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  • I was only nine

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Sylvia He

  • when my grandfather first described to me the horrors he witnessed six years earlier

    我只有九歲的時候,

  • when human stampedes killed 39 people

    祖母第一次向我描述了 她在六年前目擊的恐怖情景,

  • in our hometown of Nashik, India.

    蜂擁的人群造成了 39 人被踩死,

  • It was during the 2003 Nashik Kumbh Mela,

    地點在我們的家鄉,印度的納西克。

  • one of the world's largest religious gatherings.

    那是 2003 年納西克大壺節期間,

  • Every 12 years, over 30 million Hindu worshippers

    世界上最大的宗教集會之一。

  • descend upon our city --

    每 12 年,就有超過 三千萬印度教參拜者

  • which is built only for 1.5 million people --

    突然造訪我們的城市──

  • and stay for 45 days.

    城市設計的容量為一百五十萬人──

  • The main purpose is to wash away all their sins

    他們會停留 45 天。

  • by bathing in the river Godavari.

    主要的目的,是要洗淨他們的罪惡,

  • And stampedes may easily happen

    方式是在哥達瓦里河中洗澡。

  • because a high-density crowd moves at a slow pace.

    踩死人的事件很容易發生,

  • Apart from Nashik, this event happens in three other places in India,

    因為高密度的人群以低速度在移動。

  • with varying frequency,

    除了納西克,印度還有 其他三個地方也有這項節慶,

  • and between 2001 and 2014,

    舉辦頻率不同,

  • over 2,400 lives have been lost in stampedes at these events.

    在 2001 年到 2014 年間,

  • What saddened me the most

    在這些活動中就有 超過 2400 人被踩死。

  • is seeing people around me resigning to the city's fate

    最讓我感傷的是,

  • in witnessing the seemingly inevitable deaths of dozens

    看到我身邊的人 聽任這個城市的命運,

  • at every Kumbh Mela.

    在每次大壺節都要目擊 似乎無法避免的

  • I sought to change this,

    數十起死亡。

  • and I thought, why can't I try to find a solution to this?

    我想要改變這狀況,

  • Because I knew it is wrong.

    我心想,我為什麼不找個解決方案?

  • Having learned coding at an early age and being a maker,

    因為我知道這是錯的。

  • I considered the wild idea --

    我早期曾經學過程式, 加上身為製造者,

  • (Laughter)

    我有個很狂妄的點子──

  • [Makers always find a way]

    (笑聲)

  • I considered the wild idea of building a system

    〔製造者總會找到出路〕

  • that would help regulate the flow of people

    我的狂野點子就是要建立一個系統,

  • and use it in the next Kumbh Mela in 2015,

    可以協助控管人的流量,

  • to have fewer stampedes and, hopefully, fewer deaths.

    並用在下一次的 2015 年大壺節中,

  • It seemed like a mission impossible,

    減少蜂湧的情況, 希望也能減少死亡人數。

  • a dream too big,

    這似乎是個不可能的任務,

  • especially for a 15-year-old,

    這個夢想太大了,

  • yet that dream came true in 2015,

    特別是對一個 15 歲男孩而言,

  • when not only did we succeed

    然而,這個夢想在 2015 年實現了,

  • in reducing the stampedes and their intensity,

    我們不僅成功減少了

  • but we marked 2015

    蜂湧的情況以及人潮的密度,

  • as the first Nashik Kumbh Mela to have zero stampedes.

    我們還讓 2015 年成為

  • (Applause)

    第一個沒有人被踩死的 納西克大壺節。

  • It was the first time in recorded history

    (掌聲)

  • that this event passed without any casualties.

    那是歷史記錄中第一次,

  • How did we do it?

    這個活動到結束都沒有傷亡。

  • It all started when I joined an innovation workshop

    我們怎麼做到的?

  • by MIT Media Lab in 2014

    一切始於我加入一個創新研討會,

  • called the Kumbhathon

    是麻省理工學院媒體實驗室 在 2014 年辦的,

  • that aimed at solving challenges faced at the grand scale of Kumbh Mela.

    叫做大壺馬拉松 (Kumbhathon)。

  • Now, we figured out to solve the stampede problem,

    目標是要解決在大壺節這麼 大規模的節慶所面臨的難題。

  • we wanted to know only three things:

    我們想出了要如何 解決踩死人的問題,

  • the number of people, the location,

    我們只想知道三樣資訊:

  • and the rate of the flow of people per minute.

