 41 when he came to power
117 Ad
He inherited an expanding empire that stretched from North [Africa] in the south to Newcastle in the North
He dreams in many ways a rather unusual [emperor] in that he took the strategic decision
No longer to Expand the Empire
Aggressively the way his [kinsman] and predecessor trajan had done he decided to consolidate him
along the Frontiers it already had and
his way of actually achieving this and if truth could control libyans was to go on a series of
prolong tours around the [Empire] to visit the Army's to maintain them around and
Generally be seen so they would know who their Paymaster doors
by
122 ad the Romans had established a huge Garrison in Britain?
expanding out from the southeast
But they never managed fully conquered the area north of [new] [course] in carmine
Adrian evidently decided that it was not going to be practical to try to conquer the whole of the island at least at that period
What he was going to have to do was to establish a fairly tightly defined line across the island marking
[roman] reckoning for country from areas which was still at least nominally?
independent
The only question was what Form would this new route take?
Adrian came to Britain in Ad
122 an ordered the construction of a war frontier right the way across the laws of the country
The sheer scale of it. I'm just outside Newcastle anymore this end
but actually this is where the war began an [existence] sighs down there in the river time and
Then it ran up through what's now Swamp M2
Shipyard with a bill the carpathian the ship that rescued the survivors from the titanic
And the first port along the wall is here
[Sega] [Deunan]
Hit them the terraced housing to the 1970s
Archaeologists have unearthed the ruins of this run's driving round [foot]
It was from here [that] Hadrian's wall headed West
This is what the war would have looked like
[courtesy] and the archaeologists at war's end have reconstructed it to its original height
And although no one's certain common sense suggests that donal wall is white the descents of the walk wave and Sim
protection for the Soldiers
It's when you stand next to the wall as it was when it was first built and it towers above you
But you realized the impact that it must have had marching across the landscape
And imagine the effect that it had of the locals their lands their farms divided by this incredible structure
Constance is just one of seventeen major faults will do on the wall
the [forks] at highly developed infrastructures each one home to several hundred people
In places Hadrian's wall crosses some wonderfully wild terrain
Even today this would be a major construction job, but the Romans built it nearly 2,000 years ago
we have to envisage an
area of Britain where the wasn't all that much stone building certainly new Monumental masonry
So it would have been a totally alien thing
It would be like a visitation from from another world, and it will be God's not
Not the least that the purposes of Hadrian's wall was to make a huge statement of power in the landscape of this province
This would have been a monument
Unprecedented not only in the Island, but really in the whole of the law empire
So how on Earth did they do it?
Well the roman
Stonemasons left behind some clues on this Rock-strewn hill at [Fallow] [field] quarry half a mile from the war
Today, it's very quiet and peaceful in Rural
But any two thousand years ago it been very different the whole hillside would have been swarming with Roman Masons
The Air would have been filled with the sound of hammer and chisel and a constant stream of wagons coming along to take away
the finished blocks of stone
The scale of what the romans did is incredible? They're quite away this entire hillside
And you can even see the way they worked these homes were [made] by Roman chisels
they got a [halfway] to try to split this block and then abandoned it [a]
[contrast] of the great wall of China for example which was built by slave labor Hadrian's walls built by the Soldiers [themselves]
Soldiers were trained in
Construction techniques some of them were very skilled Masons so they had all the skills within legions to build something even on this huge scale
Dr.. Peter Hill is a stonemason and an expert on the construction of Hadrian's wall
He spent years following the trail left behind by the romans, but if you look at this one here
This is now in three pieces
But it obviously
Is all one that's all the one when it came out you see by the way. It shapes all came out of one stone and
They simply lift see how it's 13 or 12
And they just that's a straight lift out of the day
Yes, straight. [leave] [up] [over] [here] [onto] [the] side yeah. I mean you [me] pick twice today
Among the ruins the archaeologists found Roman tools
These finds give an insight into how the masons shape the stones to go the warm
and incredibly the design and size [are] almost identical to the tools used by Stonemasons today, I
Could use aroma stone motions to all think innumerable ferns changeable
And they haven't changed in two thousand years and beginning [work] [some] [because] hamels have obtained
Further investigation by gluten [so] that the masons would have worked for about twenty minutes on each stone before it was placed in the ward
It calculates that they would have had to have done this 18 million times
And Peter is uncovered further evidence of how the Masons went about their work
We know how the romans lifted the big stones Bill?
