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  • My work focuses on the connection of

    譯者: Xuwen Zhu 審譯者: E Fan

  • both thinking about our community life

    我的工作在於

  • being part of the environment

    把我們的生活

  • where architecture grows from the natural

    與在地環境連結

  • local conditions and traditions.

    就如同建築物

  • Today I brought two recent projects

    總是跟在地風俗民情息息相關

  • as an example of this.

    今天我要舉兩個例子

  • Both projects are in emerging countries,

    是最近的建築企劃案

  • one in Ethiopia and another one in Tunisia.

    兩個企畫案都在兩個新興的國家

  • And also they have in common

    一個在衣索匹亞 另一個在突尼西亞

  • that the different analyses from different perspectives

    這兩個國家有個相同之處

  • becomes an essential part of the final piece of architecture.

    在於其不同的分析與觀點

  • The first example started with an invitation

    皆變成了建築上極為重要的一環

  • to design a multistory shopping mall

    第一個例子 就從接到一個設計案的邀請講起

  • in Ethiopia's capital city Addis Ababa.

    那是一個設計購物中心的案子

  • And this is the type of building

    位於阿地斯阿貝巴(衣索匹亞首都)

  • we were shown as an example, to my team and myself,

    這個建築物的類型

  • of what we had to design.

    就是我們團隊所收到的範例

  • At first, the first thing I thought was,

    要把購物中心設計成這樣

  • I want to run away.

    我看到這個的第一個念頭就是

  • (Laughter)

    我可以落跑嗎?

  • After seeing a few of these buildings --

    (笑聲)

  • there are many in the city --

    在看過幾個像這樣的範例

  • we realized that they have three very big points.

    這種設計在城裡隨處可見

  • First, these buildings, they are almost empty

    我們知道這些設計都有三個特徵

  • because they have very large shops

    第一 購物中心內總是很冷清

  • where people cannot afford to buy things.

    因為裡面都是非常大的店面

  • Second, they need tons of energy to perform

    一般民眾買不起裡面的東西

  • because of the skin treatment with glass

    第二 裡面需要相當大的電力供應

  • that creates heat in the inside,

    因為玻璃帷幕

  • and then you need a lot of cooling.

    會使內部溫度升高

  • In a city where this shouldn't happen

    因此需要裝設大量空調

  • because they have really mild weather

    這不應該發生在這個城市

  • that ranges from 20 to 25 degrees the whole year.

    因為當地的氣候非常涼爽

  • And third is that their image has nothing to do

    年均溫只有攝氏20-25度

  • with Africa and with Ethiopia.

    第三 這些建築物的外觀設計

  • It is a pity in a place that has such rich culture and traditions.

    跟非洲或衣索匹亞都毫無關係

  • Also during our first visit to Ethiopia,

    這對於一個擁有豐富文化與 傳統的地方來說實在非常可惜

  • I was really captivated by the old merkato

    我們首次造訪衣索匹亞時

  • that is this open-air structure

    我對於老莫卡托尤其喜愛

  • where thousands of people, they go and buy things

    那是一個開放式結構

  • every day from small vendors.

    每天都有幾千人進去

  • And also it has this idea of the public space

    跟小攤販買東西

  • that uses the outdoors to create activity.

    這就是運用公共場所的想法

  • So I thought, this is what I really want to design,

    用開放空間創造商機

  • not a shopping mall.

    我想這就是我真正想設計的東西

  • But the question was how we could do a multistory,

    而不是一個購物中心

  • contemporary building with these principles.

    但問題在於怎麼把這些原則

  • The next challenge was when we looked at the site,

    運用在一個多樓層的現代建築

  • that is, in a really growing area of the city,

    另一個挑戰是 我們去看建築地時

  • where most of these buildings that you see in the image,

    當然 是在城市裡非常繁榮的地方

  • they were not there.

    大部分建築就跟照片裡一樣

  • And it's also between two parallel streets

    不在那邊

  • that don't have any connection for hundreds of meters.

    它也在兩條平行路之間

  • So the first thing we did was to create a connection

    兩條路在幾公里內都無相交

  • between these two streets,

    我們第一項要做的事就是讓

  • putting all the entrances of the building.

    兩條路有交點

  • And this extends with an inclined atrium

    讓建築物到處都有入口可進出

  • that creates an open-air space in the building

    使建築有一個傾斜的天井

  • that self-protects itself with its own shape

    就成了一個開放空間

  • from the sun and the rain.

