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  • The President: My fellow Americans,

    總統:我的美國同胞們

  • tonight I want to talk to you about Syria --

    今晚我想跟你們談談敘利亞

  • why it matters, and where we go from here.

    為何它很重要,我們該如何應對

  • Over the past two years,

    過去的兩年來

  • what began as a series of peaceful protests

    從一系列和平抗議開始

  • against the repressive regime of Bashar al-Assad

    對抗巴沙爾·阿薩德(敘利亞總統兼武裝總司令)的專制政權

  • has turned into a brutal civil war.

    已變成殘暴的內戰

  • Over 100,000 people have been killed.

    超過10萬人被殺死

  • Millions have fled the country.

    百萬人逃離他們的國家

  • In that time, America has worked with allies

    那時,美國與盟軍聯合

  • to provide humanitarian support,

    為提供人道的支援

  • to help the moderate opposition,

    為幫助合理的反對力量

  • and to shape a political settlement.

    和形塑一個政治庇護所

  • But I have resisted calls for military action,

    但是我反對武力行動的呼聲

  • because we cannot resolve

    因為我們不能藉由武力解決

  • someone else's civil war through force,

    其他人的內戰

  • particularly after a decade of war in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    特別是經歷了伊拉克和阿富汗十年的戰爭

  • The situation profoundly changed, though, on August 21st,

    然而,在八月二十一號,這個情勢受到深遠地影響

  • when Assad's government gassed to death over a thousand people,

    當阿薩德政府用毒氣導致超過一千人死亡

  • including hundreds of children.

    包括數百位孩子

  • The images from this massacre are sickening: Men, women,

    大屠殺背後的影像相當令人作噁:男人、女人、

  • children lying in rows, killed by poison gas.

    孩童成排,被毒殺

  • Others foaming at the mouth, gasping for breath.

    其他人口吐白沫,窒息而死

  • A father clutching his dead children,

    一位父親緊抱著他死去的孩子

  • imploring them to get up and walk.

    祈求他們起身、醒來

  • On that terrible night, the world saw in gruesome detail

    在那可怕的一夜,全世界從駭人的細節中發現

  • the terrible nature of chemical weapons,

    化學武器的可怕性質

  • and why the overwhelming majority of humanity

    且為什麼人類中的強勢主權

  • has declared them off-limits --

    宣布禁止使用它們

  • a crime against humanity,

    違反人性的罪惡

  • and a violation of the laws of war.

    和對戰爭法的違犯

  • This was not always the case.

    這不是單一案例

  • In World War I, American GIs were among the many thousands

    第一次世界大戰中,美國大兵踏過數以千計

  • killed by deadly gas in the trenches of Europe.

    在歐洲的戰壕裡死於致命毒氣的屍體

  • In World War II, the Nazis used gas

    第二次世界大戰中,納粹用毒氣

  • to inflict the horror of the Holocaust.

    來施以恐怖的大屠殺

  • Because these weapons can kill on a mass scale,

    因為這些武器造成大量的傷亡

  • with no distinction between soldier and infant,

    不論是對士兵或者一般人

  • the civilized world has spent a century working to ban them.

    文明社會花了一個世紀禁止它們

  • And in 1997, the United States Senate

    在1997年,美國參議院

  • overwhelmingly approved an international agreement

    以極高的贊成比通過了一項國際條約

  • prohibiting the use of chemical weapons,

    明文禁止化學武器的使用

  • now joined by 189 governments

    現在有189個國家參與

  • that represent 98 percent of humanity.

    那代表了百分之九十八的人類

  • On August 21st, these basic rules were violated,

    在八月二十一日,這些基本的條款

  • along with our sense of common humanity.

    以及我們普遍的人性遭到違反

  • No one disputes that chemical weapons were used in Syria.

    毫無爭議性地,在敘利亞化學武器被使用

  • The world saw thousands of videos, cell phone pictures,

    全世界看見了數以千計的影片、手機照片

  • and social media accounts from the attack,

    以及社群媒體的描述都是關於這場攻擊的

  • and humanitarian organizations told stories of hospitals

    人權組織述說了醫院的情況

  • packed with people who had symptoms of poison gas.