and
Left us clues in the form of a hole here
There's a Lewis hall and into that goes [Lewis]
Right you've got to tapered legs here which go into this undercut hole on each side
right and then they are forced apart by the
Parallel leg goes between them
And then you simply push shackles
with a pin
Crane hook into there, and you lift, so you could lift a stone digitize
I stay on this side is three-quarters of a turn with that no problem at all right and
This isn't a Modern Louis which fits into a roman Louis hole we've got roman Lewis's of survived, so we know these
Basically the same tools tool and Clever Latvia Clever very clever
At the museum of antiquities in Newcastle there are even more clues
The archeologists have also discovered many of the names of the Roman Civil war
Welcome to our clay pen
Here we have with Mike all filing cabinets all the evidence for agents were always here
You've got a fair amount of stone wood she was a stone [Mikey]
And no one knows these Romans better than Lindsey Alison Jones
We have huge benefits on [Cajon's] wall in the Roman army like to record their achievements in stone
And a very good example is this
Stone here which came form our castle 38?
and this is the stone which actually tells us that it was Hadrian who built Hadrian's wall h a
[d] r [i] a n
It also tells us that the [2nd] legion your guster was involved in the building
But then it [actually] tells us the name of [the] governor at the time Paulus pretorius new posts
And that means we can pin down the start of the building Hadrian's wall
to ad 1 to 2 1 to 5
So if it hadn't been for [this] stone would not know that it was hatred that [should] [open] [or] absolutely
[I] [mean] before these inscriptions were found there was a huge rao called [newell] controversy when
Academics fought over whether it was septimus Severus or Hadrian
And it was inscriptions like this that proved the point that it was k giunti built Hadrian's wall
it was probably a really [zài] [a] very huge architectural limiters and so a
Hand without blueprint and they are Maga Rom with it
Following Hadrian's instructions the Soldiers built castles at every Milan on the wall
But in places the bureaucracy of the [emperor's] design raised some eyebrows amongst his men
right we're at [the] North Gate of Marcantel 37 just west of our stands for
Splendid Mark ethel Gateway [10] [foot] wise
Passageway big enough to get a large wagon through and you go through it
And you're on the edge of a cliff are you on the edge [of] a cliff?
It goes very steeply down was it well [who] gave may here not a lot?
Hadrian
From the wall. He said I want to get laid every mile and
So they built a date where every mile load how looking at the [path]?
What we [gave] just lay it off with every bill be a way
But it seems that in other places the design of all kept changing even as they built it
We neighbors because you can still see the advocates like here a brunton turret not far from Chester's fault
This is a good example [of] the romans not being quite as ruthlessly efficient
We might have thought because this is Brunton turret and as far as here
They build a wide wall 10 roman feet wide
But then they seem to change their mind because here they built a wide
Foundation 10 roman feet but the actual wall is much narrower, and that's how it carries on from this point onwards
They've started building
Personally I'd only been building for very long at all when somebody came along and said well hang on. We've changed our minds
See that terror [you've] built Rocky down
[germar] just you built knocking down. We're going to put forth on the landowners and every 10 miles so that reformed
Now sometimes it's wrong [work] or any staff
Maybe half finished and then [smashes] [Magner] soldiers just you know
This is the new plan [the] house laid out very well with the builders would it know exactly
Hadrian assigns
10,000 soldiers to his enormous
construction project each century of men was allocated their own sex with Walter building
And when they finished they carved an inscription proclaiming your achievement
And here we have one of these material stones
which gives us the name of the
Centurion in charge of that group of men his name is Kirk Ilya
[Sprocket] as you can see here and it also tells us that he was in the fifth cohort as well
[and] this might have been a few reasons one and it could have been in
Quality control, so that people could see which was a good [better] which was about this
But I think also the must have a little bonding element. There's a surprise Dunley speak together [as] a group of people
the
Inscriptions tell us about the people we know the names of individuals it
Humanizes Hadrian's wall it puts the people back into the archaeology
Patrons wall didn't just [appear] in the landscape it had to be planned it had to be
executed and
A lot of people would have bashed their souls or both of their legs while they were doing it a lot of people who lived
On it that was their home
we now know that the wall was built by the second the 6th and the 20th legions and
Several other auxiliary units are also named
But the Romans left behind much more than stone inscriptions
as the
archaeologists took
They began to uncover the most powerful and colorful insights the political and social life of Romans along the wall
ancient secrets revealed
That a very distinct line right here that are the burnt clay material [a] very thin
Play Arla
Nowhere tells us more about the romans than the fault at Vindolanda
The soil here is anaerobic which provides perfect conditions for preservation
Things are in such good condition here because the varied under the clay and the clay
Effectively seals out the object to get no oxygen and get no
Oxidization or very little to no rust effectively no rust means that things are in the same condition
But they were dropped in when you find them which is just wonderful
the finds recovered at Vindolanda provide us with a window into everyday [rome]
We know what tools they use?
