中級 美國腔 6356 分類 收藏
In the ocean's depths, two titans wage battle:
the sperm whale and the colossal squid.
Sperm whales use echolocation to hunt these squid for food,
but even against this gigantic animal, squid can put up an impressive fight.
Scientists know this because on the bodies of washed-up whales,
they frequently find huge, round suction scars,
emblazoned there by large, grasping tentacles.
Ranging in size from this giant's impressive 14 meters
to the 2.5 centimeters of the southern pygmy squid,
these creatures fall into the group of animals known as cephalopods.
There are about 500 squid species worldwide,
and they live in all the world's oceans,
making them a reliable food source for whales,
and even other squid.
Indeed, squid themselves are fearsome ocean predators.
But their most extraordinary adaptations
are those that have evolved to help them thwart their predators.
Squid, which can be found mainly
in estuarine, deep-sea, and open-water habitats,
often swim together in shoals.
Being out in the open without anywhere to hide makes them vulnerable,
so as a first line of defense, they rely on large, well-developed eyes.
In the colossal squid, these are the size of dinner plates,
the largest known eyes in the animal kingdom.
When it's dark or the water is murky, however,
squid rely on a secondary sensory system,
made from thousands of tiny hair cells that are only about twelve microns long
and run along their heads and arms.
Each of these hair cells is attached to axons in the nervous system.
Swimming animals create a wake,
so when the hairs on the squid's body detect this motion,
they send a signal to the brain,
which helps it determine the direction of the water's flow.
This way, a squid can sense an oncoming predator in even the dimmest waters.
Aware of the threat, a squid can then mask itself from a predator.
Squid skin contains thousands of tiny organs called chromatophores,
each made of black, brown, red or yellow pigments and ringed in muscle.
Reflecting cells beneath the chromatophores
mirror the squid's surroundings, enabling it to blend in.
So, when the muscles contract,
the color of the pigment is exposed,
whereas when the muscles relax the colors are hidden.
Each of these chromatophores
is under the individual control of the squid's nervous system,
so while some expand, others remain contracted.
That enables countershading,
where the underside of the squid is lighter than the top,
to eliminate a silhouette that a predator might spy from below.
Some predators, however, like the whales and dolphins,
get around this ruse by using sound waves to detect a squid's camouflaged form.
Not to be outfoxed, the squid still has two more tricks up its sleeves.
The first involves ink, produced inside its mantle.
Squid ink is made mostly of mucus and melanin,
which produces its dark coloring.
When squid eject the ink,
they either use it to make a large smokescreen
that completely blocks the predator's view
or a blob that roughly mimics the size and shape of the squid.
This creates a phantom form, called a pseudomorph,
that tricks the predator into thinking it's the real squid.
As a final touch, squid rely on jet propulsion
to rapidly shoot away from their hunters,
reaching speeds of up to 25 miles per hour and moving meters away in mere seconds.
This makes them Earth's fastest invertebrates.
Some squid species have also developed unique adaptive behaviors.
The deep-sea vampire squid, when startled,
uses its webbed arms to make a cape it hides behind.
The tiny bobtail, on the other hand, tosses sand over its body
as it burrows away from prying eyes.
The Pacific flying squid uses jet propulsion for another purpose:
to launch itself right out of the water.
Squids' inventive adaptations have allowed them
to proliferate for over 500 million years.
Even now, we're still uncovering new species.
And as we do,
we're bound to discover even more about how these stealthy cephalopods
have mastered survival in the deep and unforgiving sea.



【TED-Ed】軟趴趴的烏賊是如何躲過或是擊退獵食者的? (How squids outsmart their predators - Carly Anne York)

6356 分類 收藏
April Lu 發佈於 2018 年 7 月 11 日    April Lu 翻譯    Evangeline 審核


你看過在水裡游來游去的章魚嗎?或是你摸過章魚嗎?章魚摸起來滑溜溜、軟趴趴的,感覺弱不禁風,那牠們在大自然界是如何防禦自己的呢?跟著小 V 來一探究竟吧!

1put up0:24
put up 是一個用途廣泛的片語,意思有「舉起、建造、安裝、張貼、進行 (抵抗) 」,在本影片中則著重於「進行 (抵抗) 」的字義。
Put up your hands if you can hear me!

He is in charge of putting up posters on campus.

【TED】辯論:這個世界需要核能嗎?(關心核四必看) TED 2000 Debate: Does the world need nuclear energy?

2to have something up one's sleeve3:20
sleeves 這個名詞的意思是「袖子」, to have something up one's sleeve 直譯意思為「袖子裡有東西」,延伸義則為「某人暗中還留有一招、暗藏錦囊妙計」。
Don't worry. I still have something up my sleeve.

【TED】雷格‧布雷格門: 貧窮不是個性的缺陷,而是缺少現金 (Poverty isn't a lack of character; it's a lack of cash | Rutger Bregman)

mimic 詞性非常多種,當它用作名詞時,有「仿造品、善於模仿的人、善於模仿人的動物、滑稽演員」的意思;作動詞用時,則有「模仿」的意思,做形容詞時則是「模仿的」。
Parrots are very good at mimicking human voices.

你有沒有想過...植物會思考嗎? (Can Plants Think?)

launch 當動詞使用時,有「啟動、發射、讓 (船) 下水」的意思。當名詞使用時,則可以代表「發表會」。
The first satellite was launched by the Soviet Union in 1957.
第一顆人造衛星是由蘇聯在 1957 年發射的。

The launch of the new products is on July 28th.

【職場的進擊】向賈伯斯學習高超的簡報技巧 (Present Like Steve Jobs)

5be bound to4:46
bound 是動詞 bind (綁定、約定) 的過去分詞, be bound to 則有「未來必定會發生」的意思,要注意的一點是  be bound to 的後頭動詞要接原形。若是改成 be bound for ,則是「準備前往某處」的意思。
Those who have the right attitudes are bound to succeed.

This bus is bound for The National Palace Museum.

【生物小常識】洋蔥到底怎麼把我們惹哭的? (Why Do Onions Make Us Cry? - Instant Egghead #62)

章魚外表看起來那麼弱,原來事實上不好欺負,小 V 真的是十分佩服牠們呢!下次你看到章魚時,一定會對牠們另眼相看吧!

文/ April Lu




  1. 1. 單字查詢


  2. 2. 單句重複播放


  3. 3. 使用快速鍵


  4. 4. 關閉語言字幕


  5. 5. 內嵌播放器


  6. 6. 展開播放器


  1. 英文聽力測驗


  1. 點擊展開筆記本讓你看的更舒服

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