字幕列表 影片播放 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 I became an inventor by accident. 譯者: kane tan 審譯者: Shelley Krishna Tsang I was out of the air force in 1956. No, no, that's not true: 我在偶然的情況下變成了發明家。 I went in in 1956, came out in 1959, 1956年我從空軍退伍。不對，我記錯了： was working at the University of Washington, 我在1956年進去，1959年離開的， and I came up with an idea, from reading a magazine article, 之後在華盛頓大學工作， for a new kind of a phonograph tone arm. 當我看雜誌文章時，想到了一個點子， Now, that was before cassette tapes, C.D.s, DVDs -- 用於留聲機的新型唱臂上。 any of the cool stuff we've got now. 那是在卡式錄音帶，CD，DVD -- And it was an arm that, 任何現在很酷的新玩意出來之前的事。 instead of hinging and pivoting as it went across the record, 那是一種當它在唱片上移動時 went straight: a radial, linear tracking tone arm. 不靠鏈條移動, 不繞著中樞軸旋轉的唱臂， And it was the hardest invention I ever made, but it got me started, 講明白一點，就是一種在半徑上作線性循跡的唱臂。 and I got really lucky after that. 這是我做過最困難的發明，但也是它讓我走上了這條路， And without giving you too much of a tirade, 這之後我就一直滿順利的。 I want to talk to you about an invention I brought with me today: 長篇大論就不多說了， my 44th invention. No, that's not true either. 我們直接來談我今天帶來的發明： Golly, I'm just totally losing it. 這是我第44項發明。不對，又錯了。 My 44th patent; about the 15th invention. 天啊，我已經搞混了。 I call this hypersonic sound. 這是我第44項專利，大概是第15項發明吧。 I'm going to play it for you in a couple minutes, 我稱它為超級超音波。(超越超音波) but I want to make an analogy before I do 我會用它來播放幾分鐘給各位聽， to this. 不過在這之前要先跟各位 I usually show this hypersonic sound and people will say, 說聲抱歉。 That's really cool, but what's it good for? 我常常秀這個超級超音波，可是大家都會問， And I say, What is the light bulb good for? 那東西真酷，不過有什麼用啊? Sound, light: I'm going to draw the analogy. 我說，燈泡有什麼用處呢？ When Edison invented the light bulb, pretty much looked like this. 我們來比較一下聲音和光線。 Hasn't changed that much. 當愛迪生發明燈泡，看起來大概就像這樣。 Light came out of it in every direction. 這並沒有改變太多。 Before the light bulb was invented, 光線從各個角度散放出來。 people had figured out how to put a reflector behind it, 在燈泡發明之前， focus it a little bit; 人們就知道它後面放個反射鏡， put lenses in front of it, 讓光線更集中； focus it a little bit better. 在前面放個透鏡， Ultimately we figured out how to make things like lasers 讓它更加集中。 that were totally focused. 最終我們發現怎麼去做出雷射 Now, think about where the world would be today 這種完全聚集的光線。 if we had the light bulb, 現在想想，如果我們有燈泡， but you couldn't focus light; 但是無法集中光線時， if when you turned one on it just went wherever it wanted to. 世界會變成怎麼樣； That's the way loudspeakers pretty much are. 當你點亮燈泡，光線四散的時候。 You turn on the loudspeaker, 那和喇叭差不多。 and after almost 80 years of having those gadgets, 當你打開喇叭時， the sound just kind of goes where it wants. 即使在它們已經發明了將近80年之後， Even when you're standing in front of a megaphone, 聲音仍然會隨便亂跑。 it's pretty much every direction. 即使你在站擴音器前面， A little bit of differential, but not much. 它還是幾乎往各個方向跑。 If the light bulb was the way the speaker is, 會有些許不同，但差不多。 and you couldn't focus or sharpen the edges or define it, 如果燈泡和喇叭一樣， we wouldn't have that, or movies in general, 你沒辦法把光線聚集，讓邊界變小或是限制它， or computers, or T.V. sets, 我們就不可能擁有，比如說電影， or C.D.s, or DVDs -- and just go down the list 或是電腦，或是電視機， of what the importance is 或是 CD, DVD -- 想想看 of being able to focus light. 