How they cut leather
What they ate out?
the Birdie family been excavating here for three generations
Because of the special soil conditions objects that would normally not have survived have been found perfectly preserved
including thousands of artifacts made from leather
This is a fairly typical of [our] over roman marching boot. It's got this high upper and
this one right knives because it's got
Decoration around the Eyelid so it's a little bit more expensive than the plain
Soldiers boot and
if you can
See [the] studs here
Very very heavy iron studs in the sole and quite often in a pattern
So there's a sort of little decorative feature even to the sole of your shoes
some of the items discount the practice
others More commonplace
But once they're cleaned and preserved there are all
important pieces of a jigsaw [puzzle] of the Roman way of life in Britain
We have quite a collection of these
Lovely boxwood combs [leever] an everyday item in Roman times
They're quite simply made for combing the hair yes, but also
cleansing the hair of nits and large
So again this lovely link with the past and you [know] these sort of objects
Don't change because the design is there it is so good you can't improve the product
There's no way you could make this
[object] more functional more
Useful for it set purpose and so it's just [stayed] [the] same throughout the centuries
At the time Hadrian's wall was being built the roman world was a far more sophisticated place than the one that they found in britain
the rome's regarded their part of the world in the middle [of] the mediterranean as the high point of
Cultures and civilized life and the further you got away in St.
Especially outdoors the cold darkness at the North the more and more Barbaric [backward] primitive
They regarded people's being and the people of the remote island Britain were regarded as a by worth of barbarity
This is the common duct cells [of] [houses] [sport] not surprisingly the one with the best view
But the weather up here in winter must have been a shock to [people] from the Mediterranean
It would have been cold it would have been wet it would have been foreign
With full of people speaking very peculiar languages and eating bread clearly food, and they would have hated it
You can imagine a soldier at home saying oh my God. I've been posted to britain
the Romans tried to make life more comfortable for themselves by introducing luxuries like
underfloor Central heating this is the floor and
Underneath it [ducts] bring in hot air and also up the walls as well
Which meant that even in the far north of the Roman Empire there would have been nice
But it became apparent that bottle the robots were from rome
There was also evidence [auxilary] [trips] cavalry and archers from all across the empire
[you] [think] [ephedrine] [swarm] was not just being a sort of barrier and all between worlds it is itself a kind of very cosmopolitan
place
We have lots and lots of different cultures coming together and interacting
so in a sense although
Hadrian's Walls in a very
Individual part of Northern Britain it's bringing with it a kind of London light color [policy] atmosphere so quite an exciting place to be
placing the barracks at house did support
Imagine the languages that you'd have heard here [nearly] two thousand years ago. There were [syrians] North Africans
[hungarians] Bulgarians French Spanish Germans all serving the Roman Empire a
multi-eThnic melting pot
from everyday
objects that we find
Excavation you can build a picture the people were living in the area to example in this case
we have a very nice dish of
North African red where we have two small pots made in France A
born Saucepan which is made in campaign eeeh in italy and
the Little Ivory Gladiator [class] candle which would have been
made of ivory from India
But here we have a glass vessel it was part of a blue glass bottle in the shape of a west African head
Now this was probably made either in Germany or in
EgyPt
But of course we tend to get excited about the container
Coming so attractive but for the person buying it it was the concept that important it was the perfumes it was the oils
That were being imported and so from these
Artifacts we know that the people of Hadrian's wall were able to get
Artifacts from all over the world it also reminds us that they weren't all Italian that they were actually sending home
For the sorts of things they wanted every day
the wall crossed three Major Rivers
Including this one the North time
Here the Roman spot of the opportunity to make their lives even more comfortable
This is one of my very favorite places in a bridge war the bath paths of Chester's thought
It was built on the banks of the river
Walter was carried by aqueducts into the [bark] house which supplied an intricate complex of steam
hot and cold pools a
place to exercise
But we can do better than this I can show you exactly what it would have looked like almost 2000 [years] ago
The archaeologists have been able to rebuild an entire Roman bathhouse at Wallsend