    這種造型設計也達到了

  • And around this void

    遮陽擋雨的目的

  • we placed this idea of the market with small shops,

    在此天井周圍

  • that change in each floor because of the shape of the void.

    能設置很多的小攤販

  • I also thought, how to close the building?

    此造型也讓每層樓都有不同風貌

  • And I really wanted to find a solution

    我又再想 怎麼關閉這棟建築?

  • that would respond to the local climate conditions.

    我很想找出個方法

  • And I started thinking about the textile

    迎合當地的天氣狀況

  • like a shell made of concrete

    我想到用布料

  • with perforations that would let the air in,

    在貝殼狀的建築物外

  • and also the light, but in a filtered way.

    穿孔能讓空氣進入

  • And then the inspiration came from these beautiful patterns of the Ethiopian women's dresses.

    陽光也能進入 但不是直射

  • That they have fractal geometry properties

    靈感來自於 衣索匹亞婦女服飾上那些漂亮的鈕釦

  • and this helped me to shape the whole facade.

    那是一些幾何圖形

  • And we are building that

    幫助我想出了外牆的設計

  • with these small prefabricated pieces

    我們只是建造出

  • that are the windows that let the air and the light

    有一些預製構件的東西

  • in a controlled way inside the building.

    就是讓空氣與陽光

  • And this is complemented by these small colored glasses

    以被控制的方式進入建築

  • that use the light from the inside of the building

    也補充一些彩色玻璃

  • to light up the building at night.

    讓建築在晚上藉由內部的亮光

  • With these ideas it was not easy first to convince the developers

    讓建築在晚上發亮

  • because they were like,

    這些想法一開始很難說服那些建商

  • "This is not a shopping mall. We didn't ask for that."

    因為他們只想說

  • But then we all realized that this idea of the market

    「這不是購物中心!我們沒要你這樣搞啊!」

  • happened to be a lot more profitable than the idea of the shopping mall

    但最後我們都了解

  • because basically they had more shops to sell.

    這類型的市場 比購物中心來得賺錢

  • And also that the idea of the facade was much, much cheaper,

    因為這基本上能容納較多的店家

  • not only because of the material compared with the glass,

    也因為外牆設計省了非常多的錢

  • but also because we didn't need to have air conditioning anymore.

    不只是因為省去玻璃帷幕的關係

  • So we created some budget savings

    也因為裡面完全用不著吹冷氣

  • that we used to implement the project.

    藉由實行這些方法

  • And the first implementation was to think

    這就省下了不少預算

  • about how we could make the building self-sufficient in terms of energy

    第一個成就就是

  • in a city that has electricity cuts almost every day.

    怎麼讓建築自供電力

  • So we created a huge asset by placing photovoltaics there on the roof.

    因為城裡幾乎每天都有斷電措施

  • And then under those panels

    所以我們在屋頂 設置相當多的太陽能板

  • we thought about the roof like a new public space with gathering areas and bars

    在那些太陽能板下面

  • that would create this urban oasis.

    能增加一個新的公共場所 一個聚會場所或是酒吧

  • And these porches on the roof,

    這能造就一個都市綠洲

  • all together they collect the water to reuse for sanitation on the inside.

    而這些頂樓的入口

  • Hopefully by the beginning of next year, because we are already on the fifth floor of the construction.

    能收集水並讓內部的 公共衛生設施重複利用

  • The second example is a master plan

    我們極有希望在明年初就能完工 因為進度已經建到了第五層樓

  • of 2,000 apartments and facilities in the city of Tunis.

    第二個例子是一個總體設計

  • And for doing such a big project, the biggest project I've ever designed,

    在突尼斯市的兩千戶公寓

  • I really needed to understand the city of Tunis,

    做這個非常大的企劃案 事實上是我接過最大的企劃案

  • but also its surroundings and the tradition and culture.

    我需要非常了解突尼斯這個城市

  • During that analysis I paid special attention to the medina

    不管是周圍的事物 或是當地的傳統與文化

  • that is this 1,000-year-old structure that used to be closed by a wall,

    在分析過程中 我對麥地那有很特別的印象

  • opened by twelve different gates, connected by almost straight lines.

