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  • In 2007,

    譯者: Chueh-chen Wang 審譯者: Jenny Yang

  • I decided that we needed to reconceptualize

    在2007年時,

  • how we thought about economic development.

    我覺得我們需要重新思考

  • Our new goal should be

    我們如何看經濟發展

  • that when every family thinks about where they want to live and work,

    我們的新目標應該是

  • they should be able to choose between

    當任何一個家庭在思考他們想住哪裡時

  • at least a handful

    他們都應該要能夠從

  • of different cities

    至少幾個

  • that were all competing to attract new residents.

    不同

  • Now we're a long way away from that goal right now.

    爭著吸引新居民的城市中做出選擇

  • There are billions of people in developing countries

    我們現在離那個目標還相當遠

  • who don't have even a single city that would be willing to welcome them.

    在開發中國家裡有上百萬的人民

  • But the amazing thing about cities

    是沒有任何一個城市願意歡迎他們的

  • is they're worth so much more

    但是,關於城市,最讓人驚奇的是

  • than it costs to build them.

    它們的價值遠超過

  • So we could easily supply the world

    建造它們的成本

  • with dozens, maybe hundreds,

    所以,我們能夠很容易地在這世界上蓋起

  • of new cities.

    幾十座,可能幾百座

  • Now this might sound preposterous to you

    新城市

  • if you've never thought about new cities.

    關於這點,如果你從未認真思考過城市

  • But just substitute apartment building for cities.

    你可能覺得這聽起來很荒謬

  • Imagine half the people who wanted to be in apartments already had them;

    但是,只要用城市去取代公寓建築

  • the other half aren't there yet.

    想像一下,在想要住公寓的人們裡,一半的人已經擁有公寓可住了

  • You could try and expand the capacity

    另一半的人還沒有

  • by doing additions on all the existing apartments.

    你可以試著藉由在現有公寓上加蓋

  • But you know what you'd run into

    來擴大容積

  • is those apartments and the surrounding areas

    但你知道你會碰到的情況是

  • have rules to avoid discomfort

    那些公寓及周遭區域

  • and the distractions of construction.

    都有的規定以避免不適

  • So it's extremely hard to do all of those additions.

    以及工程所帶來的干擾

  • But you could go out someplace brand new,

    所以要做那些加蓋是非常難的

  • build a brand new apartment building,

    然而,你可以去一個全新的環境

  • as long as the rules there

    蓋一棟全新的公寓大樓

  • were ones that facilitated construction

    只要那裡的規定是

  • rather than getting in the way.

    方便工程進行

  • So I proposed

    而非帶來阻撓的

  • that governments create new reform zones

    因此,我建議

  • big enough to hold cities

    政府創造全新的「改革區」

  • and gave them a name: charter cities.

    是大到可以容納城市

  • Later I learned that at about this same time,

    並且將它取名為「特區市」

  • Javier and Octavio

    後來我發現大約在我提出這個看法的同一時間

  • were thinking about the challenge of reform

    哈維爾及奧克塔維歐

  • in Honduras.

    也正在思考在宏都拉斯

  • They knew that about 75,000 Hondurans every year

    改革的挑戰

  • would leave to go to the United States,

    他們知道每年大約有75,000宏都拉斯人

  • and they wanted to ask, what could they do

    會離鄉,前往美國

  • to make sure that those people could stay

    所以他們想問問,他們可以做些什麼

  • and do the same things in Honduras.

    以確保這些人會留下來

  • At one point, Javier said to Octavio,

    並且在宏都拉斯做一樣的工作

  • "What if we took some of our empty land --

    就在某個時間點,哈維爾告訴奧克塔維歐

  • what if we just gave it to an embassy --

    「假如我們將國內一部分的空地

  • give some to the U.S. embassy; give some to the Canadian embassy --

    直接送給一個大使館

  • and then if people want to go work

    一部分送給美國大使館,一部分送給加拿大大使館

  • under the rules of Canada or under the rules of the United States,

    然後假如人們想要

  • they can go get jobs,

    在加拿大的法規或美國的法規下工作

  • do everything they do on those embassy grounds

    他們可以在那裡找到工作

  • that they would otherwise have to go to Canada or the U.S. to do?"