This reconstruction is based on the ruins at Chester's and the frescoes and murals are copied from ancient
Fragments using [original] painting methods
With underfloor heating and plenty of hot water [the] soldiers were able to enjoy steam rooms bars
The bathrooms was where the men went to walk
But it also played an important part in Soldiers leisure time a time to relax with their mates
But for the romance a public lavatory [was] just that very public
When you think of Hadrian's wall wants daisy to think of just thousands of men, but here we have a tombstone which is
Unequivocal evidence for women being on the [war] this mentions a lady called Aurelia Aia who was the daughter of titus?
She comes from salonist, which is Modern-day Croatia
And she was married [to] a man called a realist marcus who came from the century?
Of obstacle and so here we have an ordinary soldier
With his wife on Hadrian's wall
The very large stone inscriptions can give us a lot of information that something is small
And it's exquisite as this can also give us quite a lot about people. This is the emini [finger] [ring]
It's called the [emir] fingering because letters are contact say amin ears. I see
Emilia May You live and
this is thought by some people to be the earliest Christian artifact in where in Britain um
And it tells [has] also got a bit about [emilia] and for example. We can say the size of one of her fingers and
We can suggest that she might have been a Christian. We can also suggest that she was and
betrothed or [my] - quite a wealthy man as these tend to be used as [petrova] [wings] and
Also as a possibility that she had links with from the Eastern provinces because things were made in
That part of the world, and it's a lovely thing and I often wonder about the role and tree lobsters
It shows that even something this small
Can tell us about a single person who lived on Hadrian's wall?
the women who lived here at Vindolanda
Obviously, they were living a frontier life, but that didn't divorce them from
having the finery and the trappings this for my part of the largest city of seoul and
one such thing it's
very very fine founded
And Roman times this would have been beautifully colored
But you see the delicate [shape] of the sole here
every single
piece of leather in this bangle
Soul it's stamped with [the] name of the maker
Gluteus Arbutus darling sons [titus]
He is a [shoemaker] of some note, and so this is an expensive object
Basically it's the sort of gooshie of the day
this is what you want if you can afford to have [it] and
The reason it has been thrown ways with the toe fungus
And [that] indicates that someone with more money than [sense] that he's ticklish
[has] got rid of the shoe a
simple repair job could fix this but no Lt went
As the ancient ruins were [examined] it was discovered the Romans didn't confine themselves living in [some]
Roman Fort rarely student isolation
Usually quite quickly after they were established still develop outside the gains an extra settlement
Because soldiers were not monks even though legally they weren't supposed [to] marry many of them required
[why], [it's] unofficially many of them owned slaves. They were legally allowed to do
Some of these folk would leave inside the foot probably many of them [will] live outside
the Village outside the Walls of the thorn
I mean even you've got also a top of it in there from there certainly some military workshops in there
I'm gonna room inside the roman fort to cope with absolutely everything that they needed to do in there
So the money fuck sure in Goods and dollar be just outside the four walls
And but also are some of the civilians in there
I mean wives and kids of the
Soldiers are living in there [we] found shops at Mindle under as well got a butcher shop with a couple of drains of the floor
Lots of animal bones on the floor. There's this hive of activity going on outside the fort
Every new find made by the archaeologists along Hadrian's wall tells us more about the Romans
This is a temple to Madras just one of their many gods
Revelation is rather strange Klaus [is] [for] very much. The kind of bargaining thing between you and the gods
It would be as if you were
Worshiping a divinity and saying well, I'm I'm asking for something if you give it to me, then I'll give you an altar
But if you don't, I'm not going to give you anything. I'll make you have actual instances of
Writings of people saying well I did ask the [gods] for something and they gave me absolutely [nothing] if I refuse to give anything
As well as worship all of their own comes the romans adopted local celtic gods
This is my [favorite] Roman on Hadrian's wall
This is a man called Kenya's longest who was a prefect of Cavalier been well
And he dedicated his altar to a local God called antony get Acca's in
Gratitude for [him] having achieved his ambition
he has been promoted to christ or that [wheels] [easily] burst definitely led us to become a proper senator basking low and
I've often wondered
Why he thought that rather obscure native dirty in the top Left-hand Corner the Roman Empire had enough clout to?