把光線聚集起來 Now, after almost 80 years of having sound, 有多麼重要。 I thought it was about time that we figure out 在擁有聲音將近80年後的今日， a way to put sound where you want to. 我想差不多是時候去發覺 I have a couple of units. 如何將聲音導向你希望的位置。 That guy there was made for a demo I did yesterday early in the day 我這兒有一些設備。 for a big car maker in Detroit who wants to put them in a car -- 那是我昨天在底特律的一家汽車工廠做示範用的， small version, over your head -- 他們想把這個裝在車子裡 -- so that you can actually get binaural sound in a car. 用小的型號，裝在你的頭頂上方 -- What if I could aim sound the way I aim light? 這樣你就可以在車上聽見雙聲道。 I got this waterfall I recorded in my back yard. 如果我能夠將聲音像是光線一樣的去瞄準呢? Now, you're not going to hear a thing unless it hits you. 我在我的後院錄了這段瀑布的聲音。 Maybe if I hit the side wall it will bounce around the room. 除非它朝向你，否則你不會聽見這個聲音。 (Applause) 如果我讓它傳到邊牆上，也許它會產生一點回音。 The sound is being made right next to your ears. Is that cool? (掌聲) (Applause) 聲音就在你的耳朵旁邊。很酷吧? Because I have some limited time, I'll cut it off for a second, (掌聲) and tell you about how it works and what it's good for. 因為我的時間有限，所以暫時先展示到這裡， Course, like light, it's great to be able to put sound 接下來要跟大家說明它的原理和用途。 to highlight a clothing rack, or the cornflakes, or the toothpaste, 當然, 如果可以把聲音像光一樣 or a talking plaque in a movie theater lobby. 用來突顯衣架, 或是玉米片, 或是牙膏, Sony's got an idea -- Sony's our biggest customers right now. 或是在戲院大廳的看板, 那就太好了。 They tried this back in the '60s Sony 有一個點子 -- Sony 現在是我們最大的客戶。 and were too smart, and so they gave up. 早在1960年代他們就在嘗試這個， But they want to use it -- seriously. 不過當時人們的接受度不高，所以放棄了。 There's a mix an inventor has to have. 但是他們很認真的想要去使用它。 You have to be kind of smart, 對一個發明家而言，必須要有多元性。 and though I did not graduate from college doesn't mean I'm stupid, 你必須要有點小聰明， because you cannot be stupid and do very much in the world today. 雖然我大學沒畢業，但不表示我很笨， Too many other smart people out there. So. 因為如果你很笨，你就沒辦法做太多事。 I just happened to get my education in a little different way. 外頭有一大堆聰明的傢伙。 I'm not at all against education. 所以我用了不同的方式來進行我的學習。 I think it's wonderful; I think sometimes people, 我不反對接受教育。 when they get educated, lose it: 我覺得這很棒。只是我覺得有些人， they get so smart they're unwilling to look at things that they know better than. 當他們畢業之後就忘光了。 And we're living in a great time right now, 因為他們太聰明了，所以不願意去看他們已經知道的東西。 because almost everything's being explored anew. 我們生活在一個很棒的時代， I have this little slogan that I use a lot, which is: 因為幾乎所有東西都是全新設計的。 virtually nothing -- 我有一個座右銘， and I mean this honestly -- 事實上大部分的東西 -- has been invented yet. 都還沒有被發明出來 -- We're just starting. 我很認真的這麼想。 We're just starting to really discover the laws of nature and science and physics. 我們才剛剛開始而已。 And this is, I hope, a little piece of it. 我們才剛開始發現自然, 科學和物理的法則。 Sony's got this vision back -- to get myself on track -- 而這只是，我希望，其中的一小部份而已。 that when you stand in the checkout line in the supermarket, Sony 找回了這個想法 -- 讓我步上這條路 -- you're going to watch a new T.V. channel. 