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字幕列表 影片播放

  • I'm here today representing a team of artists and technologists and filmmakers

    譯者: Adrienne Lin 審譯者: Peiru Liao

  • that worked together on a remarkable film project for the last four years.

    今天我代表一群藝術家、技術人員、電影製作團隊

  • And along the way they created a breakthrough in computer visualization.

    過去四年間,我們共同完成了一項非凡的電影工程

  • So I want to show you a clip of the film now.

    過程中也突破了電影繪圖技術

  • Hopefully it won't stutter.

    我先讓大家看個電影片段

  • And if we did our jobs well, you won't know that we were even involved.

    希望播放時不會卡住

  • Voice (Video): I don't know how it's possible ...

    如果我們做好工作的話,你們不會看出我們動了什麼手腳

  • but you seem to have more hair.

    影片: 我不知道這是怎麼回事

  • Brad Pitt: What if I told you that I wasn't getting older ...

    但你頭髮好像變多了

  • but I was getting younger than everybody else?

    班傑明巴頓: 如果我告訴你,我沒有越來越老

  • I was born with some form of disease.

    反而是越來越年輕了呢?

  • Voice: What kind of disease?

    我出生就有一種病

  • BP: I was born old.

    什麼樣的病?

  • Man: I'm sorry.

    我出生就是老人的樣子

  • BP: No need to be. There's nothing wrong with old age.

    我很遺憾

  • Girl: Are you sick?

    不用遺憾,老又沒有錯

  • BP: I heard momma and Tizzy whisper,

    你生病了嗎?

  • and they said I was gonna die soon.

    我聽到媽和Tizzy講悄悄話

  • But ... maybe not.

    說我活不了多久

  • Girl: You're different than anybody I've ever met.

    但... 也許他們說錯了

  • BB: There were many changes ...

    我沒見過像你這樣的人

  • some you could see, some you couldn't.

    我身體開始變化

  • Hair started growing in all sorts of places,

    有些看的見,有些則不行

  • along with other things.

    體毛開始到處長

  • I felt pretty good, considering.

    還有一些其他東西

  • Ed Ulbrich: That was a clip from "The Curious Case of Benjamin Button."

    其實這感覺還不賴

  • Many of you, maybe you've seen it or you've heard of the story,

    Ed Ulbrich: 這是電影"班傑明的奇幻旅程"片段

  • but what you might not know

    相信很多人已經看過、或聽過這故事

  • is that for nearly the first hour of the film,

    但你也許不知道

  • the main character, Benjamin Button, who's played by Brad Pitt,

    電影前將近一小時

  • is completely computer-generated from the neck up.

    由布萊德彼特飾演的主角 班傑明巴頓

  • Now, there's no use of prosthetic makeup

    頸部以上完全是電腦合成的

  • or photography of Brad superimposed over another actor's body.

    沒有靠任何化妝技術

  • We've created a completely digital human head.

    也不是布萊德的臉,蓋過另一個演員的身體

  • So I'd like to start with a little bit of history on the project.

    我們全以數位方式製造出人頭

  • This is based on an F. Scott Fitzgerald short story.

    我先稍微說一下製作起源

  • It's about a man who's born old and lives his life in reverse.

    電影改編自史考特.費滋傑羅的短篇故事

  • Now, this movie has floated around Hollywood

    關於一個出生時80歲的男人,越活越年輕的故事

  • for well over half a century,

    這部電影在好萊塢就謠傳了很久

  • and we first got involved with the project in the early '90s,

    超過50年有吧

  • with Ron Howard as the director.

    我們第一次接觸這計劃是在1990年初

  • We took a lot of meetings and we seriously considered it.

    導演是朗霍華

  • But at the time we had to throw in the towel.

    我們討論了很久,認真考慮要接

  • It was deemed impossible.

    到後來真的必須放棄的時候

  • It was beyond the technology of the day to depict a man aging backwards.

    這已經被認為是不可能的任務

  • The human form, in particular the human head,

    當時的科技無法刻畫出返老還童的樣子

  • has been considered the Holy Grail of our industry.

    整個人,特別是頭的部份

  • The project came back to us about a decade later,

    在我們這一行,稱作是聖杯傳奇

  • and this time with a director named David Fincher.

    約十年後又有人提起這計畫

  • Now, Fincher is an interesting guy.

    這次的導演是大衛芬奇

  • David is fearless of technology,

    芬奇真的是怪咖一個

  • and he is absolutely tenacious.

    一點都不怕技術上困難

  • And David won't take "no."

    就是堅持一定要做

  • And David believed, like we do in the visual effects industry,

    沒有人能拒絕他

  • that anything is possible

    大衛、和我們做特效的持同樣看法

  • as long as you have enough time, resources and, of course, money.

