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  • The first piano was invented around 1700 by this guy, Bartolomeo Cristofori in Italy.

    第一架鋼琴是在大約 1700 年由這個人發明的,來自義大利的 Bartolomeo Cristofori。

  • Before that, the dominant keyboard instruments were clavichords and harpsichords.

    在這之前,主要的鍵盤樂器就是翼琴和大鍵琴。

  • These were fairly popular, but they had certain limitations.

    這些樂器相當熱門,但還是有諸多限制。

  • You could only play them at one volume, which wasn't really loud enough to keep up wtih the orchestras of the day.

    他們的音量只有一種,不足以大聲到可以在今日管弦樂團中擔當一角。

  • Bartolomeo invented a different sort of keyboard instrument that allowed you to play both loudly and softly.

    Bartolomeo 發明了一種不一樣的鍵盤樂器,可以讓你彈得既響亮又柔和.

  • They called it the pianoforte, which literally means "soft loud."

    他們稱它為鋼琴 (pianoforte),字面意思就是「輕柔又響亮」。

  • The difference is in the mechanics.

    它的差別在於機械原理。

  • With a harpsichord or clavichord, when you hit a key, it plucks a string.

    彈奏翼琴或大鍵琴時,按下一個鍵,它會拉一根弦。

  • This means no matter how hard you hit the key, the sound will come out at the same volume.

    表示不管你多用力按琴鍵,發出來的音量都是一樣的。

  • With a piano, you hit a key and a hammer strikes the string.

    彈奏鋼琴時,你按下一個鍵,槌子會敲一根弦。

  • This allows two real differences.

    這樣就有兩種差異了。

  • First, the note sounds louder or softer depending on how hard you strike the key, and therefore, how hard the hammer strikes the string.

    首先,聲音的音量響亮或柔和取決於你按鍵的力道,也因此取決於槌子敲在弦上的力道。

  • And second, the note rings out and sustains until you let the key go.

    其次,音符會發出來並持續發音直到手指離開琴鍵。

  • All of this basically serve to make the piano a more expressive, dynamic instrument.

    這些基本的功能讓鋼琴成為更容易表現、更活潑的樂器。

  • Composers and musicians were suddenly able to create short, percussive sounds or full legato textures, roar to fill big concert halls, or whisper in small, intimate parlor rooms, accompany full orchestras, or play rich, harmonic songs all alone.

    作曲家和音樂家突然間都可以創作短而有力的聲音或完整圓滑的樂曲;有如撼動整個音樂廳的吼聲,或是在私人休息室的細語;可以擔任管弦樂團中的伴奏,也可以獨奏豐富和諧的曲子。

  • The piano really began to take off in popularity in the 19th century with the rise of the first piano superstars, including Frédéric Chopin and Franz Liszt.

    19 世紀鋼琴的人氣隨著第一位鋼琴明星的崛起開始蒸蒸日上,這些明星包括蕭邦和里斯特。

  • Over time, inventors added more keys, a stronger iron frame, a better soundboard, steel wire strings, and a whole bunch of other stuff to give the piano a bigger, richer sound.

    另外,發明者增加了更多的按鍵、更強的鋼鐵結構、更好的共鳴板、鋼弦,還有其他許多零件,賦予鋼琴更宏亮、豐富的聲音。

  • They also added pedals, which we still use today.

    他們還加上了至今我們仍在使用的踏板。

  • The left most is the damper, which allows you to soften the sound a little.

    左邊踏板是阻尼器,讓你彈出的聲音更柔和。

  • The middle can be different on different pianos, but is most commonly the sostenuto, which is rarely used today, but sustains certain notes.

    中間踏板因各個鋼琴而異,但最常見的功能是弱音,除了幾個特定的曲子之外,現在很少人用到。

  • The one on the far right is the most commonly used. It's called the sustain pedal, which lets you hold notes even after you let the key go.

    最右邊的踏板則是最常用的稱為延音踏板 (制音踏板),讓你的手離開琴鍵之後,音還能維持。

  • Of course many of you taking this course are probably playing on a keyboard instead of a piano.

    當然很多看這影片的人很可能都是彈電鋼琴,而不是鋼琴。

  • The technology for keyboards started to develop in the early 20th century with electronic instruments like the Ondes Martenot.

    電鋼琴的科技隨者電子樂器發源於 20 世紀初,像是馬特諾電子琴。

  • In the '60s, Robert Moog and others began producing commercially available portable synthesizers.

    在 60 年代,羅伯特.穆格和其他人開始商業製造可攜帶的合成樂器。

  • They generate all sorts of crazy sounds.

    他們製造出的音都很瘋狂。

  • By the '80s, MIDI appeared, and suddenly instruments could communicate digitally, both with each other and with computers.

    在 80 年代,MIDI (樂器數位介面) 出現了,突然讓樂器能以數位化的方式溝通,全部都可以連接至電腦。

  • Nowadays, you can pretty much find a keyboard to make any sound you want to make, including those that sound and feel pretty similar to a piano.

    現在,你可以很容易找到電鋼琴,彈出任何你想要的音,包括那些與鋼琴相似的音。

  • I can't help but wonder what sort of sound Mozart would've gone for if he'd had the choices we have available today.

    我忍不住好奇,如果莫札特有我們現在擁有的樂器選擇,他會創造出什麼樣的音樂。

  • But despite all these technological advances, we keep coming back again and again to the beauty and expressiveness of the piano, which has allowed so many musicians to stretch the full limits of their creativity with its endless possibilities.

    不過儘管有這些科技上的進展,我們還是會不斷回到美麗又容易表現的鋼琴上面,因為鋼琴無限的可能性讓許多音樂家可以發揮創意。跳脫框架。

The first piano was invented around 1700 by this guy, Bartolomeo Cristofori in Italy.

第一架鋼琴是在大約 1700 年由這個人發明的,來自義大利的 Bartolomeo Cristofori。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 鋼琴 樂器 踏板 音樂家 音量 響亮

鋼琴並非總是現在這副鋼琴樣?來看看從前的鋼琴吧!(A Brief History of the Piano)

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    Jenny 發佈於 2018 年 03 月 22 日
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