    裡頭充塞著產生毒氣反應的人們

  • Moreover, we know the Assad regime was responsible.

    此外,我們也清楚明白阿薩德政權對此負有責任

  • In the days leading up to August 21st,

    到八月二十一日為止

  • we know that Assad's chemical weapons personnel prepared

    阿薩德政權私自準備了化學武器

  • for an attack near an area where they mix sarin gas.

    為一場鄰近他們混合沙林毒氣(神經毒劑)地區的攻擊

  • They distributed gasmasks to their troops.

    他們分發面具給自己的軍隊

  • Then they fired rockets from a regime-controlled area

    然後從自己的政權掌控的地方點燃火箭

  • into 11 neighborhoods that the regime

    發射到鄰近的11個區域

  • has been trying to wipe clear of opposition forces.

    他們都是此政權想清掃的反對勢力

  • Shortly after those rockets landed, the gas spread,

    很快地在火箭落地後,毒氣也散播了

  • and hospitals filled with the dying and the wounded.

    醫院充滿了傷殘人士

  • We know senior figures in Assad's military machine

    阿薩德軍隊的高官們

  • reviewed the results of the attack,

    檢視了這場攻擊的結果

  • and the regime increased their shelling

    然後他們增加了火力

  • of the same neighborhoods in the days that followed.

    在接下來的日子裡對先前的這些區域持續轟炸

  • We've also studied samples of blood and hair from people

    我們也檢驗了當地人們的血液與毛髮

  • at the site that tested positive for sarin.

    結果顯示裡面參雜沙林毒素

  • When dictators commit atrocities,

    當這些獨裁者承認暴行

  • they depend upon the world to look the other way

    他們相信人們會視而不見

  • until those horrifying pictures fade from memory.

    直到那些可怕的映象從腦海中消失

  • But these things happened.

    但是這些事確實發生了

  • The facts cannot be denied.

    是無法否認的事實

  • The question now is what the United States of America,

    現在的問題是,美國

  • and the international community, is prepared to do about it.

    以及國際社會打算採取怎樣的行動

  • Because what happened to those people --

    因為發生在那些人們

  • to those children --

    以及孩子身上的

  • is not only a violation of international law,

    不僅僅是違反國際法

  • it's also a danger to our security.

    更是對我們全體社會安全的一項威脅

  • Let me explain why.

    讓我說明原由

  • If we fail to act, the Assad regime will see no reason

    如果我們不採取行動,阿薩德政權會發現

  • to stop using chemical weapons.

    沒必要停止使用化武

  • As the ban against these weapons erodes,

    雖然明令禁止這些武器的進犯

  • other tyrants will have no reason to think twice

    其他專政者並不會為此而三思是否

  • about acquiring poison gas, and using them.

    收購有毒氣體,並且使用他們

  • Over time, our troops would again face the prospect

    漸漸地,我們的軍隊將再次面臨到一個局面

  • of chemical warfare on the battlefield.

    化學武器再次出現在戰場

  • And it could be easier for terrorist organizations

    而且對恐怖分子來說

  • to obtain these weapons,

    取得這些武器相當容易

  • and to use them to attack civilians.

    甚至是用他們來對付市民也易如反掌

  • If fighting spills beyond Syria's borders,

    如果戰爭超出了敘利亞的邊界

  • these weapons could threaten allies like Turkey,

    這些武器將威脅到鄰近盟國,諸如土耳其、

  • Jordan, and Israel.

    約旦和以色列

  • And a failure to stand against the use of chemical weapons

    消極抵抗化武的使用

  • would weaken prohibitions

    也會削弱

  • against other weapons of mass destruction,

    對其他能造成殺傷力強大武器的禁制

  • and embolden Assad's ally, Iran --

    更會使阿薩德聯軍,伊朗

  • which must decide whether to ignore international law

    對於是否遵守國際法更加踟躕

  • by building a nuclear weapon, or to take a more peaceful path.