    沒有什麼是不可能的

  • And so David had an interesting take on the film,

    只要有足夠的時間、資源,當然還有資金

  • and he threw a challenge at us.

    大衛對這部電影有獨特的想法

  • He wanted the main character of the film to be played

    丟給我們這項考驗

  • from the cradle to the grave by one actor.

    他要這部電影的主角,從出生到死亡

  • It happened to be this guy.

    都要是同一個人來演

  • We went through a process of elimination and a process of discovery

    也就是這個人

  • with David, and we ruled out, of course, swapping actors.

    我們經過了一連串淘汰、一連串新發現

  • That was one idea: that we would have different actors,

    由於大衛堅持,我們排除使用不同演員的方法

  • and we would hand off from actor to actor.

    本來是想利用不同演員

  • We even ruled out the idea of using makeup.

    分別演出不同階段的人生

  • We realized that prosthetic makeup just wouldn't hold up,

    我們也排除利用化妝

  • particularly in close-up.

    因為用石膏來弄根本做不出來

  • And makeup is an additive process. You have to build the face up.

    尤其是近拍的時候

  • And David wanted to carve deeply into Brad's face

    況且也要先做出一張臉才能化

  • to bring the aging to this character.

    大衛想要在布萊德彼特的臉上刻畫出皺紋

  • He needed to be a very sympathetic character.

    來表現出這角色的年老樣貌

  • So we decided to cast a series of little people

    他必須是個能讓人感同身受的角色

  • that would play the different bodies of Benjamin

    所以我們決定選出一批小人物

  • at the different increments of his life

    來演出班傑明在不同人生階段

  • and that we would in fact create a computer-generated version of Brad's head,

    的各種身體樣貌

  • aged to appear as Benjamin,

    然後我們利用電腦合成出布萊德的頭

  • and attach that to the body of the real actor.

    弄出不同年紀的班傑明

  • Sounded great.

    在接上其他演員的身體

  • Of course, this was the Holy Grail of our industry,

    聽起來很可行

  • and the fact that this guy is a global icon didn't help either,

    當然,這可是我們這行的聖杯傳奇

  • because I'm sure if any of you ever stand in line at the grocery store,

    加上這傢伙沒有人不認識

  • you know -- we see his face constantly.

    只要去過雜貨店一定看過他的臉

  • So there really was no tolerable margin of error.

    這可不是什麼好處

  • There were two studios involved: Warner Brothers and Paramount.

    正因如此我們不能出錯

  • And they both believed this would make an amazing film, of course,

    過程中由兩個製片公司一起合作: 華納兄弟和派拉蒙

  • but it was a very high-risk proposition.

    當然,他們都深信這會是一部很讚的電影

  • There was lots of money and reputations at stake.

    無庸置疑也是很冒險的計劃

  • But we believed that we had a very solid methodology

    攸關大把金錢與名聲

  • that might work ...

    我們認為我們有很可靠的方法

  • But despite our verbal assurances,

    有可能成功的

  • they wanted some proof.

    但我們的口頭保證不夠

  • And so, in 2004, they commissioned us to do a screen test of Benjamin.

    他們要看到證據

  • And we did it in about five weeks.

    所以在2004年,他們要求看到班傑明的試鏡畫面

  • But we used lots of cheats and shortcuts.

    我們做了約五週

  • We basically put something together to get through the meeting.

    用了些旁門左道

  • I'll roll that for you now. This was the first test for Benjamin Button.

    基本上我們東加西減地混過會談

  • And in here, you can see, that's a computer-generated head --

    現在放給各位看。這是第一個班傑明巴頓

  • pretty good -- attached to the body of an actor.

    在這裡可以看出是電腦合成出來的頭

  • And it worked. And it gave the studio great relief.

    其實不錯,可以接到演員的身體

  • After many years of starts and stops on this project,

    也算成功,製片那邊終於放下大石

  • and making that tough decision,

    經過多年走走停停

  • they finally decided to greenlight the movie.

    作出一些困難的決定

  • And I can remember, actually, when I got the phone call to congratulate us,

    他們終於同意了

  • to say the movie was a go,

    我還記得,當我接到電話

  • I actually threw up.

    恭喜我們電影終於可以開拍

  • (Laughter)

    我還吐了

  • You know, this is some tough stuff.

    (笑聲)

  • So we started to have early team meetings,

    這是艱難的工作

  • and we got everybody together,

    我們開始初期的團隊會議

  • and it was really more like therapy in the beginning,

    集合大家

  • convincing each other and reassuring each other that we could actually undertake this.

    剛開始有點像在諮商治療

  • We had to hold up an hour of a movie with a character.

    告訴彼此,我們一定做得到的

  • And it's not a special effects film; it has to be a man.