當你在超級市場結帳處排隊時， They know that when you watch T.V. at home, 你將會看見一個全新的電視頻道。 because there are so many choices 他們知道你在家看電視時， you can change channels, miss their commercials. 因為有太多選擇， A hundred and fifty-one million people every day stand in the line at the supermarket. 你會轉台而跳過他們的廣告了。 Now, they've tried this a couple years ago and it failed, 全球每天有一億五千萬人在超級市場中排隊。 because the checker gets tired of hearing the same message 他們幾年前曾經試過這個方法但失敗了， every 20 minutes, and reaches out, turns off the sound. 因為結帳人員會厭倦於每隔20分鐘就聽見同樣的東西， And, you know, if the sound isn't there, the sale typically isn't made. 結果就會去把聲音給關掉。 For instance, like, when you're on an airplane, they show the movie, 你知道，如果沒聲音，生意通常就做不成了。 you get to watch it for free; 例如，當你坐飛機時，他們會放電影， when you want to hear the sound, you pay. 你可以看免費的電影， And so ABC and Sony have devised this new thing 當你想聽音樂時，你卻必須付錢。 where when you step in the line in the supermarket -- 於是 ABC 和 Sony 想到這個新點子， initially it'll be Safeways. It is Safeways; 當你在超級市場排隊時 -- they're trying this in three parts of the country right now -- 頭一家將會是在 Safeways， you'll be watching TV. 他們正在國內三個分店試用 -- And hopefully they'll be sensitive 你會在那兒看他們的電視廣告。 that they don't want to offend you with just one more outlet. 所幸他們很細心， But what's great about it, from the tests that have been done, is, 聲音只會在你站的那條結帳隊伍中出現。 if you don't want to hear it, 而在這個測試裡最棒的事情是， you take about one step to the side and you don't hear it. 如果你不想聽的話， So, we create silence as much as we create sound. 你只要往旁邊站一步，你就不會聽見了。 ATMs that talk to you; nobody else hears it. 於是，如同我們創造聲音一般，我們也創造出寧靜。 Sit in bed, two in the morning, watch TV; 提款機對你說的事情，旁邊的人不會聽見。 your spouse, or someone, is next to you, asleep; 半夜兩點做在床上看電視時， doesn't hear it, doesn't wake up. 你的另一半或其他睡在你旁邊的人， We're also working on noise canceling things like snoring, noise from automobiles. 不會聽見聲音，更不會被吵醒。 I have been really lucky with this technology: 我們同時也在努力進行噪音消除，例如打鼾或手機的雜音。 all of a sudden as it is ready, the world is ready to accept it. 關於這項技術，我的運氣挺好的， They have literally beat a path to our door. 當它完成的同時，這個世界已經準備好去使用它了。 We've been selling it since about last September, October, 人們爭相找上門來。 and it's been immensely gratifying. 我們從去年九月十月左右就開始賣了， If you're interested in what it costs -- I'm not selling them today -- 大家的反應都很滿意。 but this unit, with the electronics and everything, 如果你想知道價格的話 -- 我今天不是來賣這東西的 -- if you buy one, is around a thousand bucks. 這一台附帶這些電子配備和其他東西， We expect by this time next year, 如果你想買的話，大概要一千美元左右。 it'll be hundreds, a few hundred bucks, to buy it. 我們希望到明天此時， It's not any more pricey than regular electronics. 價格能降到幾百塊美元。 Now, when I played it for you, you didn't hear the thunderous bass. 它將不會再比一般家用電器貴很多。 This unit that I played goes from about 200 hertz to above the range of hearing. 當我播放給大家聽時，你不會聽見吵雜的低音。 It's actually emitting ultrasound -- low-level ultrasound -- 我播放的這個設備可以從200Hz到超音波。 that's about 100,000 vibrations per second. 它可以發出超音波 --低頻的超音波 -- And the sound that you're hearing, 振動頻率大約每秒 10 萬次。 unlike a regular speaker on which all the sound is made on the face, 你所聽見的聲音， is made out in front of it, in the air. 