    人數、地點,

  • So we started to look for technologies that would help us get these three things.

    以及每分鐘的人流量。

  • Can we distribute radio-frequency tokens to identify people?

    我們就開始尋找有什麼技術 能協助我們取得這三項資訊。

  • We figured out that it would be too expensive and impractical

    我們能不能分發無線電頻率的 憑證來識別每個人?

  • to distribute 30 million tags.

    我們覺得這樣成本太高且不實際,

  • Can you use CCTV cameras with image-processing techniques?

    很難去分發三千萬個吊牌。

  • Again, too expensive for that scale,

    我們能不能用閉路電視攝影機 搭配影像處理技術?

  • along with the disadvantages of being non-portable

    一樣,用在這麼大規模也太貴了,

  • and being completely useless in the case of rain,

    還有個缺點就是無法帶著走,

  • which is a common thing to happen in Kumbh Mela.

    在下雨時就完全沒用了,

  • Can we use cell phone tower data?

    而在大壺節常常會下雨。

  • It sounds like the perfect solution,

    我們能用手機信號塔的資料嗎?

  • but the funny part is,

    聽起來是完美的解決方案,

  • most of the people do not carry cell phones

    但好笑的部分是,

  • in events like Kumbh Mela.

    大部分的人不會帶手機

  • Also, the data wouldn't have been granular enough for us.

    到大壺節這類活動中。

  • So we wanted something that was real-time,

    此外,資料對我們來說也不夠精細。

  • low-cost, sturdy and waterproof,

    所以我們想要的必須要即時、

  • and it was easy to get the data for processing.

    低成本、耐用、防水,

  • So we built Ashioto,

    且要很容易取得資料來做處理。

  • meaning "footstep" in Japanese,

    所以我們建造了 Ashioto,

  • as it consists of a portable mat which has pressure sensors

    在日文的意思是「腳步」,

  • which can count the number of people walking on it,

    它是由可攜式的墊子所構成, 墊子有壓力感測器,

  • and sends the data over the internet

    能夠計算走在上面的人數,

  • to the advanced data analysis software we created.

    透過網路把這資料傳輸

  • The possible errors, like overcounting or double-stepping,

    到我們建造的進階資料分析軟體。

  • were overcome using design interventions.

    我們設計了干預方式,

  • The optimum breadth of the mat was determined to be 18 inches,

    來克服過高估計 或反覆踩踏這類的可能錯誤。

  • after we tested many different versions

    我們決定最理想的 墊子寬度是 18 英吋,

  • and observed the average stride length of a person.

    這是在我們測試了許多不同版本

  • Otherwise, people might step over the sensor.

    並觀察人的平均步距之後決定的。

  • We started with a proof of concept built in three days,

    不然,人們可能會踩超過感測器。

  • made out of cardboard and aluminum foil.

    我們一開始先要證明 這個概念,在三天內

  • (Laughter)

    用厚紙板和鋁箔紙 打造出測試用的樣品。

  • It worked, for real.

    (笑聲)

  • We built another one with aluminum composite panels

    它有用,是真的。

  • and piezoelectric plates,

    我們又用鋁複合板以及壓電板

  • which are plates that generate a small pulse of electricity under pressure.

    再打造了一個樣品,

  • We tested this at 30 different pilots in public,

    壓電板在受到壓力時 會產生出小的電脈衝。

  • in crowded restaurants, in malls, in temples, etc.,

    我們在三十個地點測試了 這個設計,包括公開場所、

  • to see how people reacted.

    擁擠的餐廳、購物中心、廟宇等等,

  • And people let us run these pilots

    看看人們的反應如何。

  • because they were excited to see localites work on problems for the city.

    大家都讓我們做這些測試,

  • I was 15 and my team members were in their early 20s.

    因為他們很興奮能夠看到 當地有人要為城市解決問題。

  • When the sensors were colored,

    我那時十五歲,我的 團隊成員都二十歲出頭。

  • people would get scared and would ask us questions like,

    當感測器加上了顏色,

  • "Will I get electrocuted if I step on this?"

    人們會緊張,問我們像這樣的問題:

  • (Laughter)

    「如果我踩上去會被電擊嗎?」

  • Or, if it was very obvious that it was an electronic sensor on the ground,

    (笑聲)

  • they would just jump over it.

    或者,如果很明顯 地上有個電子感測器,

  • (Laughter)

    他們就會跳過它。

  • So we decided to design a cover for the sensor

    (笑聲)

  • so that people don't have to worry what it is on the ground.