    那是一個用城牆包覆住的結構 已有上千年歷史

  • When I went to the site, the first design operation we did

    有12個不同的大門 幾乎是用直線連接

  • was to extend the existing streets, creating 12 initial blocks

    當我去到當地 第一件要做的就是

  • similar in size and characteristics to the ones we have in Barcelona

    拓寬街道,造出12個基礎模塊

  • and other cities in Europe with these courtyards.

    相同大小與特性 跟巴塞隆納的一樣

  • On top of that, we selected some strategic points

    在歐洲其他城市也有的庭院

  • reminded of this idea of the gates and connecting them by straight lines,

    我們做了幾個關鍵要點

  • and this modified this initial pattern.

    有了大門用直線聯結的啟發

  • And the last operation was to think about the cell,

    這更改了最初的格局

  • the small cell of the project, like the apartment,

    最後的工作就是那些房間

  • as an essential part of the master plan.

    就像是公寓裡的小房間

  • And for that I thought, what would be the best orientation

    是這個企劃最重要的環節

  • in the Mediterranean climate for an apartment?

    對於這個 我一直想什麼是最能適應

  • And it's north-south, because it creates a thermal difference between both sides of the house

    地中海型氣候的公寓?

  • and then a natural ventilation.

    南北向的房子讓室內前後溫度不均

  • So we overlap a pattern that makes sure that most of the apartments

    并帶來自然的通風

  • are perfectly oriented in that direction.

    所以我們修改了部分格局 確保大部分公寓

  • And this is the result

    都是面對好的方位

  • that is almost like a combination of the European block and the Arab city.

    這就是成果

  • It has these blocks with courtyards,

    這就像是結合了 歐洲與阿拉伯風格的城市

  • and then on the ground floor

    在中庭有這種街道

  • you have all these connections for the pedestrians.

    在底層

  • And also it responds to the local regulations that establish

    行人都能暢行無阻

  • a higher density on the upper levels and a lower density on the ground floor.

    這也迎合了當地的規矩

  • And it also reinforces this idea of the gates.

    就是高樓層較多住戶 低樓層則較少住戶

  • The volume has this connecting shape

    這也在大門加強了這種概念

  • that shades itself with three different types of apartments

    這空間的形狀

  • and also lets the light go on the ground floor in a very dense neighborhood

    也替三種不同的公寓遮陰

  • And in the courtyards there are the different facilities,

    也能讓陽光透過非常密集的公寓群

  • such as a gym and a kindergarten

    在中庭有不同的設施

  • and close by, a series of commercial [spaces] that bring activity to the ground floor.

    例如健身房和幼稚園

  • The roof, which is my favorite space of the project

    在低樓層附近 也有商業空間帶來商機

  • is almost like giving back to the community the space taken by the construction.

    屋頂是我最喜歡的部分

  • And it's where all the neighbors, they can go up and socialize,

    那就像是還給社區 被建築佔去的空間

  • and do activities such as having a two-kilometer run in the morning,

    也提供住戶一個社交的場所

  • jumping from one building to another.

    或是能在上頭做兩公里的晨跑

  • These two examples,

    也能在每棟房子間跳來跳去

  • they have a common approach in the design process.

    這兩個例子

  • And also, they are in emerging countries where you can see

    都有相同的設計方法

  • the cities literally growing.

    也同樣存在於

  • In these cities, the impact of architecture in people's lives of today and tomorrow

    正在成長的新興城市

  • changes the local communities and economies at the same speed as the buildings grow.

    在這些城市 建築影響著人們的生活

  • For this reason, I see even more importance

    改變了在地社區與經濟 與建築一起成長

  • to look at architecture finding simple but affordable solutions

    就因為這幾個原因讓我覺得

  • that enhance the relationship between the community and the environment

    尋找簡單又經濟的方法是非常重要的

  • and that aim to connect nature and people.

    目的在於加強社區與環境的聯結

  • Thank you very much.

    講人類與自然聯繫在一起

  • (Applause)

    謝謝大家

My work focuses on the connection of

譯者: Xuwen Zhu 審譯者: E Fan

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 TED 建築 衣索匹亞 購物 樓層 設計

TED】Xavier Vilalta:澤維爾-比拉爾塔:社區中的家庭建築(Xavier Vilalta:社區中的家庭建築)。 (【TED】Xavier Vilalta: Architecture at home in its community (Xavier Vilalta: Architecture at home in its community))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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