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  • I'm Ellen and I'm totally obsessed with food.

    譯者: Jing Yao 審譯者: Marie Wu

  • But I didn't start out obsessed with food.

    我是艾倫,而我對於食物可說是相當著迷。

  • I started out obsessed with global security policy,

    但我一開始並不是要研究食物,

  • because I lived in New York during 9/11 and it was a very relevant thing.

    我一開始是著重在全球安全政策,

  • I got from global security policy to food

    這是因為我在911期間住在紐約,而這很明顯地跟我的研究相當有關聯。

  • because I realized when I'm hungry, I'm really pissed off,

    而我從全球安全政策轉而關注食物,

  • and I'm assuming the rest of the world is too.

    因為我明白當我飢餓時,我會很惱怒,

  • Especially if you and your kids are hungry and your neighbor's kids are hungry

    而我想全世界其他人也是如此。

  • and your whole neighborhood is hungry.

    尤其是當你很餓,而且你的孩子也是的時候,

  • And actually, it looks like the areas of the world that are hungry

    甚至你鄰居的孩子及整個社區的人都是在飢餓的狀態中,

  • are also the areas of the world that are pretty insecure.

    這會讓你真的很憤怒。

  • So I took a job at the United Nations World Food Programme

    事實上,狀況看起來像是,

  • as a way to try to address these security issues

    世界上處於飢餓的區域

  • through food security issues.

    同時也是不安全的區域。

  • There, I came across what I think is the most brilliant of their programs.

    所以我接下了聯合國世界糧食計畫的一份工作,

  • It's called School Feeding and it's a really simple idea

    試著透過糧食安全議題,

  • to get in the middle of the cycle of poverty and hunger

    藉此來向大家強調這些安全議題。

  • that continues for a lot of people around the world, and stop it.

    當我在做這份工作時,

  • A free school meal gets kids into school,

    我注意到了聯合國做得最傑出的計畫。

  • which is education, the first step out of poverty,

    這個計劃叫做學校餵養,而這真的是一個相當簡單的主意,

  • but it also gives them the micronutrients and the macronutrients they need

    就是介入持續困擾著世界上許多人的二個問題--

  • to develop mentally and physically.

    貧窮與飢餓,介入到這個循環中間,阻止惡性循環。

  • While I was working at the UN, I met this girl. Her name is Lauren Bush.

    藉著供給孩童免費的學校餐點,可鼓勵孩子進入學校,

  • And she had this really awesome idea to sell the bag, called the "Feed Bag" --

    而很明顯的,教育,是走出貧窮的第一步。

  • which is really beautifully ironic because you can strap on the Feed Bag.

    這些餐點還可以供給孩子他們所需的各種營養素,

  • But each bag we'd sell would provide

    讓孩子在心理與生理上有更健全的發展。

  • a year's worth of school meals for one kid.

    當我在聯合國工作時,我遇見了這個女孩。她的名字叫做蘿倫. 布希。

  • It's so simple, and we thought, OK,

    她提出了一個相當棒的想法,

  • it costs between 20 and 50 bucks to provide school feeding for a year.

    就是販賣這個叫做"餵養袋"的袋子。

  • We could sell these bags and raise a ton of money and awareness

    這個名稱相當諷刺,也很恰當,因為你真的可以把餵養袋掛在胸前。

  • for the World Food Programme.

    我們所販賣的每一個袋子,

  • But at the UN, sometimes things move slowly

    可以提供每個孩子一年的學校餐費。

  • and they basically said no.

    這真的很簡單,而我們想,你知道的,

  • And we thought, this is such a good idea, it's going to raise so much money.

    一年你只要花二十到五十元,

  • So we said screw it, we'll start our own company,

    就可以提供一年的學校餐費。

  • which we did, three years ago.

    我們可以販賣這些袋子並募得許多錢,

  • That was my first dream, to start this company called FEED,

    還有讓更多人認識世界糧食計畫。

  • and here's a screenshot of our website.

    但當然,你知道在聯合國,有時事情進展得相當緩慢,

  • We did a bag for Haiti just a month after the earthquake

    基本上他們否決了這個計畫。

  • to provide school meals for kids in Haiti.