    要能撐過電影一個小時

  • We really felt like we were in a -- kind of a 12-step program.

    而這不是特效片,必須用真人

  • And of course, the first step is: admit you've got a problem. (Laughter)

    這真的感覺像是戒酒那種12步計畫

  • So we had a big problem:

    當然第一步就是: 承認問題的存在

  • we didn't know how we were going to do this.

    我們問題可大了

  • But we did know one thing.

    不曉得到底怎麼開始

  • Being from the visual effects industry,

    但我們知道

  • we, with David, believed that we now had enough time,

    作視覺特效這行

  • enough resources, and, God, we hoped we had enough money.

    我們和大衛相信的,只有足夠時間

  • And we had enough passion to will the processes and technology into existence.

    足夠資源,天啊,希望我們有足夠資金

  • So, when you're faced with something like that,

    我們也有足夠的熱誠,成功的決心

  • of course you've got to break it down.

    當你面對這樣的情況

  • You take the big problem and you break it down into smaller pieces

    當然得先開始分析問題

  • and you start to attack that.

    你面前有個大問題,把它拆成小問題

  • So we had three main areas that we had to focus on.

    個個攻破

  • We needed to make Brad look a lot older --

    主要集中在三個點

  • needed to age him 45 years or so.

    我們要布萊德看起來很老

  • And we also needed to make sure that we could take Brad's idiosyncrasies,

    我們要幫他加個45歲左右

  • his little tics, the little subtleties that make him who he is

    我們得確定它有布萊德的臉部特徵

  • and have that translate through our process

    臉部肌肉的抽動,各種他特有的細微變化

  • so that it appears in Benjamin on the screen.

    經過我們的製作過程

  • And we also needed to create a character

    讓班傑明能夠呈現於大螢幕

  • that could hold up under, really, all conditions.

    我們也需要創造一個

  • He needed to be able to walk in broad daylight,

    能夠做出每件事的角色

  • at nighttime, under candlelight,

    他要能走在陽光下、

  • he had to hold an extreme close-up,

    夜晚、燭光下

  • he had to deliver dialogue,

    近拍不能露餡

  • he had to be able to run, he had to be able to sweat,

    要能唸台詞

  • he had to be able to take a bath, to cry,

    要能跑、能流汗

  • he even had to throw up.

    能洗澡、能哭

  • Not all at the same time --

    甚至要能嘔吐

  • but he had to, you know, do all of those things.

    當然不是同時

  • And the work had to hold up for almost the first hour of the movie.

    但他要能做到每件事

  • We did about 325 shots.

    而且要能撐住電影前一小時

  • So we needed a system that would allow Benjamin

    我們拍了325個景

  • to do everything a human being can do.

    我們需要一個系統

  • And we realized that there was a giant chasm

    讓班傑明做出人類能做的所有事

  • between the state of the art of technology in 2004

    我們知道2004年當時最先進的技術

  • and where we needed it to be.

    和我們所想要的技術

  • So we focused on motion capture.

    仍有很大一段距離

  • I'm sure many of you have seen motion capture.

    所以我們專注於動態捕捉技術

  • The state of the art at the time

    我相信大部分的人都看過動態捕捉

  • was something called marker-based motion capture.

    當時最先進的技術是

  • I'll give you an example here.

    利用標記點的動態捕捉

  • It's basically the idea of, you wear a leotard,

    給大家看個例子

  • and they put some reflective markers on your body,

    主要就是,穿著緊身衣

  • and instead of using cameras,

    在身上標出一些反光標記點

  • there're infrared sensors around a volume,

    物體四周放置紅外線感應

  • and those infrared sensors track the three-dimensional position

    而不是攝影機

  • of those markers in real time.

    這些紅外線感應,會追蹤標記點

  • And then animators can take the data of the motion of those markers

    當時的3D位置

  • and apply them to a computer-generated character.

    接著動畫師把標記點的數據

  • You can see the computer characters on the right

    輸入到電腦做出來的角色上

  • are having the same complex motion as the dancers.

    可以看到右邊的動畫角色

  • But we also looked at numbers of other films at the time

    也能做出和舞者一樣的複雜動作

  • that were using facial marker tracking,

    我們也看了一些

  • and that's the idea of putting markers on the human face

    使用臉部標記點的電影

  • and doing the same process.

    就是把點標記在臉上

  • And as you can see, it gives you a pretty crappy performance.

    過程相同

  • That's not terribly compelling.

    可以看到,感覺蠻假的

  • And what we realized

    這樣可沒法說服別人

  • was that what we needed

    我們了解到

  • was the information that was going on between the markers.

    我們所需要的

  • We needed the subtleties of the skin.

    是點與點之間的數據

  • We needed to see skin moving over muscle moving over bone.