    並且製造核武,而不是更平和的方法

  • This is not a world we should accept.

    這並非令人能接受的結果

  • This is what's at stake.

    那使世界危在旦夕

  • And that is why, after careful deliberation,

    那是為什麼,在深思熟慮後

  • I determined that it is in the national security interests

    我認為這包含在維護國家安全的範疇

  • of the United States to respond to the Assad regime's use

    美國將會以針對性的軍事攻擊作為

  • of chemical weapons through a targeted military strike.

    阿薩德政權對化武使用的回應

  • The purpose of this strike would be to deter Assad from using

    這次攻擊的目的是為了阻止阿薩德政權

  • chemical weapons, to degrade his regime's ability to use them,

    使用化武和減弱他們使用化武的能力

  • and to make clear to the world

    讓他們明白

  • that we will not tolerate their use.

    我們不會容忍化武的使用

  • That's my judgment as Commander-in-Chief.

    這是我作為三軍總司令的判斷

  • But I'm also the President of the world's

    但我也是世界

  • oldest constitutional democracy.

    最早立憲的民主國家的總統

  • So even though I possess the authority

    所以即使我有權

  • to order military strikes,

    命令軍隊攻擊

  • I believed it was right,

    我相信這會更合適

  • in the absence of a direct or imminent threat to our security,

    在沒有直接或緊急威脅到國家安全的情況下

  • to take this debate to Congress.

    將此決議交給國會審查

  • I believe our democracy is stronger when the President acts

    我相信總統在國會的支持下

  • with the support of Congress.

    民主會更加強大

  • And I believe that America acts more effectively abroad

    當我們團結在一起

  • when we stand together.

    我相信美國能更有效的對外

  • This is especially true after a decade that put more and more

    這所言非虛,在經過一世紀的放權,

  • war-making power in the hands of the President,

    總統握有越來越強發動戰爭的能力,

  • and more and more burdens on the shoulders of our troops,

    對國軍來說也有了更加沉重的負擔

  • while sidelining the people's representatives

    然而代表人民的民意代表

  • from the critical decisions about when we use force.

    對於這些是否使用武力的爭議性決定卻被邊緣化

  • Now, I know that after the terrible toll

    我知道在經過對伊拉克和阿富汗的慘痛代價

  • of Iraq and Afghanistan, the idea of any military action,

    使用任何軍事行動

  • no matter how limited, is not going to be popular.

    不論規模多小,都不受人歡迎

  • After all, I've spent four and a half years

    畢竟,我也花了四年半的時間

  • working to end wars, not to start them.

    致力於終止戰爭,而不是引發

  • Our troops are out of Iraq.

    國軍已經離開了阿拉克

  • Our troops are coming home from Afghanistan.

    國軍已從阿富汗返鄉

  • And I know Americans want all of us in Washington --

    我知道美國人民希望在華府的我們

  • especially me --

    特別是我

  • to concentrate on the task

    專注在

  • of building our nation here at home:

    建設我們在此的家園

  • putting people back to work, educating our kids,

    讓人們重新回到工作崗位,作育英才

  • growing our middle class.

    使中產階級有所成長

  • It's no wonder, then, that you're asking hard questions.

    這也難怪你們會詢問如此尖銳的問題

  • So let me answer some of the most important questions

    讓我解釋一部份最重要的問題

  • that I've heard from members of Congress,

    聽了來自國會議員的聲音

  • and that I've read in letters that you've sent to me.

    讀了你們寄到我手上的信

  • First, many of you have asked,

    首先,許多人問到

  • won't this put us on a slippery slope to another war?

    這不會讓我們陷入一個滑坡理論的迴圈並導致另一場戰爭嗎?

  • One man wrote to me that we are "still recovering

    有人向我寫到我們

  • from our involvement in Iraq."

    「仍然尚未從參與伊拉克戰爭的傷痛中恢復」

  • A veteran put it more bluntly:

    一位退伍軍人說得更加明瞭:

  • "This nation is sick and tired of war."

    「這個國家病了而且對戰爭感到倦怠」

  • My answer is simple:

    我的回答很簡單:

  • I will not put American boots on the ground in Syria.