    在那些大使館領土上做所有他們正在做的工作

  • In the summer of 2009,

    而非必須到加拿大或美國才能做,這樣的結果會如何?」

  • Honduras went through a wrenching constitutional crisis.

    在2009年夏天

  • At the next regularly scheduled election,

    宏都拉斯經歷一場折磨人的憲法危機

  • Pepe Lobo won in a landslide

    在隔一次的正規選舉中

  • on a platform that promised reform,

    派比羅柏獲得壓倒性勝利

  • but reconciliation as well.

    他在競選中不只承諾了改革

  • He asked Octavio to be his chief of staff.

    也承諾了和解

  • Meanwhile, I was getting ready

    他聘奧克塔維歐擔任他的參謀長

  • to give a talk at TEDGlobal.

    同時間,我正準備要

  • Through a process of refinement,

    在TEDGlobal上進行一場演說

  • trial and error, a lot of user testing,

    透過一個改良過程

  • I tried to boil this complicated concept of charter city

    透過反覆試驗,許多使用者的測試

  • down to the bare essentials.

    我試著將這個複雜的「特區市」觀念

  • The first point was the importance of rules,

    簡化到其本質

  • like those rules that say

    第一個重點是,法規的重要性

  • you can't come in and disturb all the existing apartment holders.

    像是那些說

  • We pay a lot of attention to new technologies,

    你不能進來之後去打擾現有公寓住戶的規定

  • but it takes technologies and rules to get progress,

    我們很關心新科技

  • and it's usually the rules that hold us back.

    但要有所進展,是必須同時靠科技與法規

  • In the fall of 2010, a friend from Guatemala

    而且常見的情況是,法規會限制我們

  • sent Octavio a link to the TEDTalk.

    在2010年的秋天,一位來自瓜地馬拉的朋友

  • He showed it to Javier.

    寄一個TEDTalk的網址連結給奧克塔維歐

  • They called me.

    然後他又把連結秀給哈維爾看

  • They said, "Let's present this to the leaders of our country."

    然後他們倆跟我聯絡

  • So in December we met in Miami,

    他們說:「我們把這個概念提議給我們國家的領導吧」

  • in a hotel conference room.

    所以十二月時,我們在邁阿密見了面

  • I tried to explain this point

    在一間飯店的會議室裡

  • about how valuable cities are,

    我試著解釋這個概念

  • how much more valuable they are than they cost.

    就是城市是多麼有價值

  • And I used this slide

    城市的價值遠高過它們的建造成本

  • showing how valuable the raw land is

    而且我用這張投影片

  • in a place like New York City:

    秀出在紐約市裡的空地

  • notice, land that's worth thousands of dollars, in some cases,

    是多麼有價值

  • per square meter.

    請注意,在某些例子裡,土地一平方公尺

  • But it was a fairly abstract discussion,

    就價值好幾千元美金

  • and at some point when there was a pause,

    但那是一場很抽象的討論

  • Octavio said,

    在過程中的某個時點出現一陣靜默

  • "Paul, maybe we could watch the TEDTalk."

    然後,奧克塔維歐就說:

  • (Laughing)

    「保羅,也許我們應該看一下那場TEDTalk。」

  • So the TEDTalk laid out in very simple terms,

    (笑聲)

  • a charter city is a place

    所以,那場TEDTalk很清楚地解釋道

  • where you start with uninhabited land,

    一個「特區市」是

  • a charter that specifies the rules that will apply there

    你以一塊無人居住的土地為基礎

  • and then a chance for people to opt in,

    一個明文規定適用於此地法規的憲章

  • to go live under those rules or not.

    以及一個讓人們選擇是否加入的機會

  • So I was asked by the president of Honduras

    一個選擇是否在那些法規之下生活的機會

  • who said that we need to do this project,

    那我就被宏都拉斯總統詢問

  • this is important,

    他說他們需要這樣的計畫

  • this could be the way forward for our country.

    這是相當重要的

  • I was asked to come to Tegucigalpa

    這可能是我們國家的未來之路

  • and talk again on January fourth and fifth.

    我被邀請到德古斯加巴(宏都拉斯首都)

  • So I presented

    於一月四日及五日再做一次演說

  • another fact-filled lecture

    所以我就給了

  • that included a slide like this,

    又一場引述大量實際資料的演說

  • which tried to make the point that, if you want to create a lot of value in a city,

    其中包含一張像這樣的投影片

  • it has to be very big.