Get him what he wanted and it may be he's tried all the old days his first [missus] the only one has [worked]
But you do get a sense in saying yes, you know
I really achieved what I wanted [to] moisten your favourite course because it's a bit quality familiar
I think it's because he just kept his sense of
This man has achieved something he really wanted
Excavations on [Hadrian's] will take back to Victorian terms
And although archeologists [only] properly excavated
[1%] of it they've unearthed an extraordinary collection of objects
But the most amazing finds from along Hatreds will have to believe in the lambda tablets
while digging in
1973 the Archaeologists began to unearth small pieces of very thin wood
each one only about a millimeter thick
Now quite by chance after [that's] we must have thrown several these away
We came across two glued together as it were like that
And we gently prized them open that is filled that your part
[there] full very
difficult believe it
You know quite clear with writing
But other than their language down to me
But almost immediately the writing disappeared
The pieces of wood will first soaked in alcohol and any [neetha] to preserve
after further investigation
It was found that by photographing the pieces of wood and infrared light
the writing reappeared
But finding out what it said would prove to be a difficult process
So when you first saw this might appear
And you could actually look at it read it most things you expect [leaves] there to say well first I can read it
When I actually got the first one here shall pass to you Vorenii
Fast Marion, I think well you're looking at a time. I looked at it. It's actually upside down [groups]
Markets very you then turn around is [just] as bad
sometimes [we] have
Letters or words that have broken across different fragments. It can really be quite crucial on the photograph. I feel this
Somewhat better the writing tablets were sent to [Allen] Bowman an expert in ancient scripts
He established that although the texts were in latin. They were written in Cursive Script an early form of lowercase
Handwriting which made the job of reading even more demanding?
they're very difficult you are lucky inclusive handwriting as [period] [As] lawful and
Suspect one of the problems is that the latter forms themselves?
Particularly some very common letters are [real] quite hard to distinguish one from another
so for example in a particular hand you might find s and t and
P and evil are high
Those four letters and really can look quite similar and if you think of the combinations in which those letters might occur
Actually figuring out what a particular word might being is not in itself a trivial exercise
professor Bowman has been deciphering the Vindolanda writing tablets for over 30 years and
New ones are still being dug out
This letter has only recently been discovered
Professor Bowman's eyes were the first in almost two thousand years to read it
The ice here. I think where
You can read the web like Harris La and see I have seized a large piece of military equipment
We've got some names here which I can read
Down here I can see the name victory
I see t hours they call them
and they're in the east is [back] further described as [that] they're not all [from] [time] function and
Again the lanky ass down there now and the sum of money against the name
so this is obviously an account of
soldiers are paying for military equipment and
Mounted on top of the high teens to with small amounts of Denarii
recorded
against the individual items a little bit higher up where the tub is broken here are three letters a
LB which must be the beginning of the [lane] either have - our bombers both common Roman names
And then further down here an unusual name peggle must - [LVL]
Mas and these describes [ax] the xlr is a standard bearer
[x] I
A are are you and then we astral because most relatively breaks down?