    我們想,天啊! 這真的是非常棒的計畫而且可以募到相當多錢,

  • So FEED's doing great.

    我們想管他的,我們就在三年前成立了自己的公司。

  • We've so far provided 55 million meals to kids around the world

    成立FEED公司有點像是我的第一個夢想,

  • by selling now 550,000 bags, a ton of bags, a lot of bags.

    這是我們網站的畫面。

  • All this time you're really --

    我們為海地製作這個袋子,在大地震之後一個月開始販賣,

  • hunger is a hard thing to think about,

    為海地的孩童提供學校餐點。

  • because what we think about is eating.

    而FEED發展得相當好。到目前為止我們在全世界

  • I think about eating a lot and I really love it.

    賣出了五十五萬五仟個餵養袋,

  • And the thing that's strange about international hunger

    提供了約五千五百萬份學校餐點給各地的孩子。

  • and talking about international issues

    當你想到飢餓時,

  • is that most people want to know:

    這真的蠻難想像的,因為我們所想的都是食物。

  • "What are you doing for America's kids?"

    我會想到食物,而我真的也很喜歡吃。

  • There's definitely hunger in America:

    當人們提到全球性飢餓及相關議題時,

  • 49 million people and almost 16.7 million children.

    有一點很奇怪的是,

  • I mean that's pretty dramatic for our own country.

    大部分的人多少都想知道你在美國做了些什麼?

  • Hunger definitely means something different in America

    你為美國的孩子做了什麼?

  • than it does internationally,

    在美國也絕對有飢餓存在著,

  • but it's incredibly important to address hunger in our own country.

    將近有四千九百萬人,和接近一千六百七十萬個孩童在捱餓著,

  • But the bigger problem that we all know about is obesity,

    這對我們國家來說真的很特別。

  • and it's dramatic.

    美國的飢餓問題和全球其他地方的飢餓問題當然會有點不一樣,

  • The other thing that's dramatic

    但在我們國家強調飢餓這個課題也是很重要的。

  • is that both hunger and obesity have really risen in the last 30 years.

    而我們都很清楚,在美國更大的問題很明顯是肥胖,

  • Unfortunately, obesity's not only an American problem.

    這真的很特別。

  • It's actually been spreading all around the world

    還有另一件事也很特別,那就是飢餓與肥胖的數量,

  • and mainly through our kind of food systems that we're exporting.

    在過去三十年都上升了。

  • The numbers are pretty crazy.

    不幸的,肥胖不僅是美國的問題,

  • There's a billion people obese or overweight

    這其實是全世界共有的問題,

  • and a billion people hungry.

    而且主要是由我們所輸出的飲食習慣所造成的。

  • So those seem like two bifurcated problems,

    這些數據真的很誇張。

  • but I kind of started to think about, you know,

    有十億的人口是肥胖或過重的,

  • what is obesity and hunger?

    但卻有十億的人口是吃不飽的。

  • What are both those things about?

    這兩個看起來像是不一樣的問題,

  • Well, they're both about food.

    但我開始重新思考,就像你們知道的,

  • And when you think about food,

    何謂肥胖?何謂飢餓? 這兩者有什麼共同點?

  • the underpinning of food in both cases is potentially problematic agriculture.

    好的,它們都是糧食問題。

  • And agriculture is where food comes from.

    而當你想到糧食時,

  • Agriculture in America's very interesting.

    飢餓與肥胖的糧食問題,

  • It's very consolidated

    核心都指向有問題的農業。

  • and the foods that are produced lead to the foods that we eat.

    而農業就是提供我們糧食的來源。

  • The foods that are produced are, more or less, corn, soy and wheat.

    而在美國,農業是相當有趣的,

  • And that's three-quarters of the food that we're eating:

    而且相當發達,

  • processed foods and fast foods.

    農業生產出的糧食會變成我們所吃的食物。

  • Unfortunately, in our agricultural system,

    目前生產的農產品,大多都是玉米,大豆還有小麥。

  • we haven't done a good job in the last three decades

    如你所見,我們吃進去的食物裡,有四分之三

  • of exporting those technologies around the world.

    都是加工食品,還有速食。

  • So African agriculture, which is the place of most hunger in the world,

    不幸的,在我們的農業系統裡,

  • has actually fallen precipitously as hunger has risen.

