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It was the dawn of 1863,
and London's not-yet-opened subway system,
the first of its kind in the world, had the city in an uproar.
Digging a hole under the city and putting a railroad in it
seemed the stuff of dreams.
Pub drinkers scoffed at the idea
and a local minister accused the railway company of trying to break into hell.
Most people simply thought the project,
which cost more than 100 million dollars in today's money,
would never work.
But it did.
On January 10, 1863,
30,000 people ventured underground to travel on the world's first subway
on a four-mile stretch of line in London.
After three years of construction and a few setbacks,
the Metropolitan Railway was ready for business.
The city's officials were much relieved.
They'd been desperate to find a way
to reduce the terrible congestion on the roads.
London, at the time the world's largest and most prosperous city,
was in a permanent state of gridlock,
with carts,
costermongers,
cows,
and commuters jamming the roads.
It'd been a Victorian visionary, Charles Pearson,
who first thought of putting railways under the ground.
He'd lobbied for underground trains throughout the 1840s,
but opponents thought the idea was impractical
since the railroads at the time only had short tunnels under hills.
How could you get a railway through the center of a city?
The answer was a simple system called "cut and cover."
Workers had to dig a huge trench,
construct a tunnel out of brick archways,
and then refill the hole over the newly built tunnel.
Because this was disruptive
and required the demolition of buildings above the tunnels,
most of the line went under existing roads.
Of course, there were accidents.
On one occasion, a heavy rainstorm flooded the nearby sewers
and burst through the excavation,
delaying the project by several months.
But as soon as the Metropolitan Railway opened,
Londoners rushed in to ride the new trains.
The Metropolitan quickly became a vital part of London's transport system.
Additional lines were soon built,
and new suburbs grew around the stations.
Big department stores opened next to the railroad,
and the railway company even created attractions,
like a 30-story Ferris wheel in Earls Court to bring in tourists by train.
Within 30 years,
London's subway system covered 80 kilometers,
with lines in the center of town running in tunnels,
and suburban trains operating on the surface, often on embankments.
But London was still growing,
and everyone wanted to be connected to the system.
By the late 1880s,
the city had become too dense with buildings, sewers, and electric cables
for the "cut and cover" technique,
so a new system had to be devised.
Using a machine called the Greathead Shield,
a team of just 12 workers could bore through the earth,
carving deep underground tunnels through the London clay.
These new lines, called tubes, were at varying depths,
but usually about 25 meters deeper than the "cut and cover" lines.
This meant their construction didn't disturb the surface,
and it was possible to dig under buildings.
The first tube line, the City and South London,
opened in 1890 and proved so successful
that half a dozen more lines were built in the next 20 years.
This clever new technology was even used to burrow several lines
under London’s river, the Thames.
By the early 20th century,
Budapest,
Berlin,
Paris,
and New York
had all built subways of their own.
And today, with more than 160 cities in 55 countries
using underground rails to combat congestion,
we can thank Charles Pearson and the Metropolitan Railway
for getting us started on the right track.
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【TED-Ed】世界上第一條地鐵是如何建造的? (How the world's first subway system was built - Christian Wolmar)

14513 分類 收藏
Jenny 發佈於 2018 年 7 月 5 日    Jenny 翻譯    Evangeline 審核

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想知道倫敦第一條地鐵 (同時也是全世界第一條) 是怎麼建造的嗎?快來看這部影片來了解吧!

1dawn0:07
dawn 的原意是「黎明、破曉」。若延伸「開端」的意思,常見於 at the dawn of 這個片語中,同義詞是 at the wake of
The dawn of the Space Age arrived when the USSR successfully launched Sputnik 1.
蘇聯成功發射史普尼克 1 號開啟了太空時代。


dawn 當動詞使用,見於 dawn on 這個片語中,是「恍然大悟」的意思。
The truth finally dawned on us.
我們終於明白真相。


*同場加映:
愛神來了我知道!愛的科學原理 (The Science of Love)


2kind0:13
kind 作為名詞使用是「種類」的意思,同義詞有 typevariety
Beware of the kind of people that love to win even at the expense of others.
小心好勝心過強,即使傷害他人也要贏的那種人。


one of a kind 則是「獨一無二」的意思。
Some people truly seem to be one of a kind to us.
對我們來說,有些人真的是獨一無二的。


3stretch0:47
stretch 在這裡是形容土地、區域,或時間連綿的量詞。
The last stretch of the trail was tough.
不到的最後一段很困難。


stretch 作為名詞使用時,也有「過度解釋、過度解讀的論述」的意思。
What you've just said is a bit of a stretch.
你剛講的話有點過度解釋了。


*同場加映:
【TED-Ed】這世上到底有幾個宇宙呢?(How many universes are there? - Chris Anderson)


4disruptive 1:52
disruptive 是「破壞的」、「干擾的」的意思。
A sporatic work schedule can be very disruptive to sleep quality.
不規律的工作時程可能會干擾睡眠品質。


其他相似的單字還有 invasive 「入侵式的」,和 intrusive「干擾的」、「侵入的」。
Invasive species wreak havoc on the local ecosystem, because of the non-existence of their natural predators.
入侵物種會造成生態浩劫,因為他們的狩獵者不存在。

Some of the questions the interviewer asked were very intrusive.
面試官問的某些問題十分侵犯隱私。


5vital 2:18
vital 的意思是「至關重要的」、「為持生命所需的」。一國的「核心利益」為 vital interestvital signs 的意思則是「生命跡象」。
Trump's decision to suspend joint military drills with South Korea confirmed the country's fear that it is not of vital interest to the United States.
川普決定凍結與南韓的聯合軍演對該國而言,證實了南韓非美國核心利益的恐懼。

Nurses in intensive care are responsible for monitoring the vital signs of patients.
加護病房的護理師負責監控病人的生命跡象。


*同場加映:
【TED-Ed】珍貴的水資源: 認識我們所面臨的問題 (Fresh water scarcity: An introduction to the problem - Christiana Z. Peppard)


當今我們享受到的各種便利,原來如此得來不易!很難想像以前世界級的大城市沒有大眾運輸是怎麼生活的⋯⋯

文/ Rachel Kung

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