it's one example of the incredibly detailed recording of
cash
commodities the tracking of of
The way in which equipment dispensed and painful in this extraordinarily detailed way
terrific piece
The Roman stands bear with the strange name tiger moths had been mentioned in other letters found some years earlier
[an] [eel], [so] left another clue the archeologists on an Amphora a vessel used to store food or wine
in the room next door well we found this letter he found an Amphora and
The armor handling particular, and he carved his personal name on [Taga] max was fantastic
And then we look at what the Amphora well
It's it's olive studium wines and now we know what his favorite little treatise is little temple
And we realize when we look through the records that we found tiger [mats] before
He'd been drawing supplies for his family or [wood] [looked] like that on the cheap on the quiet
Trying to hoodwink that authorities back in York
So it all builds up a little bit of a character of this guy who is here?
You're getting to know him. You know it was from you know [what] likes to be you know where he lives?
You following him around and it's a great thing you only mentioned. I'm only
The ordinary room tradesman [really] are we you're going to leave the bars only
the [brewer] and practice for the
Candles in charge the [pieces] the farm assistants. You know all these people are mentioned if you take this very short
[wandering] very [walk] five or six lines on it, but you know
Wonderful information that they produce a new word to describe British
Britt to Chile now. That is a
appetizing diminutive as I say
It means wretched little bits well before bros would put the absurd name to the rich
And actually [at] which a very rarely mentioned in the travels and there it is it's ridiculous. Good stuff
Over 900 writing tablets have been discovered at Vindolanda a new ones are still being found
Some are in fragments
others surprisingly intact
you can get an indication of
What they like from [this] little ratchet is here
Which shows you about size for Modern?
Postcard about the same thickness
Notches in the Top
threading together
With a piece [of] thin level just to keep things held together the dress would go on the outside
Just a simple address there and then inside
the writing and we have found
Amongst the writing tablets a lot of the iron nails
We have two pens like this with the wooden shank and the nib still attached
And we have made a replica of this and it does [write] perfectly
The great thing about [traveling] long Hadrian's wall is that their museums dotted around?
Like this one a Chester's fought all stacked with wonderful artifacts
and
From we know that the pen was as important the Roman Empire's sword
And that it wasn't just the officers who [could] write I?
love this
It's a tile from quarry with an inscription on which must have been done and the claim is still sought and the bottom line
Translates as read and good luck to you
It's a lovely idea isn't it that there were two workmen there one teaching the other to read Perhaps during their beer break
It's important to remember that the Romans actually brought
Writing to the regimes there was very little if any writing before the romans came
So they're responsible for a written language and of in Jalandhar letters are
Very important because they're [the] first
example we've had of
Ordinary Letter writing
Whereas inscriptions will give us messages
you've got long discursive narratives in the land a little to really giving us first and
Information on what it was like to be a soldier this from you
Octavius to his brother candidates
greetings I
have several times written to you and have bought about
5,000 Madhav ease of brain on account of which I need cash a
Missus Amisom cash at least 500 Denarii the result will be that
I shall lose what I've laid [out] as a deposit that will be embarrassed
The height to ride her catterick and write him. What is without wagon?
Ordering in vast quantities of grain and the [hive's] Runners water you say account
Take [Giga] meals down to country to take that wagon don't feei [Mollison]
basically because [Rocha] [Bloody] wolf
Now you know it's the manner in which
Day now the country can you?
Do [Viii] my license, and what are we tailed?
When we're educated in Britain from Lady Bird series onwards
[to] the vestibules and [Cassowary] [Elsa] [difficult] Fantastic roads
The vins London right intense give us much more than a Snapshot of life in Roman Army
Many of the letters were found next to the ruins of the commanding officers house a man called Flavius [Carrie] [Alice]
Among them a letter addressed to his wife leopard inna
Claudius [Avira] to her Lap adina
greetings on
The third day before the ides of september sister for the day of [the] [celebration] of my birthday
[I] give you a warm invitation to make sure that you come [to] us to make the day more enjoyable
for [me] by your arrival
Give my greetings to your Carrie alice
My Alias and my little son, send you their greetings
You see here [that] is main part of the lectures you have a very good hand. Which is probably the hammer described?