    這張投影片的重點是,如果你想要為一座城市創造很多的價值

  • This is a picture of Denver,

    它必須很大

  • and the outline is the new airport that was built in Denver.

    這是一張丹佛市的照片

  • This airport alone

    那個外框是丹佛市的新蓋機場

  • covers more than 100 square kilometers.

    光是機場本身

  • So I was trying to persuade the Hondurans,

    就佔地超過100平方公里

  • if you build a new city,

    所以,我當時就試著說服宏都拉斯人

  • you've got to start with a site that's at least 1,000 square kilometers.

    假如你要建造一座新城市

  • That's more than 250 hundred-thousand acres.

    你必須從一塊至少1000平方公里大的土地開始

  • Everybody applauded politely.

    那是超過兩億英畝的土地

  • The faces in the audience

    每個人都很禮貌地鼓掌

  • were very serious and attentive.

    觀眾的表情

  • The leader of the congress came up on stage and said,

    看起來很嚴肅又專注

  • "Professor Romer, thank you very much for your lecture,

    會議的主席就走上台,說:

  • but maybe we could watch the TEDTalk.

    「羅默教授,謝謝您今天的演講,

  • I've got it here on my laptop."

    但也許我們可以看一下那場TEDTalk。」

  • So I sat down, and they played the TEDTalk.

    我這台筆記型電腦裡有檔案

  • And it got to the essence,

    所以我就坐下來,他們就播放那場TEDTalk

  • which is that a new city could offer new choices for people.

    那場演講觸及到「特區市」概念的本質

  • There would be a choice of a city which you could go to

    也就是,一個可以提供人們機會的新城市

  • which could be in Honduras,

    會有讓你選擇居住城市的機會

  • instead of hundreds of miles away in the North.

    這個城市會在宏都拉斯境內

  • And it also involved new choices for leaders.

    而非在幾百公里遠的北方

  • Because the leaders in the government there in Honduras

    而且這也為領導者提供了新的選擇

  • would need help from partner countries,

    因為宏都拉斯境內的政府領導者

  • who could benefit from partner countries

    會需要合作國家的協助

  • who help them set up the rules in this charter and the enforcement,

    也會受惠於那些有合作關係的國家

  • so everybody can trust

    這些國家協助憲章裡法規的建立及執行

  • that the charter really will be enforced.

    那麼所有人都可以相信

  • And the insight of President Lobo

    那個憲章會被落實

  • was that that assurance of enforcement

    而羅柏總統的洞見是

  • that I was thinking about

    對於我所想的

  • as a way to get the foreign investors to come in and build the city

    對於執行上的保證

  • could be equally important for all the different parties in Honduras

    會是吸引外國投資人進來建造城市的一種方式

  • who had suffered for so many years

    這也對宏都拉斯境內的所有團體都是同等重要的

  • from fear and distrust.

    這些團體都承受了這麼多年的

  • We went and looked at a site.

    恐懼及不信任

  • This picture's from there.

    我們來到一個地點進行視察

  • It easily could hold a thousand square kilometers.

    這張照片是在那裡拍的

  • And shortly thereafter, on January 19th,

    那裡絕對超過一千平方公里

  • they voted in the congress to amend their constitution

    在那不久之後,於一月十九日

  • to have a constitutional provision

    他們在國會上修訂了憲法

  • that allows for special development regions.

    增訂一則憲法條文

  • In a country which had just gone through this wrenching crisis,

    允許特殊發展區域的存在

  • the vote in the congress in favor of this constitutional amendment

    在一個才剛經歷這樣一場折磨人的危機的國家裡

  • was 124 to one.

    國會裡的投票結果中,贊成這項憲法修訂文

  • All parties, all factions in society, backed this.

    是124票贊成對1票反對

  • To be part of the constitution, you actually have to pass it twice in the congress.

    整個社會的所有政黨、派系皆支持

  • On February 17th they passed it again

    要成為憲法的一部分,必須要讓條文在國會中通過兩次

  • with another vote of 114 to one.

