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Your daily 10-minute explanation of world
news starts right now. This is CNN 10 and

I`m Carl Azuz.
Not since the death of Mao Zedong has a Chinese
leader been as powerful as President Xi Jinping.

Zedong founded China`s communist government

following his death in 1976, experts say the
nation`s government wasn`t so much focused

on one man rule as it was in a sort of power-sharing

by a handful of high-ranking officials in
the communist party.

China still has presidents, though, and since
President Xi Jinping came to power in 2013,

his position as core leader of the ruling
party has only

gotten stronger. And this week, China`s government
announced it is getting rid of presidential

term limits. If it hadn`t done this, President

would have moved on in 2023. Now that it has,
he`s expected to remain China`s leader indefinitely.

While this makes his position appear stronger,
some international analysts say it could be

viewed as a sign of weakness, that the Chinese

trying to prevent any political rivals from
rising up. They also say he`ll carry more

responsibility for better or for worse. Any
sudden problems

with the economy, with China`s foreign policy
could squarely be blamed on president Xi.

But at this point, as it has been for several
years now, the

Chinese government is behind him.
would be voted on by the National People`s

Congress in March, but rest assured that the
body that

most people referred to as a rubber stamp
parliament does what communist leadership

tells it to, and that means that these term
limits will be

So, what does that mean?
Well, really, it`s the most tangible sign
yet that Xi Jinping plans to rule China for

a very long time especially when you look
at this move in a

broader context. It was in the fall of last
year that Xi was not only reelected as the

general secretary of the communist party,
but he had his

name enshrined in the communist party constitution
with the inclusion of, quote, Xi Jinping`s

thought, his guiding principles on what he
calls a new

era of socialism, that made him the most powerful
Chinese politician since Mao Zedong, the founder

of communist China.
AZUZ: Every public in the American state of
West Virginia has been closed for the past

three days while teachers and other school
employees are on

strike. They`re calling for higher wages and
better health care benefits.

In 2017, West Virginia ranked 48 out of the
50 states in average teacher salary. Governor

Jim Justice signed legislation last week that

educators a 2 percent pay raise starting this
summer and increases 1 percent next year and

the year after.
But teachers there have other concerns about
health insurance and taxes that the law doesn`t

address. Governor Justice says he hasn`t forgotten
teachers, but that they should be back in
the classroom. And some state lawmakers agree.

While the strike goes on, churches and community

have programs for students so working parents
don`t have to stay home. And teachers and

food pantries are sending extra meals to students
who normally

get them at school.
There are almost 20,000 teachers and more
than 277,000 students enrolled in West Virginia`s

public schools.
Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum

have been getting a lot of hype lately. And

some investors believe that these coins could
be the future of money, other experts believe

that what`s actually more valuable is the

technology. It`s known as Blockchain.
It`s basically a public list of transactions,
a more transparent record. You could think

of this digital ledger like a game of dominoes.

Blockchain is powered by a decentralized network
of computers that all work on the same task,

no one owns the system, everyone helps run

Whenever a transaction is initiated between
two computers, it has to be certified by another.

That makes it difficult for anyone that cheat.

the sale to go through, a bunch of mining
computers have to try and solve a cryptographic

puzzle, sort of like a really complicated
math problem. Once

one computer solves that puzzle, a record
of a successful transaction gets added to

the list for everyone to see. All editions
are permanent, so no

one can delete or change the data. You could
only keep at it.

You maybe asking yourself, what`s so great
about this glorified list? Well, since the

ledger can`t be changed after the fact, getting
away with

fraud is a lot harder. Blockchain advocates
also argue that this technology cuts out the

middleman by fulfilling the role of institutions
like banks and government agencies. This means
more direct access to your property, not to

mention the possibility of much smaller transaction

Sounds promising, but does it live up to the

The exchange of cryptocurrencies is a clear
use case. But Blockchain could also be useful

for other types of record keeping. Let`s say
you`re a

farmer and you lose the deed to your land
in a fire or a flood. If the government lost

your paperwork, too, you may be out of luck.
But if you

uploaded that deed to the Blockchain, it`s
easy to prove that you own that land.

In fact, people are experimenting with Blockchain
technology in a variety of places, from preventing

voter fraud to storing health records, to
authenticating memes on the Internet, even
the very institutions Blockchain threatens

to disrupt, or exploring the technology`s
possibilities with

companies like Bank of America investing in
their own Blockchain tools. But for right

now, those experiments are still in the early
stages and it

might be a while before we see the kind of
crazy Blockchain takeover that the media is

talking about.
AZUZ: On average, Americans spend more than
$250 billion on clothing every year. That

works to over $600 annually for every person
in the country.