Severa got to write the main probably letter for her. What's really interesting is that the end of the letter?
[Gaudiya] severe has added the closing greeting she four lines of our crabby looking writing
She's added this treasure in her own hand I
Shall expect you sister farewell sister my dearest soul as I hope to prosper and hail
it is
extremely rare
[I'm] [texting] that you can be sure that the handwriting is that earthy?
[alter] of the latter myself and the fact that it's a woman writing is very unusual indeed as well
and this must be the earliest example [certainly] ferrell in Britain the earliest example of
Handwriting a violin probably the earliest known example of latin [handwriting] by [a] woman in the world
But could another piece of evidence from the commander's house at Vindolanda
possibly tell us even [more] about lepidus family
This is a tiny
Toddlers boot
It's got Latticework up
quite an expensive piece [of] footwear
again the studs
but if you look at this very carefully you can see
How the child walked over to one side enormous?
feel in your hand the shape of the child's foot now because this is such an expensive item for [12] the
Researcher who?
researches the leather from [Vindolanda]
how the theory [that] perhaps this belonged to one of the children of
Silesia Leper Dina and her husband surrealism
On the letters between [Leppa] Dean and her friend Claudia Severa and the husband's carry artists and workers
Tell us that the two men working hunters with an interest in gone breeding
if you can imagine going through your waste paper baskets
And I found that bits and pieces of you torn and shredded just
glimpses of your life that you allowed me to see through the
Pieces of written information that you've thrown away, and that's what we're getting at the [writing-table]
It's the ultimate
Noisiness, but it's a wonderful feeling
the Vindolanda writing tablets [introduced] us to some of the roman characters who lived along this northern Frontier and
Give us an incredibly detailed insight into their lives
But none of the [letters] helped resolve one important mystery. Why did a dream over warm?
Haven for very crew texting, and I don't think we can describe a single purpose to it
It's clearly both a physical and a symbolic value
it's also a way of channeling and
controlling
people
moving around on either side of the wall, so it's basically rome saying I'm
Wearing charge we have built this [barry]. We have Gateways through it, but we are in control. What happens on either side of it
Some experts believe that a war was a customs post
others a military barrier
But the might be another simple answer as to why the wall was built
Hadrian knew by all good Roman generals that
soldiers, especially very large numbers of Soldiers together [if] they won't kept busy they could be troublesome they can become mutinous and
What back away could there be of keeping the huge?
Garrison Britain busy for a period of six seven eight years than to shift several million tons of stone
So was it just an enormous white elephant?
The exact reason Hadrian built is frontier is one mystery still unsolved
But whatever its purpose the walls impact on the countryside is huge
for hundreds of years it marked the Northernmost Boundary of the Roman Empire a
Cultural as well as a physical imposition
But like the Empire it stays to the numbers
this is banks turret one of the last standing sections of the wall as you travel west and
From here to the sea almost 25 miles. There's hardly a trace of it left
By the early years of the fifth century
Roman rule was drawing to a close and despite the power that it had represented for the [three] [hundred] years
Hadrian's wall slipped into obscurity
Most of the Soldiers [were] withdrawn to defend the empire [at] a rome
It held in the end of what had been at times of Bloody occupation of britain
Today there are whole sections of Hadrian's wall that have disappeared completely?
And that's because after the Romans had left people started to recycle the war to use [it] stones for other buildings
like this one Lanna cost priory
The war was [the] ultimate symbol of Roman military power in Britain
So it's ironic the part of it has ended up making this religious building
Although the Romans brought with [them] many skills and technological advances and introduced reading and writing to the country
That's only half the story
There's very little evidence of the daily lives of the local Britons [longer] wharf
And that's because the Romans were also a brutal military occupying force
Who wrote the local people out of their own history?
So what were the romans bringers of civilization of Brutal conquerors?
They're certainly not my favorite people in history, but the debate continues
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時間凝望:哈德良長城 (BBC Timewatch - Hadrian's Wall)

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Amy.Lin 發佈於 2018 年 8 月 10 日
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