    過去的三十年都沒有扮演好應有的角色,

  • So somehow we're not making the connect

    沒有將這些農業技術輸出到世界上的其他國家。

  • between exporting a good agricultural system

    所以在非洲,世界上最鬧飢荒的地方,

  • that will help feed people all around the world.

    農業其實是相當的落後,

  • Who is farming? That's what I was wondering.

    而飢餓的現象也在惡化。

  • So I went and stood on a big grain bin in the Midwest,

    但我們並不是想要談

  • and that really didn't help me understand farming,

    輸出農業系統這件事,

  • but I think it's a really cool picture.

    當然這會幫助餵飽世界上更多人。

  • And the reality is that between farmers in America --

    我所疑惑的是,到底是誰在耕種呢?

  • who actually, quite frankly, when I spend time in the Midwest,

    所以我去了中西部,站在一個巨大的穀物桶上。

  • are pretty large in general.

    這其實並沒有幫我了解到農業,

  • And their farms are also large.

    但我想我照了一張還蠻酷的照片。

  • But farmers in the rest of the world are actually quite skinny,

    而大家都知道的,事實是,

  • and that's because they're starving.

    當我在中西部

  • Most hungry people in the world are subsistence farmers.

    和美國農夫相處時,

  • And most of those people are women --

    我發現他們的塊頭都相當大,

  • which is a totally other topic that I won't get on right now,

    而他們的農場也相當大。

  • but I'd love to do the feminist thing at some point.

    但世界上其他地方的農夫

  • I think it's really interesting to look at agriculture from these two sides.

    實際上是相當瘦的,這是因為他們都吃不飽。

  • There's this large, consolidated farming that's led to what we eat in America,

    世界上大部分飢餓的人都是以農業為生的農夫,

  • and it's really been since around 1980, after the oil crisis,

    而在這之中,大部分是女人,

  • when, you know -- mass consolidation,

    這個話題雖然並不是我現在要討論的,

  • mass exodus of small farmers in this country.

    但我也樂意為女性議題做些事。

  • And then in the same time period,

    我認為從這兩方面來看農業發展,

  • we've kind of left Africa's farmers to do their own thing.

    是相當有趣的一件事。

  • Unfortunately, what is farmed ends up as what we eat.

    美國廣大且發展良好的農業,

  • And in America, a lot of what we eat has led to obesity

    決定了我們美國人的飲食。

  • and has led to a real change

    而這是從1980年開始的,

  • in sort of what our diet is, in the last 30 years.

    大概是在石油危機之後,

  • It's crazy.

    如同大家所知,那時候農業大量合併,

  • A fifth of kids under two drinks soda.

    小型農場的農夫紛紛出走。

  • Hello! You don't put soda in bottles.

    在這同時,

  • But people do, because it's so cheap,

    我們的策略有點是讓非洲的農民們自生自滅。

  • and so our whole food system in the last 30 years has really shifted.

    不幸的,耕作出的糧食就是我們所吃下肚的東西。

  • I mean, you know, it's not just in our own country,

    而在美國,我們吃的許多食物,

  • but really we're exporting the system around the world,

    導致人們肥胖,並且改變了

  • and when you look at the data of least developed countries --

    我們過去三十年來的飲食習慣。

  • especially in cities, which are growing really rapidly --

    這真的是很瘋狂。

  • people are eating American processed foods.

    兩歲以下的兒童有五分之一都喝汽水,

  • And in one generation, they're going from hunger

    拜託,沒人會把汽水放進奶瓶裡,

  • and all of the detrimental health effects of hunger

    但大家都這樣做,因為汽水很便宜。

  • to obesity and things like diabetes and heart disease in one generation.

    而我們整個的飲食習慣也在過去的三十年間

  • So the problematic food system is affecting both hunger and obesity.

    做了很大的改變。

  • Not to beat a dead horse, but this is a global food system

    我想,你們也知道,這不只發生在我們的國家,

  • where there's a billion people hungry and a billion people obese.

    但我們的的確確是把這樣的習慣傳到世界各地。

  • I think that's the only way to look at it.

