B2 中高級 英國腔 4955 分類 收藏
開始影片後,點擊或框選字幕可以立即查詢單字
字庫載入中…
回報字幕錯誤
Many of us will experience some kind of trauma during our lifetime.
Sometimes, we escape with no long-term effects.
But for millions of us, those experiences linger,
causing symptoms like flashbacks,
nightmares,
and negative thoughts that interfere with everyday life.
This phenomenon, called post-traumatic stress disorder,
or PTSD,
isn't a personal failing;
rather, it's a treatable malfunction of certain biological mechanisms
that allow us to cope with dangerous experiences.
To understand PTSD,
we first need to understand how the brain processes a wide range of ordeals,
including the death of a loved one,
domestic violence,
injury or illness,
abuse,
rape,
war,
car accidents,
and natural disasters.
These events can bring on feelings of danger and helplessness,
which activate the brain's alarm system,
known as the “fight-flight-freeze” response.
When this alarm sounds,
the hypothalamic, pituitary, and adrenal systems,
known as the HPA axis,
work together to send signals to the parasympathetic nervous system.
That's the network that communicates with adrenal glands and internal organs
to help regulate functions like heart rate,
digestion,
and respiration.
These signals start a chemical cascade
that floods the body with several different stress hormones,
causing physiological changes that prepare the body to defend itself.
Our heart rate speeds up,
breathing quickens,
and muscles tense.
Even after a crisis is over,
escalated levels of stress hormones may last for days,
contributing to jittery feelings,
nightmares,
and other symptoms.
For most people, these experiences disappear within a few days to two weeks
as their hormone levels stabilize.
But a small percentage of those who experience trauma
have persistent problems
—sometimes vanishing temporarily only to resurface months later.
We don't completely understand what's happening in the brain,
but one theory is that the stress hormone cortisol
may be continuously activating the “fight-flight-freeze” response
while reducing overall brain functioning, leading to a number of negative symptoms.
These symptoms often fall into four categories:
intrusive thoughts, like dreams and flashbacks,
avoiding reminders of the trauma,
negative thoughts and feelings, like fear, anger, and guilt,
and “reactive” symptoms like irritability and difficulty sleeping.
Not everyone has all these symptoms,
or experiences them to the same extent and intensity.
When problems last more than a month, PTSD is often diagnosed.
Genetics,
on-going overwhelming stress,
and many risk factors like preexisting mental illnesses
or lack of emotional support,
likely play a role in determining who will experience PTSD.
But the underlying cause is still a medical mystery.
A major challenge of coping with PTSD is sensitivity to triggers,
physical and emotional stimuli
that the brain associates with the original trauma.
These can be everyday sensations that aren't inherently dangerous
but prompt powerful physical and emotional reactions.
For example, the smell of a campfire
could evoke the memory of being trapped in a burning house.
For someone with PTSD,
that memory activates the same neurochemical cascade
as the original event.
That then stirs up the same feelings of panic and helplessness
as if they're experiencing the trauma all over again.
Trying to avoid these triggers, which are sometimes unpredictable,
can lead to isolation.
That can leave people feeling invalidated,
ignored,
or misunderstood,
like a pause button has been pushed on their lives
while the rest of the world continues around them.
But, there are options.
If you think you might be suffering from PTSD,
the first step is an evaluation with a mental health professional
who can direct you towards the many resources available.
Psychotherapy can be very effective for PTSD,
helping patients better understand their triggers.
And certain medications can make symptoms more manageable,
as can self- care practices, like mindfulness and regular exercise.
What if you notice signs of PTSD in a friend or family member?
Social support, acceptance, and empathy are key to helping and recovery.
Let them know you believe their account of what they're experiencing,
and that you don't blame them for their reactions.
If they're open to it,
encourage them to seek evaluation and treatment.
PTSD has been called “the hidden wound”
because it comes without outward physical signs.
But even if it's an invisible disorder, it doesn't have to be a silent one.
提示:點選文章或是影片下面的字幕單字,可以直接快速翻譯喔!

載入中…

【TED-Ed】 一同來認識創傷後壓力症候群,並且克服創傷! (The psychology of post-traumatic stress disorder - Joelle Rabow Maletis)

4955 分類 收藏
April Lu 發佈於 2018 年 7 月 7 日    April Lu 翻譯    Evangeline 審核
看更多推薦影片
  1. 1. 單字查詢

    在字幕上選取單字即可即時查詢單字喔!

  2. 2. 單句重複播放

    可重複聽取一句單句,加強聽力!

  3. 3. 使用快速鍵

    使用影片快速鍵,讓學習更有效率!

  4. 4. 關閉語言字幕

    進階版練習可關閉字幕純聽英文哦!

  5. 5. 內嵌播放器

    可以將英文字幕學習播放器內嵌到部落格等地方喔

  6. 6. 展開播放器

    可隱藏右方全文及字典欄位,觀看影片更舒適!

  1. 英文聽力測驗

    挑戰字幕英文聽力測驗!

  1. 點擊展開筆記本讓你看的更舒服

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