不會像一般喇叭直接對著你的臉來， The air is not linear, as we've always been taught. 而是在你面前的空氣中產生。 You turn up the volume just a little bit -- 我們所了解的空氣是非線性的。 I'm talking about a little over 80 decibels -- 當你把音量提高一點時 -- and all of a sudden the air begins to corrupt signals you propagate. 我指的是高過80分貝 -- Here's why: the speed of sound is not a constant. It's fairly slow. 空氣會導致聲音被扭曲。 It changes with temperature and with barometric pressure. 因為，聲音並不是固定速度。它相當緩慢。 Now, imagine, if you will, without getting too technical, 它的速度會因為溫度和壓力而改變。 I'm making a little sine wave here in the air. 想像一下，如果用簡單的技術原理來說明， Well, if I turn up the amplitude too much, 當我在空氣中製造一個正弦波， I'm having an effect on the pressure, 如果我把擴大器開太大， which means during the making of that sine wave, 會因為壓力而產生干擾， the speed at which it is propagating is shifting. 就是說，當製造正弦波時， All of audio as we know it 剛生成的波，移動速度會產生變化。 is an attempt to be more and more perfectly linear. 我們所知道的聲波 Linearity means higher quality sound. 全都會趨向於形成線性。 Hypersonic sound is exactly the opposite: 線性代表高品質的聲音。 it's 100 percent based on non-linearity. 超級超音波則完全相反， An effect happens in the air, it's a corrupting effect of the sound -- 它是100%非線性的。 the ultrasound in this case -- that's emitted, 空氣造成的干擾，會將聲音扭曲 -- but it's so predictable 這裡的超音波會因此四散， that you can produce very precise audio out of that effect. 但這是可預期的， Now, the question is, where's the sound made? 所以你可以造出正確的聲音來導正這個干擾結果。 Instead of being made on the face of the cone, 現在的問題是，聲音在哪裡形成的呢? it's made at literally billions of little independent points 不同於原本由喇叭前面的振動膜發聲， along this narrow column in the air, 它是在狹長的空氣柱中 and so when I aim it towards you, 幾十億個獨立的小點所產生， what you hear is made right next to your ears. 所以當我將它瞄準你時， I said we can shorten the column, 你所聽見的是在你耳邊所發出的聲音。 we can spread it out to cover the couch. 我們可以將這個空氣柱變小， I can put it so that one ear hears one speaker, 也可以將它擴大到覆蓋整張沙發。 the other ear hears the other. That's true binaural sound. 我可以讓你一隻耳朵聽見一個喇叭的聲音， When you listen to stereo on your home system, 另一隻耳朵聽到另一個喇叭的聲音。這才是真正的立體聲。 your both ears hear both speakers. 當你在家裡聽立體音效時， Turn on the left speaker sometime 你的兩隻耳朵都能聽見兩個喇叭的聲音。 and notice you're hearing it also in your right ear. 有時只開左邊的喇叭時， So, the stage is more restricted -- 你的右耳還是會聽見聲音。 the sound stage that's supposed to spread out in front of you. 在舞台上的話限制就更多了 -- Because the sound is made in the air along this column, 因為聲音必須要傳到你的面前。 it does not follow the inverse square law, 正因為聲音是在空氣柱中產生的， which says it drops off about two thirds 它不會遵循反平方定理， every time you double the distance: 那是指當距離變成兩倍時， 6dB every time you go from one meter, for instance, to two meters. 音量會減少二分之三： That means you go to a rock concert or a symphony, 舉例來說，每移動一到兩公尺就會少 6 分貝。 and the guy in the front row gets the same level 也就是說，當你聽搖滾演唱會或交響樂時， as the guy in the back row, now, all of a sudden. 在後排的人所聽見的聲音， Isn't that terrific? 現在突然之間就和前排的人一樣了。 