    當你看看這些發展最落後國家的數據,

  • And instead of taking these two things

    尤其是在城市中,人們食用美國加工食品的數據,

  • as bifurcated problems that are very separate,

    成長得相當快。

  • it's really important to look at them as one system.

    而在同一個世代中,

  • We get a lot of our food from all around the world

    有些人處於飢餓狀態,

  • and people from all around the world are importing our food system,

    還要承受飢餓所引起的健康問題,

  • so it's incredibly relevant to start a new way of looking at it.

    有些人則過度肥胖,有糖尿病、

  • I've learned -- and the technology people here,

    心臟病等問題。

  • which I'm totally not one of --

    所以這種有問題的飲食習慣,

  • but apparently, it really takes 30 years

    正同時產生出飢餓與肥胖這兩個問題。

  • for a lot of technologies to become really endemic to us,

    我們並不是在老調重彈,

  • like the mouse and the Internet and Windows.

    但這是一個全球性的飲食問題,

  • You know, there's 30-year cycles.

    在這之中有十億人在捱餓,另外卻也有十億人過度肥胖。

  • I think 2010 can be a really interesting year

    我想唯一解決問題的方法,

  • because it is the end of the 30-year cycle,

    不是把這兩個問題

  • and it's the birthday of the global food system.

    看成毫不相干的兩件事,

  • That's the first birthday I want to talk about.

    而是把飢餓與肥胖看成是同一個問題。

  • If we really think that this is something that's happened in the last 30 years,

    我們從世界各地取得許多食物,

  • there's hope in that.

    同樣的,世界各地的人也向美國學習飲食習慣。

  • It's the 30th anniversary of GMO crops

    所以,從新的角度看待這件事是相當重要的。

  • and the Big Gulp, Chicken McNuggets, high-fructose corn syrup,

    而我學到的是,

  • the farm crisis in America

    這裡有相當多的科技人士,我當然不在其內,

  • and the change in how we've addressed agriculture internationally.

    但很明顯的,許多科學家

  • So there's a lot of reasons to take this 30-year time period

    必須花上三十年才能做出市場上的流行商品,

  • as sort of the creation of this new food system.

    像是滑鼠,網路還有微軟的Windows。

  • I'm not the only one who's obsessed with this whole 30-year thing.

    你知道的,這是個三十年的循環。

  • The icons like Michael Pollan and Jamie Oliver in his TED Prize wish

    我認為2010年會是相當有趣的一年,

  • both addressed this last three-decade time period

    因為到2010年會是這一個三十年循環的結尾。

  • as incredibly relevant for food system change.

    這是全球新世代飲食習慣的三十週年紀念日,

  • Well, I really care about 1980

    我想要談談這第一個三十週年。

  • because it's also the 30th anniversary of me this year.

    大家都知道,如果我們真的認為

  • And so in my lifetime,

    這是過去三十年累積下來而產生的結果,那我們還有希望。

  • a lot of what's happened in the world --

    這是基因作物、重量杯汽水、

  • and being a person obsessed with food --

    麥克雞塊、高果糖玉米糖漿、美國農場危機、

  • a lot of this has really changed.

    以及我們對全球農業

  • So my second dream is that I think we can look to the next 30 years

    態度轉變的三十週年紀念日。

  • as a time to change the food system again.

    所以將這個三十年的週期看做是

  • And we know what's happened in the past,

    新飲食習慣的誕生,是很有道理的。

  • so if we start now and we look at technologies

    我並不是唯一一個執著於這個三十年週期的人,

  • and improvements to the food system long-term,

    代表人物像是麥克。保倫,

  • we might be able to recreate the food system

    以及傑米。奧利佛,他在許下TED願望時,

  • so when I give my next talk and I'm 60 years old,

    就曾指出,過去的三十年,

  • I'll be able to say that it's been a success.

    是我們飲食習慣改變的重大時期。

  • So I'm announcing today the start of a new organization,

    老實說,我也真的很在乎1980年,

  • or a new fund within the FEED Foundation, called the 30 Project.

    因為今年剛好也是我三十歲生日。

  • And the 30 Project is really focused

    而在我的生命中,

  • on these long-term ideas for food system change.