    所以我們決定要為感測器做個罩子,

  • So after some experimentation,

    這樣人們就不用擔心 地上的那個東西是什麼。

  • we decided to use an industrial sensor,

    經過一些實驗之後,

  • used as a safety trigger in hazardous areas

    我們決定使用工業用感測器,

  • as the sensor,

    在危險區域用的安全觸發器

  • and a black neoprene rubber sheet

    來當感測器,

  • as the cover.

    用黑色合成橡膠片

  • Now, another added benefit of using black rubber

    來當外罩。

  • was that dust naturally accumulates over the surface,

    用黑色橡膠的額外好處是

  • eventually camouflaging it with the ground.

    塵土會自然在表面上堆積,

  • We also had to make sure that the sensor is no higher than 12 millimeters.

    最終會成為它的保護色, 看來就像地板。

  • Otherwise, people might trip over it,

    我們也得要確保感測器 不能高過 12 公釐。

  • which in itself would cause stampedes.

    不然可能會絆倒人,

  • (Laughter)

    結果是它造成人被踩死。

  • We don't want that.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    我們不希望這樣。

  • So we were able to design a sensor which was only 10 millimeters thick.

    (笑聲)

  • Now the data is sent to the server in real time,

    所以,我們設計了一個 感測器,厚度只有 10 公釐。

  • and a heat map is plotted,

    資料會被即時傳送到伺服器,

  • taking into account all the active devices on the ground.

    畫出熱區圖,

  • The authorities could be alerted if the crowd movement slowed down

    考量所有在地上的已啟動裝置。

  • or if the crowd density moved beyond a desired threshold.

    如果群眾的移動速度慢下來, 或是群眾密度超過希望的標準,

  • We installed five of these mats in the Nashik Kumbh Mela 2015,

    當權機關就會收到警訊。

  • and counted over half a million people

    我們在 2015 年的納西克 大壺節安裝了五個墊子,

  • in 18 hours,

    計算到的人數

  • ensuring that the data was available in real time at various checkpoints,

    在十八小時內就有五十萬人,

  • ensuring a safe flow of people.

    確保可以從各檢查站即時取得資料,

  • Now, this system, eventually, with other innovations,

    確保人流的安全。

  • is what helped prevent stampedes altogether at that festival.

    最終,就是這個系統和其他的創新

  • The code used by Ashioto during Kumbh Mela

    一起協助避免了在 該節慶中踩死人的意外。

  • will soon be made publicly available, free to use for anyone.

    在大壺節中所使用的 Ashioto 程式碼,

  • I would be glad if someone used this code

    很快就會被公開, 提供大家免費使用。

  • to make many more gatherings safer.

    我很希望看到有人能用這程式碼

  • Having succeeded at Kumbh Mela

    來讓更多聚會變得更安全。

  • has inspired me to help others who may also suffer from stampedes.

    在大壺節的成功鼓舞了我,

  • The design of the system makes it adaptable

    讓我想要協助其他可能 受到蜂湧群眾所苦的人。

  • to pretty much any event

    這個系統的設計,

  • that involves an organized gathering of people.

    幾乎可以適用在任何活動上,

  • And my new dream is to improve, adapt and deploy the system

    有組織的人類聚會相關活動都可以。

  • all over the world to prevent loss of life and ensure a safe flow of people,

    而我的新夢想是要改善、 改造,並部署這個系統,

  • because every human soul is precious,

    推行到全世界,來預防 人命損失,確保人流安全,

  • whether at concerts or sporting events,

    因為每個人的生命都是可貴的,

  • the Maha Kumbh Mela in Allahabad,

    不論是在演唱會或運動比賽、

  • the Hajj in Mecca,

    安拉阿巴德的大壺節、

  • the Shia procession to Karbala

    麥加的朝聖、

  • or at the Vatican City.

    前往卡爾巴拉的什葉遊行,

  • So what do you all think, can we do it?

    或梵蒂岡。

  • (Audience) Yes!

    你們怎麼想?我們能辦得到嗎?

  • Thank you.

    (觀眾)能!

  • (Cheers)

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (歡呼)

I was only nine

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Sylvia He

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 感測器 墊子 資料 節慶 人數

【TED】Nilay Kulkarni:防止人類踩踏的救命發明(防止人類踩踏的救命發明|Nilay Kulkarni) (【TED】Nilay Kulkarni: A life-saving invention that prevents human stampedes (A life-saving invention that prevents human stampedes | Nilay Kulkarni))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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