But whether we outgrow or outlast the clothes
we get, there are some groups looking to outsmart

nature when it comes to the fabrics they`re
made of.

Does the future of leather and silk come from
collagen and yeast?

How we get rid of our own clothes isn`t exactly

environmentally friendly. According to 2014
report from the Environmental Protection Agency,
80 percent of our clothes and shoes end up

in landfills. And that cheap polyester, it
takes way

longer to decompose in cotton or wool. For
bio fabric company Bolt Threads, greener materials

come from an unusual source.
(on camera): Where did the inspiration for
this micro silk come from?

of frustration of scientists in graduate school.

Spider silk without spiders, this is not a
new idea.

It`s been around for about 50 years, but no
one can make it.

CRANE (voice-over): Spider silk is surprisingly
strong, making it in a factory starts by isolating

the proteins that make it so stuff. They
recreate them here in these tanks, using yeast
and sugar.

(on camera): And how long does the whole process

WIDMAIER: This is about a three-day process.
WIDMAIER: This had actually turns out to be
about 10 percent lighter fabric and about

30 percent warmer. So, we actually learned
this on

accident. What we`re finding is, just the
new technology with a massive amount of potential

ahead of us, there`s a lot of things that
are created

by it that we don`t even understand yet that
we learn along the way.

CRANE (voice-over): While Bolt uses yeast
to create spider silk, at Modern Meadow, they`re

using yeast to grow leather.
think about the basic building blocks of leather,

which is collagen, you and I are made of
collagen, you know, leathers are made of collagen.
CRANE (on camera): Keeps our faces --
WILLIAMSON: Keeps your face, you know, soft
and blush and youthful, right?

But rather than have to rely on the animal
to make that collagen, we use the most cutting

edge technologies in terms genetic engineering
of yeast.

So, we get our yeast to make our collagen.
CRANE: So, you`re basically trying to tell
the collagen, be yourself after cow (ph) collagen.

WILLIAMSON: Yes, or any kind of collagen in
reality because we`re not limited by, you

know, any real constraints, other than our
ability to put

the DNA together.
CRANE (voice-over): They call their bio leather
Zoa and it`s designed to look and feel like

leather, but it removes animals from the leather

paint with it. You can spray it, by being

able to work with our materials as a liquid,
it opens up

entirely new design possibilities and new

CRANE (on camera): And these are all things
that couldn`t be done with traditional leather?

FORGACS: Could not be done with traditional
leather. With traditional leather, you have

to work around the imperfections. You have
to work

around the irregular shape and size of the
material. It actually has a very long and

somewhat problematic supply chain. It takes
a, you know, a

huge environmental footprint to make leather.
We`re about being able to create materials
that allow us to be consumers for the long

CRANE (voice-over): Bolt`s spider silk hat
will set you back nearly $200 and Zoa won`t

come cheap either. The company is planning
on partnering

first with high end retailers.
FORGACS: And the reason why we`re starting
with our partners who are focused on very

high end applications is because we want to
make it really

desirable. But that`s not to say that this
technology would not be competitive on a price

basis and the long term. It just has to get

scale because right now, leather as a material
has had, you know, 2,000 years of advantage.

We`re just starting out.
CRANE: Could your future closet be full of
spider silk and lab grown leather? Maybe.

But the high price tag could keep consumers
away from

these new products, despite their eco friendly

AZUZ: For "10 Out of 10", a common winter
time scene in an uncommon place.

This is a snowball fight. What`s usually here
is that it`s being held in St. Peter`s Square

in Vatican City. The temperature there on
a normal

February day is 55 degrees Fahrenheit. It`s
been closer to 25 degrees this week, thanks

to a rare and dramatic cold snap.
Schools were closed, public transportation
were shut down and nuns, priests and theology

students all came out to play.
Of course, they`re having a ball, but does
hurling a snowball at a religious leader make

you cold-hearted? Celebrating snow maybe just

theological thing to do, when it`s cold and
when in Rome. And thankfully, the mood was

warmer than the weather.
I`m Carl Azuz for CNN 10.


CNN 10 | CNN Student News | February 27, 2018 | A change in term limits for China's leadership (CNN 10 | CNN Student News | February 27, 2018 | A change in term limits for China's leadership)

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VoiceTube 發佈於 2018 年 2 月 27 日




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