    在二月十七日,他們再度通過法案

  • Immediately after that vote,

    結果是114票贊成對1票反對

  • on February 21st to the 24th,

    在那場投票不久後

  • a delegation of about 30 Hondurans

    於二月二十一至二十四日間

  • went to the two places in the world

    一群大約30位宏都拉斯人組成的代表團

  • that are most interested in getting into the city building business.

    去了這世界上兩個

  • One is South Korea.

    對城市建造最有興趣的地方

  • This is a picture of a big, new city center

    一個是南韓

  • that's being built in South Korea --

    這張照片呈現一個巨大、全新的市中心

  • bigger than downtown Boston.

    那是蓋在南韓

  • Everything you see there was built in four years,

    比波士頓市中心還大

  • after they spent four years getting the permits.

    你看到的每一樣東西都是在花了四年拿到許可證之後

  • The other place that's very interested in city building is Singapore.

    於四年之內蓋好的

  • They've actually built two cities already in China

    另一個對城市建造很感興趣的地方是新加坡

  • and are preparing the third.

    它們事實上已經在中國蓋了兩座城市

  • So if you think about this practically,

    而且正準備蓋第三座

  • here's where we are.

    所以,如果你就實際層面來看

  • They've got a site; they're already thinking about this site for the second city.

    我現在的位置在這裡

  • They're putting in place a legal system

    他們有了地點,他們已經在思考第二座城市的地點

  • that could allow for managers to come in,

    他們在設立一個可以

  • and also an external legal system.

    引進經理人的法治系統

  • One country has already volunteered to let its supreme court

    以及一個外部法律系統

  • be the court of final appeal for the new judicial system there.

    有一個國家已經自願以他們的最高法院

  • There's designers and builders of cities

    當做這裡新司法系統中的最終判決的法院

  • who are very interested.

    另外還有非常感興趣的

  • They even can bring with them some financing.

    城市設計師及建築師

  • But the one thing you know they've already solved

    他們甚至可以引進一些資金

  • is that there's lots of tenants.

    但是,你很清楚有一件問題是他們已經先解決了

  • There's lots of businesses that would like to locate in the Americas,

    那就是有大量的房客

  • especially in a place with a free trade zone,

    有許多的公司想要在美洲落地

  • and there's lots of people who'd like to go there.

    特別是在一個自由貿易區

  • Around the world, there's 700 million people

    而且還有很多人想要去那裡

  • who say they'd like to move permanently someplace else right now.

    這世界上,有7億的人口

  • There's a million a year

    說他們現在想要永久性地移居他地

  • who leave Latin America to go to the United States.

    一年有一百萬人

  • Many of these are a father

    離開拉丁美洲,前往美國

  • who has to leave his family behind to go get a job --

    這些人中有很多是父親

  • sometimes a single mother

    被迫離開他們的家庭,去找工作

  • who has to get enough money to even pay for food or clothing.

    有時候是一位單親媽媽

  • Sadly, sometimes there are even children

    必須賺足夠的錢來支付食物及衣服費用

  • who are trying to get reunited with their parents

    很讓人心痛的是,有時候甚至是小孩

  • that they haven't seen, in some cases, for a decade.

    有些個案中,他們試圖跟他們十年未見的

  • So what kind of an idea is it

    的父母親團員

  • to think about building a brand new city in Honduras?

    那麼,思考在宏都拉斯裡蓋一個全新城市

  • Or to build a dozen of these,

    到底是什麼樣的想法?

  • or a hundred of these, around the world?

    或者在全世界蓋十幾個這樣的城市

  • What kind of an idea is it

    或者幾百個呢?

  • to think about insisting

    堅持每一個家庭都能夠從

  • that every family have a choice of several cities

    幾個積極爭取居民的城市中做挑選

  • that are competing to attract new residents?

    去做這樣的思考

  • This is an idea worth spreading.

    這又是什麼樣的想法呢?

  • And my friends from Honduras

    這是一個值得被傳播出去的想法

  • asked me to say thank you, TED.

    最後,我在宏都拉斯的朋友們

  • (Applause)

    請我們向TED說聲謝謝

In 2007,

譯者: Chueh-chen Wang 審譯者: Jenny Yang

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 城市 法規 公寓 憲法 大使館

【TED】保羅-羅默。世界上第一個特許城市?保羅-羅默:世界上第一個特許城市? (【TED】Paul Romer: The world's first charter city? (Paul Romer: The world's first charter city?))

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