So, we've been, as I say, very successful, very lucky, 這不是很棒嗎? in having companies catch the vision of this, 因此，我們相當成功，也相當幸運， from cars -- car makers who want to put a stereo system in the front for the kids, 能有許多公司願意採用這種概念， and a separate system in the back -- 在車上 -- 汽車製造商想在前面替小孩們放一套立體聲系統， oh, no, the kids aren't driving today. 以及後面放置不同的立體聲系統 -- (Laughter) 喔，不對，小孩子不能開車。 I was seeing if you were listening. (笑聲) Actually, I haven't had breakfast yet. 我只是在試看看你有沒有注意聽。 A stereo system in the front for mom and dad, 事實上，我還沒吃早餐。 and maybe there's a little DVD player in the back for the kids, 在前面替爸爸媽媽放一套立體聲系統， and the parents don't want to be bothered with that, 後面也許有個DVD播放器讓小孩子看， or their rap music or whatever. 而父母們不想被這個 So, again, this idea of being able to put sound anywhere you want to 或是rap音樂或其他的吵到。 is really starting to catch on. 於是，可以讓你在任何想要的地方放音樂的概念 It also works for transmitting and communicating data. 逐漸趕上需求了。 It also works five times better underwater. 這也可以用來傳輸或溝通資料。 We've got the military -- have just deployed some of these into Iraq, 在水底的運作效果好上5倍。 where you can put fake troop movements 國軍採購了這些 -- 用在伊拉克戰爭時， quarter of a mile away on a hillside. 你可以在山腰的1/4英里外 (Laughter) 播放偽造的士兵走動聲音。 Or you can whisper in the ear of a supposed terrorist some Biblical verse. (笑聲) (Laughter) 或者你可以在疑似恐怖份子的耳邊小聲的說一些聖經的詩句。 I'm serious. And they have these infrared devices (笑聲) that can look at their countenance, 我是認真的。它們還有這些紅外線裝置， and see a fraction of a degree Kelvin in temperature shift 可以在一百碼外， from 100 yards away when they play this thing. 看見他們的表情， And so, another way of hopefully determining who's friendly and who isn't. 以及每一度絕對溫度的變化量。 We make a version with this which puts out 155 decibels. 希望這個能成為另一種判別敵我的方式。 Pain is 120. 我們還製造了一種可以造出155分貝的機器。 So it allows you to go nearly a mile away and communicate with people, 120分貝就能讓人感到痛苦。 and there can be a public beach just off to the side, 它可以讓你和距離一英里左右的人交談， and they don't even know it's turned on. 那可以是在公共海灘旁邊， We sell those to the military presently for about 70,000 dollars, 旁人甚至不會發現它已經被打開了。 and they're buying them as fast as we can make them. 我們最近把這東西以7萬美金賣給軍方， We put it on a turret with a camera, so that when they shoot at you, 我們才剛做好立刻就被他們買走了。 you're over there, and it's there. 我們將它裝置在砲塔上，並裝置了攝影機，當他們朝你射擊時， I have a bunch of other inventions. 你並不在他們瞄準的地方。 I invented a plasma antenna, to shift gears. 我還有許多其它發明。 Looked up at the ceiling of my office one day -- 我發明了一個用來變速的電漿天線。 I was working on a ground-penetrating radar project -- 有天我看著天花板想事情時 -- and my physicist CEO came in and said, "We have a real problem. 我正在進行一個地底探測雷達的案子 -- We're using very short wavelengths. 我的物理學CEO跑來跟我說，"我們遇到麻煩了。 We've got a problem with the antenna ringing. 我們用的是極短波長。 When you run very short wavelengths, 這會產生天線鳴叫的問題。 like a tuning fork the antenna resonates, 當使用極短波長時， and there's more energy coming out of the antenna 就像是用音叉讓天線產生共鳴， than there is the backscatter from the ground 這會讓天線產生出 that we're trying to analyze, taking too much processing." 比起地底反射獲得的還要更高的能量， I says, "Why don't we make an antenna that only exists when you want it? 這樣會造成分析上更多的困難。" Turn it on; turn it off. 我說，"為什麼不做一個只有在需要時存在的天線?