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  • It was the dawn of 1863, and London's not-yet-opened subway system, the first of its kind in the world, had the city in an uproar.

    1863 年黎明,第一個擁有地鐵系統的都市倫敦,地鐵雖尚未營運,整座城市已在喧囂之中。

  • Digging a hole under the city and putting a railroad in it seemed the stuff of dreams.


  • Pub drinkers scoffed at the idea and a local minister accused the railway company of trying to break into hell.


  • Most people simply thought the project, which cost more than 100 million dollars in today's money, would never work.


  • But it did.


  • On January 10, 1863, 30,000 people ventured underground to travel on the world's first subway on a four-mile stretch of line in London.

    1863 年 1 月 10 日,三萬個民眾在世界上第一座地鐵展開冒險,當時倫敦鐵道長達四哩。

  • After three years of construction and a few setbacks, the Metropolitan Railway was ready for business.


  • The city's officials were much relieved.


  • They'd been desperate to find a way to reduce the terrible congestion on the roads.


  • London, at the time the world's largest and most prosperous city, was in a permanent state of gridlock, with carts, costermongers, cows, and commuters jamming the roads.


  • It'd been a Victorian visionary, Charles Pearson, who first thought of putting railways under the ground.

    Charles Pearson 是維多利亞時代第一個想到將鐵道放到地底下的前瞻者。

  • He'd lobbied for underground trains throughout the 1840s, but opponents thought the idea was impractical since the railroads at the time only had short tunnels under hills.

    1840 年代他大力鼓吹地底鐵道系統,但反對者認為這是個不切實際的想法,因為當時的鐵路在山丘下只建有很短的隧道。

  • How could you get a railway through the center of a city?


  • The answer was a simple system called "cut and cover."


  • Workers had to dig a huge trench, construct a tunnel out of brick archways, and then refill the hole over the newly built tunnel.


  • Because this was disruptive and required the demolition of buildings above the tunnels, most of the line went under existing roads.


  • Of course, there were accidents.


  • On one occasion, a heavy rainstorm flooded the nearby sewers and burst through the excavation, delaying the project by several months.


  • But as soon as the Metropolitan Railway opened, Londoners rushed in to ride the new trains.


  • The Metropolitan quickly became a vital part of London's transport system.


  • Additional lines were soon built, and new suburbs grew around the stations.


  • Big department stores opened next to the railroad, and the railway company even created attractions, like a 30-story Ferris wheel in Earls Court to bring in tourists by train.

    大型百貨公司都開在地鐵旁;鐵路公司甚至創造出新景點,像是位於倫敦伯爵宮、30 層樓高的摩天輪就是倚賴地鐵帶來的觀光人潮。

  • Within 30 years, London's subway system covered 80 kilometers, with lines in the center of town running in tunnels, and suburban trains operating on the surface, often on embankments.

    30 年內倫敦地鐵範圍達 80 公里,包括市中心下的隧道,以及在市郊陸地上、路堤上營運的鐵路。

  • But London was still growing, and everyone wanted to be connected to the system.


  • By the late 1880s, the city had become too dense with buildings, sewers, and electric cables for the "cut and cover" technique, so a new system had to be devised.

    到了 1880 年代晚期,城市的建築、下水道和管線密集度對於要實施「明挖回填式」實在太高了,所以必須建一個新的系統。

  • Using a machine called the Greathead Shield, a team of just 12 workers could bore through the earth, carving deep underground tunnels through the London clay.

    他們使用一種稱做「潛盾隧道」的機械,只要一組 12 個工人便可以探鑽,在倫敦土地下挖掘更深的隧道。

  • These new lines, called tubes, were at varying depths, but usually about 25 meters deeper than the "cut and cover" lines.

    這些稱作「管道」的新路線深度各不相同,但通常會比採「明挖回填式」的隧道還深 25 公尺左右。

  • This meant their construction didn't disturb the surface, and it was possible to dig under buildings.


  • The first tube line, the City and South London, opened in 1890 and proved so successful that half a dozen more lines were built in the next 20 years.

    第一條路線是「城市及南倫敦鐵路」於1890 年開放且相當成功,在接下來 20 年內又另外興建了超過六條的路線。

  • This clever new technology was even used to burrow several lines under London's river, the Thames.


  • By the early 20th century, Budapest, Berlin, Paris, and New York had all built subways of their own.

    20 世紀初,布達佩斯、柏林、巴黎、紐約的地鐵系統也都完工。

  • And today, with more than 160 cities in 55 countries using underground rails to combat congestion.

    在今日,有超過 55 個國家、160 個城市都運用地鐵來紓解交通。

  • We can thank Charles Pearson and the Metropolitan Railway for getting us started on the right track.

    這都要感謝 Charles Pearson 和都市地鐵系統,讓我們採取正確有效的做法。

It was the dawn of 1863, and London's not-yet-opened subway system, the first of its kind in the world, had the city in an uproar.

1863 年黎明,第一個擁有地鐵系統的都市倫敦,地鐵雖尚未營運,整座城市已在喧囂之中。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 地鐵 隧道 倫敦 路線 城市

【TED-Ed】世界上第一條地鐵是如何建造的? (How the world's first subway system was built - Christian Wolmar)

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    Jenny 發佈於 2018 年 07 月 04 日