    發生了許多事,

  • And I think by aligning international advocates that are addressing hunger

    做為一個對食物有所執著的人,

  • and domestic advocates that are addressing obesity,

    很多事真的都變得不一樣了。

  • we might actually look for long-term solutions

    所以我的第二個夢想是,

  • that will make the food system better for everyone.

    讓我們往下一個三十年看,

  • We all tend to think that these systems are quite different

    並將其視為再一次改變飲食習慣的時機。

  • and people argue whether or not organic can feed the world,

    我們知道過去所發生的一切,

  • but if we take a 30-year view, there's more hope in collaborative ideas.

    如果我們從現在開始,正視飲食習慣的長期發展,

  • So I'm hoping that by connecting really disparate organizations

    導入科技加以改善,

  • like the ONE campaign and Slow Food,

    我們很有可能可以再創造出新的飲食習慣。

  • which don't seem right now to have much in common,

    這樣一來,當我六十歲發表下一場演說時,

  • we can talk about holistic, long-term, systemic solutions

    我就能夠說這真的是非常成功。

  • that will improve food for everyone.

    所以我現在要來宣布一個新組織正式成立,

  • Some ideas I've had is like, look, the reality is --

    這是在FEED基金會下的一個計畫,叫做30計畫。

  • kids in the South Bronx need apples and carrots

    30計畫著重在

  • and so do kids in Botswana.

    改變飲食習慣

  • And how are we going to get those kids those nutritious foods?

    這個長期理念。

  • Another thing that's become incredibly global is production of meat and fish.

    我想將國際對於飢餓的關注

  • Understanding how to produce protein

    和國內對於肥胖議題的重視做結合,

  • in a way that's healthy for the environment

    我們真的很有可能找到長期的解決方式,

  • and healthy for people

    並找出有益於每個人的飲食習慣。

  • will be incredibly important to address things like climate change

    我們都認為飲食習慣大相逕庭,

  • and how we use petrochemical fertilizers.

    人們也質疑有機食物是否能夠餵飽全世界,

  • And, you know, these are really relevant topics

    但如果我們從30年週期的角度看,

  • that are long-term and important

    將這些議題綜合起來,會更有希望找到解決方案。

  • for both people in Africa who are small farmers

    所以我希望藉由結合不同的組織團體,

  • and people in America who are farmers and eaters.

    像是ONE運動以及慢食運動,

  • And I also think that thinking about processed foods in a new way,

    這些組織現在似乎沒有太多共通處,

  • where we actually price the negative externalities

    但我們可討論長期、整體性且有系統的解決方案,

  • like petrochemicals and like fertilizer runoff

    來改善你我所吃的食物。

  • into the price of a bag of chips --

    有些想法,像是我剛提的,

  • Well, if that bag of chips then becomes inherently more expensive than an apple,

    在南布朗克斯的孩子需要蘋果與胡蘿蔔,

  • then maybe it's time for a different sense of personal responsibility in food choice

    而在博茨瓦納的孩子也一樣。

  • because the choices are actually choices

    那我們要如何讓這些孩子取得營養的食物呢?

  • instead of three-quarters of the products being made just from corn, soy and wheat.

    另一個全球化的議題則是肉類與魚類的生產,

  • The 30Project.org is launched

    瞭解如何生產出

  • and I've gathered a coalition of a few organizations to start.

    能兼顧環境與人類健康的蛋白質,

  • And it'll be growing over the next few months.

    將是很重要的事,因為這關係到氣候變遷、

  • But I really hope that you will all think of ways

    以及我們如何使用石化肥料等議題。

  • that you can look long-term at things like the food system

    大家都知道,這些都是息息相關的議題,

  • and make change.

    長期來說,

  • (Applause)

    對非洲的小農夫、美國農夫、

I'm Ellen and I'm totally obsessed with food.

譯者: Jing Yao 審譯者: Marie Wu

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 飲食 肥胖 農業 習慣 相當

TED】埃倫-古斯塔夫森:肥胖+飢餓=1個全球糧食問題(Ellen Gustafson:肥胖+飢餓=1個全球糧食問題)。 (【TED】Ellen Gustafson: Obesity + hunger = 1 global food issue (Ellen Gustafson: Obesity + hunger = 1 global food issue))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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