    我不會讓美國士兵插足到敘利亞境內

  • I will not pursue an open-ended action like Iraq or Afghanistan.

    我不會追求一場未知後果的行動像對伊拉克和阿富汗那樣

  • I will not pursue a prolonged air campaign

    我不會追求一場經久的空戰

  • like Libya or Kosovo.

    像是對利比亞或科索沃

  • This would be a targeted strike to achieve a clear objective:

    這會是個有針對地攻擊,只為了清楚的訴求:

  • deterring the use of chemical weapons,

    阻止化武的使用

  • and degrading Assad's capabilities.

    減弱阿薩德政府的能力

  • Others have asked whether it's worth acting

    其他人問到這是否值得

  • if we don't take out Assad.

    如果我們不推翻阿薩德政權

  • As some members of Congress have said,

    就像一些國會議員所言

  • there's no point in simply doing a "pinprick" strike in Syria.

    沒有必要對敘利亞做一個無關痛癢的攻擊

  • Let me make something clear:

    讓我解釋得更加清楚

  • The United States military doesn't do pinpricks.

    美國軍隊不做無關痛癢的事

  • Even a limited strike will send a message to Assad

    就算是一個極小的戰爭也是在向阿薩德政府表態

  • that no other nation can deliver.

    這是其他國家無法做到的

  • I don't think we should remove another dictator with force --

    我不覺得我們需要用武力讓獨裁者下台

  • we learned from Iraq that doing so makes us responsible

    從對伊拉克的戰爭中可知這只是讓我們負擔責任

  • for all that comes next.

    為接下來發生的那些事負責

  • But a targeted strike can make Assad, or any other dictator,

    但針對性的攻擊可以讓阿薩德或者其他獨裁者

  • think twice before using chemical weapons.

    三思使用化武的後果

  • Other questions involve the dangers of retaliation.

    其他問題牽涉到遭受報復的危險

  • We don't dismiss any threats, but the Assad regime does not

    我們不忽略任何威脅,但阿薩德政權不擁有

  • have the ability to seriously threaten our military.

    能嚴重的威脅到我們的軍隊的能力

  • Any other retaliation they might seek is in line with threats

    任何其他他們可能會尋求的報復就像

  • that we face every day.

    我們每天面對的

  • Neither Assad nor his allies have any interest in escalation

    不管是阿薩德或者它的盟軍想要擴大戰場

  • that would lead to his demise.

    都只會導致他的死亡

  • And our ally, Israel, can defend itself with overwhelming force,

    而我們的盟軍,以色列,以它強大的武力

  • as well as the unshakable support

    也是不可動搖的

  • of the United States of America.

    美利堅合眾國援軍

  • Many of you have asked a broader question:

    許多人會問一個更廣泛的問題

  • Why should we get involved at all

    為什麼我們需要參與進去

  • in a place that's so complicated,

    這樣一個情勢複雜的地方

  • and where -- as one person wrote to me --

    是一個——有一個人寫到

  • "those who come after Assad may be enemies of human rights?"

    「接替阿薩德的人也可能也不重視人權」的地方

  • It's true that some of Assad's opponents are extremists.

    的確有些阿薩德的對手是激進份子

  • But al Qaeda will only draw strength in a more chaotic Syria

    但是蓋達組織只會從紛亂的敘利亞中汲取力量

  • if people there see the world doing nothing to prevent

    如果那邊的人們發現世界對此不做任何事來避免

  • innocent civilians from being gassed to death.

    無辜的市民被毒氣殺死

  • The majority of the Syrian people --

    大部分的敘利亞人民

  • and the Syrian opposition we work with --

    和我們合作的敘利亞反對派

  • just want to live in peace, with dignity and freedom.

    只想生活的和平、有尊嚴和自由

  • And the day after any military action,

    在任何軍事行動後

  • we would redouble our efforts to achieve a political solution

    我們會加倍努力地尋求政治上的解決方法

  • that strengthens those who reject the forces

    這強化抵制

  • of tyranny and extremism.