    我們要皮膚的微妙變化

  • We needed creases and dimples and wrinkles and all of those things.

    要能看到骨頭到肌肉到皮膚的變化

  • Our first revelation was to completely abort and walk away from

    需要皺紋、酒窩、細紋等等

  • the technology of the day, the status quo, the state of the art.

    我們了解現在需要完全放棄

  • So we aborted using motion capture.

    當時最先進的技術

  • And we were now well out of our comfort zone,

    我們放棄使用動態捕捉

  • and in uncharted territory.

    丟下了自己所熟悉的技術

  • So we were left with this idea

    到了陌生的領域

  • that we ended up calling "technology stew."

    我們有了一種想法

  • We started to look out in other fields.

    後來我們稱為科技大雜燴

  • The idea was that we were going to find

    我們開始往別的領域找

  • nuggets or gems of technology

    目的是要尋找出

  • that come from other industries like medical imaging,

    其他科技領域像是醫學影像

  • the video game space,

    或電玩空間技術

  • and re-appropriate them.

    之中的稀世珍品

  • And we had to create kind of a sauce.

    拿來重新研究

  • And the sauce was code in software

    雜燴也需要點醬料

  • that we'd written to allow these disparate pieces of technology

    就是軟體程式碼

  • to come together and work as one.

    讓這些不同的領域的技術

  • Initially, we came across some remarkable research

    能整合在一起

  • done by a gentleman named Dr. Paul Ekman in the early '70s.

    起先,我們找到一項傑出的研究

  • He believed that he could, in fact,

    是70年代初期,Paul Ekman博士提出的

  • catalog the human face.

    他相信他有辦法

  • And he came up with this idea of Facial Action Coding System, or FACS.

    將人臉目錄化

  • He believed that there were 70 basic poses

    他想到使用臉部表情辨識系統(FACS)

  • or shapes of the human face,

    他相信人的臉型

  • and that those basic poses or shapes of the face

    有70種基本表情動作

  • can be combined to create infinite possibilities

    只要把基本動作或臉型

  • of everything the human face is capable of doing.

    結合起來就能創造出

  • And of course, these transcend age, race, culture, gender.

    人臉做的出的無限表情

  • So this became the foundation of our research as we went forward.

    不論年齡、種族、文化、性別,這70種動作都是一樣的

  • And then we came across some remarkable technology

    這變成我們往後的基礎點

  • called Contour.

    之後我們發現了項非凡的技術

  • And here you can see a subject having phosphorus makeup

    叫做輪廓提取(Contour)

  • stippled on her face.

    現在看到的,是在人臉上

  • And now what we're looking at is really creating a surface capture

    輕輕塗上磷

  • as opposed to a marker capture.

    接下來是表面捕捉

  • The subject stands in front of a computer array of cameras,

    正好與點的捕捉相反

  • and those cameras can, frame-by-frame,

    接著站在一排電腦攝影機前面

  • reconstruct the geometry of exactly what the subject's doing at the moment.

    攝影機就會一景一景的

  • So, effectively, you get 3D data in real time of the subject.

    重製出人當時的動作

  • And if you look in a comparison,

    立刻就能得到3D數據

  • on the left, we see what volumetric data gives us

    各位可以看看比較

  • and on the right you see what markers give us.

    左邊是體積數據的結果

  • So, clearly, we were in a substantially better place for this.

    右邊是標記點的

  • But these were the early days of this technology,

    可以清楚看出,我們有很大的進步

  • and it wasn't really proven yet.

    但這還是初期的結果

  • We measure complexity and fidelity of data

    還沒完全成功

  • in terms of polygonal count.

    但我們依據多邊形數量來計算

  • And so, on the left, we were seeing 100,000 polygons.

    數據的複雜性和準確性

  • We could go up into the millions of polygons.

    左邊可以看到有十萬的多邊形

  • It seemed to be infinite.

    還可以做到幾十萬個

  • This was when we had our "Aha!"

    甚至無限多

  • This was the breakthrough.

    這就是我們"啊哈"的時候

  • This is when we're like, "OK, we're going to be OK,

    這是個大突破

  • This is actually going to work."

    這時我們才告訴自己

  • And the "Aha!" was, what if we could take Brad Pitt,

    一切都會沒事

  • and we could put Brad in this device,

    "啊哈"就是,我們或許可以請布萊德彼特

  • and use this Contour process,

    使用這個裝置

  • and we could stipple on this phosphorescent makeup

    再搭配輪廓提取

  • and put him under the black lights,

    塗上發磷光的顏料

  • and we could, in fact, scan him in real time

    用螢光燈照射

  • performing Ekman's FACS poses.

    拍攝Ekman的FACS臉部動作時

  • Right? So, effectively,

    就能即時掃描出來