    獨裁者和激進份子的力量

  • Finally, many of you have asked:

    最後,許多人問

  • Why not leave this to other countries,

    為何不將這件事交給其他國家來做

  • or seek solutions short of force?

    或者用短期武力能解決的辦法

  • As several people wrote to me,

    也有很多人寫到

  • "We should not be the world's policeman."

    「我們不應該當世界警察」

  • I agree, and I have a deeply held preference

    我同意且我深深的偏好

  • for peaceful solutions.

    和平解決

  • Over the last two years,

    過去兩年來

  • my administration has tried diplomacy and sanctions,

    我的行政部門試過外交手段和法令

  • warnings and negotiations --

    警告和協調

  • but chemical weapons were still used by the Assad regime.

    但是阿薩德政權仍然使用持續化武

  • However, over the last few days,

    然而,過去的這些日子

  • we've seen some encouraging signs.

    我們看到了振奮人心的跡象

  • In part because of the credible threat

    一部分是因為

  • of U.S. military action,

    美國軍方確切的武力威脅

  • as well as constructive talks that I had with President Putin,

    也是我和俄羅斯總統普丁有建設性的對談

  • the Russian government has indicated a willingness

    俄國政府表明很樂意

  • to join with the international community in pushing Assad

    與國際社會共同對阿薩德施壓

  • to give up his chemical weapons.

    使他放棄化學武器

  • The Assad regime has now admitted

    阿薩德政府現在承認

  • that it has these weapons,

    它擁有這些武器

  • and even said they'd join the Chemical Weapons Convention,

    甚至說他們曾簽署了化武公約(CWC)

  • which prohibits their use.

    那是要限制化武的使用

  • It's too early to tell whether this offer will succeed,

    說這項協議是否成功還太早了

  • and any agreement must verify that the Assad regime

    而且任何協議必須證實阿薩德政權

  • keeps its commitments.

    實現它的承諾

  • But this initiative has the potential to remove the threat

    但這項倡議有潛在的機會可以不使用武力的方式

  • of chemical weapons without the use of force,

    消除化武的威脅

  • particularly because Russia is one of Assad's strongest allies.

    尤其俄羅斯是阿薩德最強盟軍之一

  • I have, therefore, asked the leaders of Congress

    我必須,因此,請求國會主席

  • to postpone a vote to authorize the use of force

    推遲授權武力的投票

  • while we pursue this diplomatic path.

    同時推行外交手段

  • I'm sending Secretary of State John Kerry

    我指派國務卿John Kerry

  • to meet his Russian counterpart on Thursday,

    於星期四和俄羅斯對談

  • and I will continue my own discussions

    而我會持續討論我的決議

  • with President Putin.

    和俄國總統普丁一起

  • I've spoken to the leaders of two of our closest allies,

    我已向兩個最親近盟軍法國和英國的

  • France and the United Kingdom, and we will work together

    領導人表態,且與俄國和中國協商後

  • in consultation with Russia and China to put forward

    我們會在聯合國安全理事會

  • a resolution at the U.N. Security Council

    共同致力於推行最終的解決方案

  • requiring Assad to give up his chemical weapons,

    要求阿薩德放棄他的化學武器

  • and to ultimately destroy them under international control.

    且最終在國際的監控下摧毀他們

  • We'll also give U.N. inspectors the opportunity

    我們也給聯合國監察員一個機會

  • to report their findings about what happened on August 21st.

    報告發生在八月二十一號的事情真相

  • And we will continue to rally support from allies

    我們也將持續尋求盟軍的支持

  • from Europe to the Americas --

    從歐洲地區到美洲地區

  • from Asia to the Middle East --

    從亞洲地區到中東地區

  • who agree on the need for action.

    同意這場行動的人

  • Meanwhile, I've ordered our military

    同時,我命令我們的軍隊

  • to maintain their current posture

    維持現有的姿態

  • to keep the pressure on Assad,

    持續向阿薩德政權施壓

  • and to be in a position to respond if diplomacy fails.

    如果外交手段失敗,採取一定的行動回應